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   2018| January-February  | Volume 29 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 12, 2018

 
 
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH: COMPARATIVE STUDY
Comparative analysis of salivary sialic acid levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic periodontitis patients: A biochemical study
Surekha Rathod, Tony Shori, Trupti Satish Sarda, Anubha Raj, Padmaja Jadhav
January-February 2018, 29(1):22-25
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_106_16  PMID:29442082
Aim: Sialic acid plays a central role in the functioning of biological systems, in stabilizing the glycoproteins and cellular membranes, assisting in cell–cell recognition and interaction. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the periodontal health status and salivary Sialic acid levels in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects were included in the study, which were divided into the following groups, 30 in each group. Group 1: patients suffering from COPD and chronic periodontitis, Group 2: periodontitis patients without any systemic diseases Group 3: healthy subjects. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected around 9–10 AM; 2 h after the subjects had breakfast. The sialic acid content was determined by a combined modification of the thiobarbituric acid method of Skoza and Mohos. Results: The mean salivary sialic acid levels were least in the healthy group followed by the periodontitis group, and it was highest in the COPD group. Conclusions: We can thus conclude that promotion of dental care knowledge is very much essential in the prevention and treatment of COPD. Thus, estimation of levels of salivary sialic acid can be used as an adjunct to diagnose the current periodontal disease status and to assess the treatment outcomes in subjects with COPD and chronic periodontitis.
  6 1,940 112
ORIGINAL RESEARCH: EVALUATIVE STUDY
Effect of orthodontic pain on quality of life of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment
Sujoy Banerjee, Rajlakshmi Banerjee, Usha Shenoy, Sanket Agarkar, Sangeeta Bhattacharya
January-February 2018, 29(1):4-9
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_113_16  PMID:29442079
Introduction: Pain is an important aspect of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL). Understanding how patients' pain experiences during their treatment affect their quality of life (QOL) is important and the absence of pain/discomfort is important for achieving a high QOL. Aim and Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between pain and OHRQOL among patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances and to evaluate whether patient motivation and counseling had an effect on the pain and discomfort. Materials and Methods: The McGill-Short-Form with visual analog scale and present pain intensity and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 indices were used to determine the intensity and severity of pain and to evaluate the QOL of 200 adolescents undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment during different phases of treatment. Results: There was a significant correlation found between pain and the QOL of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Overall score of OHRQOL increased significantly (mean 43.5 ± 10.9) in the initial phase of treatment where the incidence of severe to moderate pain was reported in 80% patients. Ninety-five percent patients felt pain or discomfort. After 1 day of appliance placement, more than 85% of patients experienced severe to mild pain whereas 9% of patients suffered very severe pain. Pain reduced over a week, and at the end of a month, 10.5% patients had moderate pain whereas majority, i.e., 58% of patients complained of only mild pain (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Pain is important sequelae of orthodontic treatment and has a significant effect on the QOL of orthodontic patients, especially during the initial phases of treatment. Patient motivation and counseling by the orthodontist have a profounding effect in reducing the pain and discomfort, improving the QOL, and an overall improvement in the patient compliance affecting the successful outcome of the treatment.
  4 5,201 231
ORIGINAL RESEARCH: PROSPECTIVE STUDY
The effect of three desensitizing agents on dentin hypersensitivity: A randomized, split-mouth clinical trial
Periasamy Ravishankar, Venkatnagaraj Viswanath, Durvasulu Archana, Venkatesan Keerthi, Saranya Dhanapal, Kalambur Perumal Lavanya Priya
January-February 2018, 29(1):51-55
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_458_17  PMID:29442087
Objectives: This randomized clinical trial tested the effect of three different desensitizing agents on reduction of pain due to hypersensitive cervical dentin lesions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight individuals with 84 teeth diagnosed with cervical dentin hypersensitivity (DH) in at least one tooth in any three of the four quadrants were selected. Patients exhibiting pain scores of two or more on the visual analog scale (VAS) were included in the study. Each quadrant in an individual was randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups based on computer-generated random number. The desensitizing agents used were Profluorid Varnish (Voco: Cuxhaven Germany), Admira Protect (Voco: Cuxhaven Germany), and PRG-Barrier Coat (Shofu: japan). One operator recorded the baseline sensitivity scores after evaporative and tactile stimuli by visual analog score system. The second operator who was not aware of the baseline values applied the desensitizing agents and recorded the sensitivity scores. VAS scores for both the stimuli were noted immediately after application, 1 week, and after 1 month. The data were analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's multiple comparison tests (P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant). Results: There was a significant reduction in VAS scores from baseline in all the three groups at all the time intervals (P < 0.001). Admira Protect showed significant reduction of hypersensitivity scores at 1 month compared to other groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Admira Protect was proved to be better in reducing pain due to DH than PRG-Barrier Coat and Profluorid Varnish after 1 month of application.
  4 5,133 329
SHORT COMMUNICATION
A potential side effect of oral topical steroids: Central serous chorioretinopathy
Saranya George, Anita Balan
January-February 2018, 29(1):107-108
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_694_16  PMID:29442094
Topical corticosteroids are some of the most common drugs used in oral medicine for treating atrophic and erosive lesions that affect the mucosa. Adverse effects of these drugs include oral candidiasis with associated burning mouth and hypogeusia, hypersensitive reactions to the drug, and inhibition of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and secondary adrenal insufficiency. The ocular side effects of oral topical steroids are less documented. This short communication describes a case of central serous retinopathy that developed following administration of oral topical steroid.
  4 3,185 144
SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS
A review of research on cytological approach in salivary gland masses
Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh, Shobha Rani Bakki, Suvarna Manthapuri
January-February 2018, 29(1):93-106
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_190_17  PMID:29442093
To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) in salivary gland pathologies. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in the PubMed database using related Medical Subject Heading terms “sensitivity and specificity of FNA in salivary gland” and “diagnostic accuracy of FNA in salivary gland” for the period 1980–2016, and we found that 414 research studies had been published. PRISMA technology was utilized to prepare flow chart for displaying data search strategy. A total of 385 articles were excluded based on the established inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study. Twenty-nine research studies were included. Those twenty-nine studies on the sensitivity and specificity of FNAs in salivary gland pathology consisted of 5274 cases of benign, malignant and inflammatory salivary gland lesions. The present study identified a range of 87%–100% sensitivity and 90%–100% specificity for the usefulness of FNAs in distinguishing benign and malignant salivary gland lesions. Although a considerable number of studies have been identified that reported on sensitivity and specificity of FNAs in salivary gland pathologies, each study had a different approach in reporting the sensitivity and specificity. We emphasize that standardized reporting protocols of sensitivity and specificity report supported with checklists would help future researchers to interpret this cytological method and make more accurate clinical utility and usefulness reports on salivary gland pathologies.
  4 3,448 250
ORIGINAL RESEARCH: COMPARATIVE STUDY
Cleft rhinoplasty columellar lengthening: Comparison of techniques
SM Balaji
January-February 2018, 29(1):26-33
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_694_17  PMID:29442083
Background: Nasal deformity in bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) correction is highly challenging. Several solution has been proposed. The aim of the present study is to assess qualitatively and quantitatively the results of Cronin's flap, Fork flap, and Abbe's flap for BCLP rhinoplasty at a follow-up period. Materials and Methods: Records of all BCLP rhinoplasty performed between 2010 and 2016, fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were collected. From records, qualitative improvement and previously described methods of quantification of columella length were performed. These collected data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, and one-way analysis of variance tests. P ≤ 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Forty-eight cases fulfilled the criteria of which 31 patients had Abbe's flap, 9 Cronin, and 8 forked flaps. The mean age of the study population was 20.33 ± 4.94 years in 21 females and 27 males with a mean follow-up of 15.3 ± 2.3 months. The success of the lengthening of columella at immediate postoperative period as compared to the preoperative columella length was not statistically different (P = 0.176) between the three flaps, while the same was statistically different at 1-year period (P = 0.031). The extent of change was very minimal for the Abbe flap with a high degree of statistical significance (P = 0.000). At 1-year postoperative period, 83.9% (n = 26) of Abbe flap patients felt their nose to be good after surgery while the same was 55.6% (n = 5) in Cronin flap design and 37.5% (n = 3) in forked flap design (P = 0.007). Discussion and Conclusion: Abbe flap gave the best results under most of the common BCLP rhinoplasty, and a flap choice algorithm for choice of flap was arrived based on this experience.
  2 3,512 111
ORIGINAL RESEARCH: IN VITRO STUDY
Effect of chemical disinfectants and accelerated aging on maxillofacial silicone elastomers: An In vitro Study
Anna Serene Babu, V Manju, Vinod Kumar Gopal
January-February 2018, 29(1):67-73
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_272_16  PMID:29442090
Context: Maxillofacial prostheses need frequent refabrication due to degradation of color and deterioration of physical properties of the elastomer. Aims: This study attempted to evaluate the change in color stability, Shore A hardness, and surface roughness of two maxillofacial silicones, A-2186 and Cosmesil M511, when submitted to chemical disinfection and accelerated aging. Settings and Design: This was a comparative in vitro study. Subjects and Methods: The materials included two silicone elastomers – A-2186 and Cosmesil M511 (Factor II Incorporated) – functional intrinsic red pigment and three disinfectants – Fittydent tablet, chlorhexidine gluconate 4%, and neutral soap. The specimens in each group of elastomer were evaluated initially for color, hardness, and surface roughness, which were further divided into subgroups and subjected to disinfection and accelerated aging. The evaluation of color was performed with the help of an ultraviolet reflectance spectrophotometer. Shore A hardness was evaluated using a durometer and surface roughness, with a digital roughness tester followed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Accelerated aging caused a significant decrease in color, increase in Shore A hardness, and variation in surface roughness in both silicone elastomer groups. Chemical disinfection presented significant changes in color and surface roughness whereas no significant effect on Shore hardness, irrespective of the disinfectant used. Conclusions: The maxillofacial silicone elastomers presented deterioration in color, hardening, and significant variations in surface roughness when subjected to chemical disinfection and accelerated aging, which provides a valid baseline for future research.
  2 2,386 166
ORIGINAL RESEARCH: PROSPECTIVE STUDY
Effect of preoperative ibuprofen in controlling postendodontic pain with and without low-level laser therapy in single visit endodontics: A randomized clinical study
Shahnaz Nabi, Khalid Amin, Aijaz Masoodi, Riyaz Farooq, Aamir Rashid Purra, Fayaz Ahmad Ahangar
January-February 2018, 29(1):46-50
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_327_15  PMID:29442086
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of low-level laser irradiation and ibuprofen in reducing the onset and severity of postoperative pain following single visit endodontics. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients were recruited for this study. Group A (n = 30) patients were administered 400 mg of ibuprofen orally 1 h before the institution of an endodontic procedure. Group B (n = 30) patients were given irradiation of a low-level laser at 50 Hz for 3 min after the standard endodontic procedure at the periapical region on both buccal and lingual aspect. Group C (n = 30) patients were given preoperative ibuprofen followed with a low-level laser at 50 Hz for 3 min after endodontic treatment. Group D (n = 30) patients were administered no preoperative ibuprofen nor low-level laser irradiation after the endodontic procedure. The patient immediately recorded his/her pain perception on the Heft Parker pain survey after completion of the appointment and at 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h postoperatively. Inter group analysis was carried out using the analysis of variances with “least significant difference” post hoc test. For intra group analysis, Student's t-test was used. Chi-square test was applied for nonparametric data. Results: Pain was significantly reduced in all the treatment groups postoperatively. Ibuprofen showed significant pain reduction at 4 h and 8 h period. The combination of low-level laser and ibuprofen showed the best results in terms of postoperative pain reduction. Conclusion: This study proved that low-level laser therapy can be an effective alternative for conventional use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in controlling postendodontic pain thereby eliminating the adverse effects of such drugs on the patients.
  2 3,320 173
ORIGINAL RESEARCH: RETROSPECTIVE STUDY
Morphological and morphometric analysis of accessory mental foramen in dry human mandibles of south indian population
J Rajkohila, Priyanka Daniel, Sakunthala Ambikaipakan, Suganthy Rabi
January-February 2018, 29(1):56-60
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_146_17  PMID:29442088
Background: Mental foramen (MF) is an important landmark for administration of local anesthesia in surgical procedures involving the mandible. Additional mental foramina, called accessory mental foramina (AMF) transmitting branches of mental nerve, have been reported. Detection of AMFs in presurgical imaging may reduce postoperative pain in dental surgical procedures. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the incidence and morphometric analysis of accessory MF in the dry human mandibles of South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and sixty dry human mandibles were studied for the presence, location, shape of AMF, and its relation to MF. The horizontal diameter of AMF, and its distance from symphysis menti, the posterior border of mandible and from the base of mandible were measured and statistically analyzed. Results and Conclusions: In our study, AMF were present in 8.85% mandibles (unilateral - 7.6% [4.6% - left, 2.69% - right] and bilateral 1.6%). The most common position was below the second premolar (48.1%). AMF were round in shape (74%) and was often located either superomedial or inferolateral to MF. Their transverse diameter ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm. The AMF were situated at a mean distance of 2.96 mm from MF, 23.47 mm from symphysis menti, 11.24 mm from the lower border of the body of the mandible, and 57.35 mm from the posterior border of ramus of mandible. The knowledge of the presence of AMF and its dimensions would enable the clinicians to do mandibular procedures carefully and avoid injury to the branches of mental nerve that may be passing through it.
  2 1,605 90
CASE REPORTS
Oral and masticatory rehabilitation using osseointegrated dental implants after resective treatment of multicystic ameloblastoma in the lower jaw with a fibula graft
João Ricardo Almeida Grossi, Tatiana Miranda Deliberador, Tielly Saad, Rafaela Scariot, Joao Cesar Zielak, Allan Fernando Giovanini
January-February 2018, 29(1):117-122
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_623_16  PMID:29442096
Ameloblastoma is an aggressive odontogenic tumor which typically occurs between third and fourth decade of life that often needs resective approach. Immediate reconstruction may show better results. The treatment of multicystic ameloblastoma in the mandible being a rare case that occurred in the late second decade of life, which was surgically removed along with the affected teeth with safety margins, and the region was immediately reconstructed using a vascularized graft, removed from the fibula. Its integration, in combination with osseointegrated dental implants and fixed implant-supported prostheses, restored chewing function and esthetics. After 6 years from fibular graft and 24 months of dental implants, an excellent outcome was observed, with oral health and normal functions properly restored, and the immediate reconstruction of the mandible in resective cases, associated with oral rehabilitation with dental implants, may be considered a suitable treatment option.
  - 2,513 92
A cast partial obturator with hollow occlusal shim and semi-precision attachment
Mukesh Kumar Singhal, Farah Ahmad, Chandana Nair, Pinki Bankoti
January-February 2018, 29(1):123-127
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_813_16  PMID:29442097
A maxillofacial patient's quality of life is distorted and social integration becomes difficult. An obturator is a maxillofacial prosthesis used to close a congenital or acquired tissue defect, primarily of the hard palate and/or contiguous alveolar/soft-tissue structures. Subsequently, it restores the esthetics, speech, and function. The present clinical report aimed for the prosthetic rehabilitation of a maxillectomy defect by the incorporation of a semi-precision attachment as PRECI-SAGIX – male part of 2.2 mm on fixed partial denture (#22 and #23 teeth) and matrix – plastic female part of size 2.2 mm and height 4.2 mm of yellow on cast partial in polymer base. It aids in the retention of a hollow lightweight obturator. The technique also described the method to make a bulbless obturator with a hollow self-cured acrylic resin occlusal shim. A patient is quite satisfied with bulb less, lightweight cast partial and hollow shim palatal obturator.
  - 2,559 197
EDITORIAL
Dental caries: Research perspective
SM Balaji
January-February 2018, 29(1):3-3
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_61_18  PMID:29442078
  - 4,171 147
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WORK
Assessment of malocclusion status, dentition status, and treatment needs among 15-year-old school children of Mangalore
Roshan Shetty, Vijaya Hegde, Pooja J Shetty
January-February 2018, 29(1):109-116
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_311_15  PMID:29442095
Background and Objectives: Dental caries and malocclusion are common dental public health problems. Surveys provide us with an insight into the oral health status and treatment needs and also help in proper treatment planning. Hence, the objective of this study was to assess the malocclusion status, dentition status, and treatment needs of 15-year-old school children of Mangalore. Methodology: A cross-sectional study of 1001 school children aged 15-year-old was conducted in Mangalore. Their malocclusion status, dentition status, and treatment needs were recorded using the WHO oral health assessment pro forma. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Descriptive statistics was obtained and Chi-square test was used. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Decayed teeth were prevalent in 45.5% of the study subjects. Malocclusion was present in 30% of the study subjects. Teeth missing due to caries and those requiring extraction and prosthetic rehabilitation were significantly higher in government schools (P < 0.05). Malocclusion and treatment need was significantly higher in government schools (P < 0.05). Conclusion: From the present study, we can conclude that the school children aged 15 years of Mangalore had varied malocclusion status, dentition status, and treatment needs with significantly higher treatment needs and malocclusion among children of government school.
  - 1,561 114
GUEST EDITORIAL
Newer accomplishment in research
Hari Parkash
January-February 2018, 29(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_782_17  PMID:29442077
  - 1,922 109
LETTER TO EDITOR
The prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs in schoolgoing children of Nalagarh, Himachal Pradesh, India
Amit Rekhi, Aaron F Gomes, S Meru
January-February 2018, 29(1):128-129
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_589_16  PMID:29442098
  - 1,422 97
ORIGINAL RESEARCH: COMPARATIVE STUDY
Comparative evaluation of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of an herbal and chlorine dioxide mouthwashes: A clinicomicrobiological study
Srinivasa T Siddeshappa, Shruti Bhatnagar, Ramreddy K Yeltiwar, Humera Parvez, Asmita Singh, Saket Banchhor
January-February 2018, 29(1):34-40
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_391_16  PMID:29442084
Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of herbal mouthwash and chlorine dioxide mouthwash in reduction of plaque and gingivitis. Settings and Design: In a randomized clinical trial, forty patients were randomly selected and divided equally into two groups. Materials and Methods: After professional oral prophylaxis, the clinical parameters plaque index, gingival index, and modified sulcular bleeding index were recorded at baseline, 7th day, 14th day, and 21st day. The plaque samples were collected from gingival sulcus with an absorbent sterile paper point and were stored in a thioglycollate broth, then sent for microbiological examination. The microbial colony-forming units were assessed at baseline, 7th day, 14th day, and 21st day for Streptococcus mutans, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Results: There was a statistical significant reduction in both clinical and microbiological parameters were observed with use of both the mouthwashes. However, herbal mouthwash was more effective in reducing the plaque and gingivitis than chlorine dioxide mouthwash. Conclusion: Herbal mouthwash was statistically efficacious in controlling plaque and gingivitis with potent antimicrobial activity.
  - 3,888 242
ORIGINAL RESEARCH: EVALUATIVE STUDY
Qualitative and quantitative salivary changes and subjective oral dryness among patients with thyroid dysfunction
Meghal Mehul Naik, Vaishnavee Vassandacoumara
January-February 2018, 29(1):16-21
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_501_16  PMID:29442081
Context: There is a paucity of literature regarding the effects of thyroid disorders on the oral cavity by influencing the salivary gland function. Aims: This study aims to understand the qualitative and quantitative changes that thyroid disorder can cause in the salivary function. Settings and Design: After obtaining ethical clearance, 46 consecutive newly diagnosed thyroid dysfunction patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, along with 45 age-and sex-matched controls. Subjects and Methods: Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates, pH, and buffering capacity of the whole saliva were studied in addition to subjective oral dryness in the study participants. Statistical Analysis Used: The independent t-test was employed to compare the means between the two groups and Pearson's Chi-square test was used to assess the goodness of fit. Results: The findings showed that females are more affected with thyroid disorders and that hypothyroidism is more commonly reported than hyperthyroidism. A significant reduction in the salivary flow rates and buffering capacity was observed among the affected group compared to the controls, whereas the salivary pH did not show significant differences between genders and also between the case and control groups. A feeling of subjective oral dryness was perceived by many affected patients. Conclusions: The study was able to establish an association between thyroid dysfunction and salivary gland function. We hope that this study leads to more high-impact research in this field as salivary diagnostics is gaining more popularity with every passing day.
  - 3,323 212
Dental anxiety and influencing factors: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey
Nadeem Jeddy, S Nithya, T Radhika, Nafisa Jeddy
January-February 2018, 29(1):10-15
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_33_17  PMID:29442080
Background: Dental treatment still remains as one of the most anxious visits despite awareness between dentists and patients in building trusting relationships. The fear of dental treatment determines the frequency of treatment availed with long-term implications in oral health maintenance. Aim: This study aims to estimate prevalence, extent, and factors influencing dental anxiety in a sample of the adult population visiting a private dental hospital in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 300 consecutive outpatients visiting a private dental hospital in Chennai. Any patient aged 18 and above was considered for the study. A structured custom-made questionnaire composed of ten questions was designed to assess the anxiety levels of dental patients. The level of the patient's anxiety was assessed taking into account various factors that could influence their mental state. This included their age, gender, educational qualification, number/frequency of their dental visits, reason for their visit, past dental experiences, and nature of the dental procedure planned. Enquiries about the related time of anxiety manifestations as well as their preferred anxiety reducing protocols were done as part of the study. Statistics: The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 11.5. Analysis initially was performed with Chi-square test for frequency and reason of visit, with the independent samples t-test used for assessing mean score differences along with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The study revealed that dental anxiety has a wide prevalence rate encompassing both genders. Distinctive predominance among females (65.2%) and professionals (66.9%) exhibiting a greater degree of anxiety was identified. Pain and extraction have been cited as duress and anxiety inciting procedures (72.6%). Conclusion: This survey has revealed that age, gender, level of education, and procedure along with visit frequency has a direct effect on the patient's state of mind and anxiety.
  - 7,881 330
ORIGINAL RESEARCH: IN VITRO STUDY
Influence of light transmission through fiber posts: Quantitative analysis, microhardness, and on bond strength of a resin cement
Luís Fernando Dos Santos Alves Morgan, Marcos Barbosa Pinotti, Fernanda Morais Ferreira, Giovana Mongruel Gomes, Guilherme Costa Silva, Rodrigo De Castro Albuquerque, Allyson Nogueira Moreira
January-February 2018, 29(1):74-80
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_792_16  PMID:29442091
Context: Light transmission (LT) into deeper areas of the dentin root is limited. Aim: The aim of this study is to perform a quantitative investigation of the radial transmission of light (LT) through different fiber posts and its influence on the Knoop hardness number (KHN) and bond strength (BS) of a dual-cure self-adhesive resin cement at 3 different depths. Materials and Methods: Four types of fiber posts (2 translucent and 2 conventional) were used. LT and KHN analyses were performed in a specially designed matrix, which allowed measurements at 3 different depths. LT was measured using a volt-ampere meter while KHN tests were performed in a microhardness tester. For BS analysis, endodontically treated bovine roots were divided into 4 groups, each group receiving one type of post. After cementation, cross sections of the root were tested for resistance to displacement using a universal testing machine. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed by using this ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: For LT, translucent posts showed significantly higher values at all depths compared to the conventional ones. For all posts, LT decreased at the deeper depths. The KHN results showed no statistical differences among the different posts, regardless of depth. For BS, a translucent post showed the highest values, and comparative analyses between the different depths of posts also showed statistically significant differences while comparisons among the different depths of the same post showed no differences. Conclusions: LT depended on the type of post and on depth. The type of post did not significantly influence the cement KHN. A translucent post showed higher BS in pooled data.
  - 1,875 77
ORIGINAL RESEARCH: PROSPECTIVE STUDY
An insight into diagnosis of a hidden entity: Impacted food material
Humeera M Mulla, Nupura Vibhute, Rajendra Baad, ND Shashikiran, Mustaq Parker, RC Parmod, Uzma Belgaumi, Vidya Kadashetti, Sushma Bommanawar
January-February 2018, 29(1):41-45
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_746_16  PMID:29442085
Introduction: Foreign bodies and tissue reactions to foreign materials are commonly encountered in the oral cavity. Exogenous materials causing foreign body reactions may be metallic (amalgam) or nonmetallic (suture materials, vegetable matter). Implantation of food particles in the oral tissues has been known to cause reactive lesions such as oral pulse granuloma. Implantation could be through extraction sockets, deep periodontal pockets, associated with tumor growth, interdental areas of teeth, unfilled root canals, and grossly decayed teeth. These get rapidly digested and altered by host responses. Cellulose persists as hyaline material and invokes chronic granulomatous response. This change may mimic other pathologies. Materials and Methods: Representative specimens from commonly consumed food groups were selected, fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, processed, sectioned, stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and observed under light microscope. Results: Each specimen revealed unique, distinct histology of each food type. The plant materials had a characteristic appearance of rigid double cell wall while rigid regular partitions containing nutrient material were revealed in seeds and beans. Starch-contained lentils exhibited clear spaces. Following is a brief description of some of the significant histological findings of each of the specimens processed and stained. Conclusion: Thus, the study of histological structure of vegetables and legumes will enable their easy recognition in oral biopsy samples and help in distinguishing them from other pathologies and artifact.
  - 1,473 103
ORIGINAL RESEARCH: RETROSPECTIVE STUDY
Reactive hyperplastic lesions of the oral cavity: A retrospective survey study and literature review
Varsha Ajit Sangle, VK Pooja, Anuja Holani, Nishat Shah, Mayur Chaudhary, Sneha Khanapure
January-February 2018, 29(1):61-66
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_599_16  PMID:29442089
Context: The reactive lesions are relatively common in the oral cavity because of the frequency with which the tissues are injured. They often result from a known stimulus or injury such as dental plaque, calculus, or foreign material. Aims: The aim of this study was to review the clinicopathologic features of reactive hyperplastic lesions (RHLs) of the oral cavity at MIDSR, Dental College and Hospital, Latur, Maharashtra, and to compare these data with those of previously reported studies. Settings and Design: The patient case files from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology from June 2010 to May 2016 were reviewed for cases of RHLs of the oral cavity. Subjects and Methods: Both clinical and histopathological diagnosis of reactive lesions was selected for the study. Data including the type of the lesion, age, gender, and the site involved were collected. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics was applied to the data and differences in frequencies among groups were evaluated using SPSS (IBM Corporation) software. Results: A total of 155 histologically diagnosed cases of RHLs were obtained with a prevalence of 11.7%. The data consist of 56 (36.1%) males and 99 (63.9%) females. The most common lesion clinically was traumatic fibroma (36.5%) and histologically fibrous hyperplasia (37.4%). The reactive lesions clinically presented as either sessile (51%) or pedunculated (49%) lesions. Conclusions: The clinical features of reactive hyperplasia among our patients were similar to those reported previously with divergence in some analyzed data. The novelty in our study was the correlation between histopathology and clinical features which were not reported in literature till date.
  - 6,782 230
SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS
Various bio-mechanical factors affecting heat generation during osteotomy preparation: A systematic review
Chirag J Chauhan, Darshana N Shah, Foram B Sutaria
January-February 2018, 29(1):81-92
DOI:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_729_16  PMID:29442092
Background: As implant site preparation and bone are critical precursors to primary healing, thermal and mechanical damage to the bone must be minimized during the preparation of the implant site. Moreover, excessively traumatic surgery can adversely affect the maturation of bone tissue at the bone/implant interface and consequently diminish the predictability of osseointegration. So, this study was carried out to evaluate the various biological and mechanical factors responsible for heat generation during osteotomy site preparation to reduce the same for successful osseointegration of dental implants. Study Design: A broad search of the dental literature in PubMed added by manual search was performed for articles published between 1992 and December 2015. Various bio-mechanical factors related to dental implant osteotomy preparation such as dental implant drill designs/material/wear, drilling methods, type of irrigation, and bone quality were reviewed. Titles and abstracts were screened and articles which fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected for a full-text reading. Results: The initial database search yielded 123 titles, of which 59 titles were discarded after reading the titles and abstracts, 30 articles were again excluded based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and finally 34 articles were selected for data extraction. Many biological and mechanical factors responsible for heat generation were found. Conclusion: Literatures of this review study have indicated that there are various bio-mechanical reasons, which affect the temperature rise during osteotomy and suggest that the amount of heat generation is a multifactorial in nature and it should be minimized for better primary healing of the implant site.
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