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   2015| March-April  | Volume 26 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 22, 2015

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Comparative evaluation of two different remineralizing agents on the microhardness of bleached enamel surface: Results of an in vitro study
Gunpriya Kaur, Anita U Sanap, Shalini D Aggarwal, Tanaya Kumar
March-April 2015, 26(2):176-179
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159154  PMID:26096113
Context: Various agents are studied for their remineralization potential. Aim: To evaluate the effect of GC Tooth Mousse and Toothmin Tooth Cream on microhardness of bleached enamel. Settings and Design: In vitro- study. Methods and Material: Twenty freshly extracted anterior teeth were cut sagittally and impregnated in cold cure acrylic resin. Specimens were kept in artificial saliva to prevent from dehydration. After measuring baseline hardness, teeth were randomly divided into two groups. Everbrite In - Office Tooth whitening kit (Dentamerica) was used to demineralize the teeth following which hardness was measured again. Teeth in group one (n=10) and group two (n=10) were treated with GC tooth mousse (Recaldent) and Toothmin tooth cream (Abbott Healthcare Pvt.Ltd) daily for seven days and microhardness of enamel surface was measured. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean, SD, and percentage change in the microhardness were calculated. Student's paired t-test was used to evaluate the signifi cance of change from initial, after bleaching for 5 min and after 1-week remineralization Unpaired't' test was used to compare difference between groups. Results: Microhardness significantly decreased in both groups after bleaching (% change group one: 3.24% group two: 3.26% in group; P<0.01 in both groups). Both products significantly increased mineralization after seven days of treatment (P<0.01). Remineralization was numerically better in Toothmin group (Abbott Healthcare Pvt.Ltd ) compared to GC Mousse(Recaldent) (% change 3.27% vs 6.34%). However, difference was not significant (P >0.05). Conclusion: Both GC Tooth Mousse (Recaldent) and Toothmin Tooth cream (Abbott Healthcare Pvt.Ltd) increase the microhardness of bleached enamel. Toothmin tooth cream is a better agent for increasing microhardness, although difference is not significant.
  6,920 508 5
Dental complications of herpes zoster: Two case reports and review of literature
Swati Gupta, V Sreenivasan, Prashant B Patil
March-April 2015, 26(2):214-219
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159175  PMID:26096121
Herpes zoster (HZ) (shingles) results due to reactivation of varicella-zoster virus. Unusual dental complications like osteonecrosis, exfoliation of teeth, periodontitis, and calcified and devitalized pulps, periapical lesions, and resorption of roots as well as developmental anomalies such as irregular short roots and missing teeth may arise secondary to involvement of 2 nd or 3 rd division of trigeminal nerve by HZ. Such cases pose both a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic challenge. We report two such rare dental complications of HZ-spontaneous tooth exfoliation and osteonecrosis of the maxilla in a 70-year-old female patient; and multiple periapical pathoses affecting right half of the mandibular teeth in a 45-year-old female patient. Both the patients did not have any associated systemic illness. The aim of this paper was to compare the present cases with all the 46 cases of osteonecrosis and 6 cases of multiple periapical pathoses secondary to trigeminal zoster reported in literature till date The article also throws light that the occurrence of such dental complications of HZ is not entirely dependent on the immune status of the host.
  6,039 223 10
Dosimetry in dentistry
ML Asha, Ingita Chatterjee, Preeti Patil, S Naveen
March-April 2015, 26(2):118-125
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159133  PMID:26096102
Aim: The purpose of this paper was to review various dosimeters used in dentistry and the cumulative results of various studies done with various dosimeters. Materials and Methods: Several relevant PubMed indexed articles from 1999 to 2013 were electronically searched by typing "dosimeters", "dosimeters in dentistry", "properties of dosimeters", "thermoluminescent and optically stimulated dosimeters", "recent advancements in dosimetry in dentistry." The searches were limited to articles in English to prepare a concise review on dental dosimetry. Titles and abstracts were screened, and articles that fulfilled the criteria of use of dosimeters in dental applications were selected for a full-text reading. Article was divided into four groups: (1) Biological effects of radiation, (2) properties of dosimeters, (3) types of dosimeters and (4) results of various studies using different dosimeters. Conclusion : The present review on dosimetry based on various studies done with dosimeters revealed that, with the advent of radiographic technique the effective dose delivered is low. Therefore, selection of radiological technique plays an important role in dental dose delivery.
  3,791 427 -
Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis
Isha Khatri, Ganapathi Moger, N Anil Kumar
March-April 2015, 26(2):158-162
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159146  PMID:26096109
Background and Aim: Ozone is highly valued for various therapeutic applications such as antimicrobial, antihypoxic, analgesic, and immunostimulating for more than a century in the medical profession. Ozone therapy is now gaining a strong foothold in dentistry. Ozone has bactericidal, fungicidal, and virucidal properties. Oral candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate and compare the ability of ozonated water and topical clotrimazole in reducing the Candidal species colony-forming unit (CFU) count in oral candidiasis. Materials and Methods: The study included 40 candidiasis patients of either sex aged between 18 and 60 years attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. The patients were randomly assigned to either topical ozone therapy or topical clotrimazole groups. Salivary Candidal CFU counts were assessed during and after the treatments. Results and Conclusion: There was gradual but significant reduction in Candidal CFU count in both groups. At the end of the treatment, Candidal CFU count reduction in ozone group (60.5% reduction) was more than the clotrimazole group (32.3% reduction). 14 patients (70%) with candidiasis in ozone group were reduced to 6 (30%) whereas only 8 patients (40%) out of 13 (65%) in clotrimazole group, although intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. Ozone therapy was much more effective in reducing the patients with candidiasis to a state of carriers. These findings suggest that ozonated water might be useful to treat oral candidiasis.
  3,891 198 8
An in vivo study to correlate the relationship of the extraoral and intraoral anatomical landmarks with the occlusal plane in dentulous subjects
Ruchi Jain, Kamal Shigli
March-April 2015, 26(2):136-143
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159138  PMID:26096105
Background: The occlusal plane position is considered to be the primary link between esthetic and function. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between extraoral and intraoral soft tissue landmarks with the occlusal plane in dentulous subjects on both sides and to check for any variations. Study and Design: An in vivo study and 100 subjects with all healthy permanent teeth in normal arch and alignment were selected from Modern Dental College and Research Centre, Indore. Materials and Methods: Three custom made instruments (occlusal plane analyzer, buccinator groove relator, and level analyzer) were indigenously designed to check parallelism of the interpupillary line, ala-tragus line, buccinator groove with the occlusal plane. Relation of retromolar pad with the occlusal plane was checked with the metallic scale. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test. Results: In 20.0% subjects, the occlusal plane was parallel to the interpupillary line. The posterior reference point for ala-tragus line was middle point on right side in 56% and left side in 58% subjects. Intraorally, right side 59% and left side 62% subjects had the occlusal plane at the same level as that of buccinator groove. Right side 48% and left side 45% subjects showed occlusal plane at the middle one-third of retromolar pad. Conclusion: The occlusal plane is not generally parallel to interpupillary line. The occlusal plane is parallel to the ala-tragus line with middle point of tragus as posterior reference point on right and left sides. Both sides, the buccinator groove and the middle one-third retromolar pad are coinciding with occlusal plane level.
  3,467 272 2
Effect of denture cleansers on color stability and surface roughness of denture base acrylic resin
Hamidreza Rajati Haghi, Nafiseh Asadzadeh, Rasul Sahebalam, Mohammadreza Nakhaei, Jamal Zamani Amir
March-April 2015, 26(2):163-166
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159149  PMID:26096110
Background: Color stability of acrylic resin is one of the most important feature for denture wearers. Many patients use detergent solutions to remove denture stains. The purpose of this study was to evaluate color stability and surface roughness of two common acrylic resins in different detergent and tea solutions. Materials and Methods: 112 acrylic resin blocks of Meliodent and Acropars (each 56 blocks) were divided into seven groups of different treatment: 1% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min a day for 1 month (H10m), 1% sodium hypochlorite for 8 hours a day for 1 week (H&h), Correga tabs solution for 8 hours a day for 1 month (C&H), tea bag for 2 hours a day for 1 month (T2 h), tea bag for 2 hours a day then 10 min in 1% sodium hypochlorite for 1 month (T-H), tea bag for 2 hours then 8 hours in the Correga tab solution a day for 1 month (T-C), and finally distilled water for 1 month as a control group (con). After specimen's treatment, color (CIE Lab) and surface roughness (Ra, µm) of samples were measured. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey's HSD and Dunnett T3. Results: Group T2h exhibited a significant (P<0.05) color change and control specimens exhibited the lowest color change. Sodium hypochlorite caused a significant (P<0.05) color change in the Acropars group in comparison with the Meliodent group. In the Correga tab solution the difference was not significant (P=0.155). There was a significant (P<0.05) color change in the T-H treatment. The Acropars and Meliodent acrylic resin did not a show significant difference in surface roughness after different treatments. Conclusion: Sodium hypochlorite 1% for 10 minutes a day in a month is the recommended hygiene protocol. The color stability of acryl is brand-type dependent but surface roughness is not.
  3,308 181 4
Prevalence of eight putative periodontal pathogens in atherosclerotic plaque of coronary artery disease patients and comparing them with noncardiac subjects: A case-control study
Jaideep Mahendra, Little Mahendra, Aishwarya Nagarajan, Kurien Mathew
March-April 2015, 26(2):189-195
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159164  PMID:26096116
Background: The study was aimed to assess the prevalence of periodontal pathogens namely Tannerella forsythia (T.f), Campylobacter rectus (C.r), Eikenella corrodens (E.c), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g), Treponema denticola (T.d), Prevotella nigrescens (P.n) ,Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a), P.g (fi mA gene) and Prevotella intermedia (P.i), in the subgingival and the atheromatous plaque of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and comparing them with the noncardiac subjects thereby indicating the role of periodontal pathogenic bacteria in the progression of atherosclerosis in south Indian population. Materials and Methods: 51 cardiac and non cardiac subjects within the age group of 40-80 years,who met the eligibility criteria, were selected and categorized as the experimental and control group respectively. Total number of teeth was recorded, and oral hygiene was evaluated using Plaque Index and Oral Hygiene Index (OHI). Periodontal pocket depth and clinical attachment level were also assessed as a part of periodontal examination. Subgingival plaque samples were collected with the help of with Gracey's curette in both the groups. In experimental group, biopsy was obtained from the atherosclerotic plaque during Coronary artery bypass grafting CABG procedure. Both, subgingival and the coronary atherosclerotic plaque samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for identification of the periodontal bacteria. Statistical Analysis: Mean, standard deviation and test of significance of quantitative variables such as periodontal parameters were compared between experimental group and control group. Kappa measures of agreement was done to analyze the relationship between the presence/absence of microorganisms in the subgingival and atherosclerotic plaque samples in the experimental group. Results: The mean Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Russel's Periodontal Index, OHI, clinical attachment level, Pocket Depth Index was statistically significant in both the groups. Association of T.f, E.c, C.r, P.g, P.g (fi mA), T.d, P.i, P.n was significantly associated. A.a was absent in the control group, whereas only one patient in the experimental group was positive for the bacteria. Kappa analysis showed the significant association of periodontal bacteria T.f, C.r, P.g, P.g (fi mA), P.i and P.n in subgingival plaque and atherosclerotic plaque of the same patients of the experimental group. Conclusion: It is concluded that CAD subjects had higher prevalence of periodontal pathogens in subgingival biofilms as compared to the non cardiac subjects. Further, the number of bacteria was significantly associated between the subgingival and atherosclerotic plaques of the cardiac patients in south Indian population.
  3,175 124 10
Prevalence of habits and oral mucosal lesions in Jaipur, Rajasthan
Prerna Pratik, Vela D Desai
March-April 2015, 26(2):196-199
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159166  PMID:26096117
Introduction: Dental health and oral health are used almost synonymously when stating the goals of oral health; such statements are only valid for dental health. This may lead to severe underestimation of the need of total oral health care. When planning measures of oral health care, the lack of data may lead to a risk of overlooking diseases of the soft tissue in, and adjacent to, the oral cavity. Prevalence data of oral mucosal lesions are available from many countries, but the information is usually restricted to very few lesions in each survey. Materials and Methods: The present study is an attempt to assess and compare the various deleterious habits and its associated oral mucosal lesions among patients visiting outpatient department of Jaipur Dental College, Jaipur, Rajasthan. Results: It was found that the prevalence of habits was 51.4% including both the sexes and prevalence of oral mucosal lesions were 9.9%. Discussion: The prevalence of habits and oral mucosal lesions is very high as compared with other studies. The habit of smoking was higher in males as compared to females.
  2,755 238 2
Evaluation of soft tissue marginal stability achieved after excision with a conventional technique in comparison with laser excision: A pilot study
Pragathi Bhat, Srinath L Thakur, Sudhindra S Kulkarni
March-April 2015, 26(2):186-188
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159159  PMID:26096115
Background: Soft tissue excision around natural teeth is carried out to increase the clinical crown lengths, expose the caries apical to the gingival margins and to correct irregular and un-esthetic soft-tissue contours. Aims: The study was carried out with an aim to evaluate the stability of the soft tissue margins after excision either with a laser or scalpel. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients indicated for soft tissue excision for correcting soft tissue discrepancies were selected. The patients with thick gingival biotype were included in the study. They were grouped randomly into excision by laser or scalpel methods. The change in the soft tissue positions from the time of excision to 1-month follow-up were evaluated immediate postoperatively, after 2 weeks and after 1-month postrestoration. Results: The soft tissues remained stable in the laser group at 1-month follow-up, in contrast to the scalpel group and were found to be statistically significant, (Student's t-test) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The soft tissue margins are more stable and stay at the point they were excised with lasers when compared with scalpel.
  2,791 153 -
Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of nano-hydroxyapatite incorporated glass ionomer cement and conventional glass ionomer cement on dense synthetic hydroxyapatite disk: An in vitro study
Kanupriya Choudhary, Bhojraj Nandlal
March-April 2015, 26(2):170-175
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159152  PMID:26096112
Aim: The aim was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of nano-hydroxyapatite (Nano-HAp) incorporated and conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC). Materials and Methods: Nano-HAp GIC was prepared by replacing 8 wt% of GIC powder with nano-HAp powder. Twenty-six HAp disks were used as substrate for bonding and divided into two equal groups. Before bonding the HAp disk was prepared by silicon carbide (no. 2500) followed by 10% polyacrylic acid conditioning. The standardized samples were prepared using split teflon mold on customized bonding jig so as to adhere testing materials to pretreated HAp disk. These samples were stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37°C before bond strength testing. Results: The descriptive statistical analysis and independent samples t-test were used. The nano-HAp incorporated and conventional GIC had the mean shear bond strength of 3.28 ± 0.89 MPa and 5.25 ± 0.88 MPa, respectively. Nano-HAp incorporated GIC had lower shear bond strength with very high level of significance (P < 0.001). The nano-HAp incorporated GIC showed mainly mixed type of failure whereas conventional GIC showed mainly a cohesive failure. Conclusion: The lower shear bond strength of nano-HAp incorporate GIC revealed that the addition of nano-HAp interfered with the bonding ability of GIC to the substrate interface, but the mixed type of failure in nano-HAp incorporated GIC suggests that it increases the strength of the matrix. However, the role of nano-size particles on the micro-size particles of GIC for the bonding mechanism and the ratio and proportions of nano-HAp to the GIC needs further elucidation.
  2,673 186 8
Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy use on oral manifestations in pediatric patients infected with HIV
Nathalia Ferraz Oliscovicz, Luciana Pomarico, Gloria Fernanda Barbosa de Araújo Castro, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro Souza
March-April 2015, 26(2):200-204
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159169  PMID:26096118
Aims: The aim was to assess the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-infected children undergoing highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), and the association between the duration of HAART usage and oral lesions. Subjects and Methods: Totally, 111 medical and dental records of HIV-infected children, aged from 2 to 16 years old were reviewed for medical data, presence of oral lesions, and caries prevalence. According to the type of medication, the children were grouped as follows: 51 were under HAART (G1), 46 were using anti-retroviral medication (G2), and 14 were using no medication (G3). Results: The majority of the HIV children had AIDS (65.8%), of which 86.3% were in G1, 63% in G2, and 0% in G3. The mean length of therapy was 34.4 months, with no difference between groups (Kruskal-Wallis; P = 0.917). The prevalence of the oral lesions was 23.4%, namely, G1 was 27.5%, G2 was 21.7%, and G3 was 14.3% (P > 0.05). Gingivitis was the most common oral manifestation (15.3%) seen in the three groups, followed by gingival linear erythema and pseudomembranous candidiasis in G1 and G2. The mean values regarding deft and DMFT indexes were, respectively, 3.2 and 1.9 (G1), 2.8 and 1.6 (G2), and 3.8 and 3.0 (G3). For the patients without AIDS (n = 38), oral manifestations were seen in 29.4% of G2 compared to G1, with 0% (Chi-square; P > 0.05). In terms of therapy duration, 47.65% of the patients who had been under HAART for 18 months or less had oral manifestations, compared to 13.3% of those who had been treated for a longer time (Chi-square; P = 0.007). Conclusions: Although the prevalence of oral lesions was similar between the groups, it was less in patients without AIDS and those under HAART. The duration of HAART usage had a significant influence on the prevalence of these lesions.
  2,695 128 -
Dental implants for severely atrophied jaws due to ectodermal dysplasia
Preetha Balaji, SM Balaji, Prashanthi Ugandhar
March-April 2015, 26(2):205-209
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159171  PMID:26096119
The aim was to present the successful esthetical and functional rehabilitation of partial anodontia in a case of severe ectodermal dysplasia with complete atrophy of the jaws. A 17-year-old male with Class III malocclusion with partial anodontia sought dental implant treatment. His expectation was that of Class I occlusion. The challenge in the case was to match the expectation, reality, and the clinical possibilities. Ridge augmentation was performed with a combination of rib graft and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Simultaneously, 6 implants (Nobel Biocare™ - Tapered Groovy) were placed in maxillary arch and 10 in the mandible. Simultaneous placement ensured faster and better osseointegration though a mild compromise of the primary stability was observed initially. After adequate healing, Customized Zirconia Procera™ system was used to build the framework. Zirconia crown was cemented to the framework. Radiological and clinical evidence of osseointegration was observed in all 16 dental implants. Successful conversion of Class III to Class I occlusion was achieved with the combination of preprosthetic alveolar ridge augmentation, Procera™ Implant Bridge system. Abnormal angulations and or placement of dental implants would result in failure of the implant. Hence conversion of Class III to Class I occlusion needs complete and complex treatment planning so that the entire masticatory apparatus is sufficiently remodeled. Planning should consider the resultant vectors that would otherwise result in failure of framework or compromise the secondary stability of the dental implant during function. A successful case of rehabilitation of complex partial anodontia is presented.
  2,571 122 4
Non-syndromic bilateral condylar aplasia: A rare case
Peeyush Shivhare, S Lata, P Balaji, Ashish Gupta
March-April 2015, 26(2):210-213
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159173  PMID:26096120
The temporomandibular joint is one of the most complex joints of the human body. It consists of the mandibular condyle, glenoid fossa and the articular eminence of the temporal bone. Aplasia of the condyle is usually seen as part of a syndrome otherwise it is rare. We report a case of bilateral condylar aplasia in a 20-year-old male not associated with any syndrome. The patient reported to the department with a chief complaint of the underdeveloped lower jaw. Clinical examination, conventional radiographs, and 3D computer tomography images revealed a complete absence of condyle on the right and left sides.
  2,476 134 3
Microshear bonding effectiveness of different dentin regions
Anelise F Montagner, Marcos P M Carvalho, Alexandre H Susin
March-April 2015, 26(2):131-135
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159137  PMID:26096104
Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of dentin surfaces with different tubule orientation on bond strength of a multimode adhesive system. Materials and Methods: Twenty human molars were selected and prepared in different ways in order to produce different dentin regions. The teeth were randomized (n = 5) according to the application modes of a multimode adhesive system (etch-and-rinse and self-etching) and to the dentin region (occlusal and proximal - 1.5 mm depth from dentinoenamel junction). Cylindrical restorations were performed on dentin with a starch tube. The samples remained immersed in distilled water for 24 h and the microshear bond strength (μSBS) test was performed. The μSBS values were expressed in MPa and analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's test (P < 0.05). Results: There was no significant difference in the bond strength values between the application modes of the adhesive system (P = 0.19); however, the dentin regions (P < 0.05) significantly affected the μSBS. The proximal dentin presented higher bond strength values than occlusal dentin. Conclusion: The dentin surfaces with different tubule orientation influenced the bonding effectiveness of the adhesive system tested.
  2,394 108 4
Use of minimally invasive gingival biopsies in the study of inflammatory mediators expression and their correlation with gingival fluid in patients with chronic periodontitis
Karina Schittine Bezerra Lomba, Tatiane Flôr Coelho de Souza Breves Beiler, Manuela Rubim Camara Sete, Fábio Ramoa Pires, Carlos Marcelo da Silva Figueredo
March-April 2015, 26(2):126-130
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159134  PMID:26096103
Background: There are no studies comparing the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) cytokines expression with its corresponding values from the same tissue's sites. Such comparison might be of great value since most of the cytokine function is related to cell and/or tissue receptors. Aims: Our aim was to use minimally invasive biopsies to evaluate the expression of interferon-gamma, interleukin 1 (IL-1) β, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, and their correlation with the expression in gingival fluid in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The collection of gingival fluid comprised 22 samples from 11 patients (mean age 46.73 ± 10.16 standard deviation years) with chronic periodontitis. The collection of biopsies comprised 22 samples from the same patients. Gingival fluid and biopsy were taken from the same site in one shallow and one deep site per patient. Gingival fluid samples were collected with periopaper ® and analyzed using Luminex ® . Biopsies were taken with a 2 mm diameter punch and analyzed for the same mediators using immunohistochemistry. Results: The gingival fluid showed higher amounts for IL-1-β in deep sites. Immunohistochemical markers were observed in the analyzed cells groups, both in deep and shallow sites, without significant differences between them. In the comparative analysis between immunohistochemical markers and GCF, IL-1-β showed high concordance in shallow and deep sites. Conclusions: The use of a standardized punch of 2 mm diameter for periodontal tissue biopsies seems to be suitable for immunohistochemistry analysis and showed that the GCF may not express all the markers in the same proportion at the corresponding tissue.
  2,294 149 12
"Comparative evaluation of surface modified elastomeric ligatures for microbial colonization": An in vivo study
M Pavithra Bai, Anna Cecilia Vaz
March-April 2015, 26(2):180-185
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159156  PMID:26096114
Introduction: Elastomeric ligatures are observed to reduce chair side time; however, they are also seen to have greater bacterial adhesion. Polymeric coating utilizing the Metafasix Technology and the OrthoShield Technology have been introduced in the Super Slick™* and Safe-T-Ties™** by TP Orthodontics, Ortho Organizers, respectively, to reduce bacterial adhesion. While each of the elastomers has been individually evaluated, no study compares the two elastomers manufactured by differing technologies together; hence the need for this study was felt. This in vivo study compared the Super Slick and Safe-T-Ties with their unmodified counterparts for bacterial adhesion. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, between 12 and 25 years age group were selected and the modified, and the unmodified elastomers were randomly placed quadrant wise, on all the premolar brackets. After a period of 4 weeks, the elastomeric rings were removed and transported for culture on Mitis-Salivarius, Rogosa SL agar for Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli, respectively. The colonies were digitally counted (HiMedia) after 48 h of incubation at 37°C. Results: There was a significant difference in the S. mutans and Lactobacilli counts in both surface modified and unmodified elastomeric modules (P < 0.01). Unmodified elastomeric modules Mini Stix™*, Hand-EE-Lasts™** was associated with higher mean values of colony-forming units/millimeter than the surface modified Super Slick™* and Safe-T-Ties™** ligatures. When compared pair-wise, the surface modified elastomers showed less bacterial accumulations than the unmodified counterparts for both S. mutans and Lactobacillus, and the differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Technological modifications of the elastomers using the Metafasix or OrthoShield Technology, is a definite improvement over the regular elastomers with regard to adhesion of S. mutans and Lactobacilli.
  2,062 105 2
A simple ear splint for microtia patients
CJ Venkata Krishnan, SM Balaji, Ashish R Jain
March-April 2015, 26(2):220-221
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159177  PMID:26096122
Microtia is a congenital anomaly of the ear can occur as an isolated birth defect or as part of a spectrum of anomalies or as a syndrome. Microtia is often associated with impaired hearing and or total loss of hearing. Such patients typically require treatment for surgical ear reconstruction and for hearing impairment. Maintenance of ear projection and post auricular sulcus in staged ear reconstruction in microtia is a trying problem. So also is the maintenance of the patency of the external auditory meatus following recanalization and meatoplasty.This case report describes a simple effective way of fabrication of ear splint prosthesis.
  2,043 98 1
Estimation of N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen in periodontal health, disease and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy in gingival crevicular fluid: A clinico - biochemical study
G Aruna
March-April 2015, 26(2):152-157
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159145  PMID:26096108
Aim: This study explored gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) levels in periodontal health, disease and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy along with its association with the clinical parameters. Materials and Methods: Study comprised of three groups of 10 subjects each: Healthy (Group I), gingivitis (Group II), and periodontitis (Group III), while Group III patients after scaling and root planning (SRP) constituted Group IV. Gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and radiological parameters were recorded. GCF samples were analyzed by competitive-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Samples in Group III and Group IV tested positive for NTx whereas in Group I and Group II, NTx was not detected. Mean NTx levels were higher in Group III (6.79 ± 0.94 nanomole bone collagen equivalents per liter [nm BCE/L]) compared to Group IV (5.73 ± 0.95 nm BCE/L) which was statistically significant. Positive correlation was seen between the clinical parameters and the NTx levels in Group III and IV. Conclusion: As NTx is specific bone turnover marker, it is detected only in periodontitis Group and the values decline after SRP. Failure to detect NTx in Group I and II, relates to the minimum or no resorption at the sample sites.
  1,896 126 4
Does the bracket composition material influence initial biofilm formation?
Gustavo Antônio Martins Brandão, Antonio Carlos Pereira, Ana Maria Martins Brandão, Haroldo Amorim de Almeida, Rogério Heládio Lopes Motta
March-April 2015, 26(2):148-151
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159143  PMID:26096107
Context: Orthodontic treatment has been reported to contribute to the development and accumulation of dental biofilm, which is commonly found on bracket and adjacent surfaces. Aims: The aim of this work is to test the hypothesis if there are differences in dental biofilm formation on the surface of orthodontic brackets according to the type of composition material. Subjects and Methods: Three bracket types (metallic, composite, and ceramic) had been evaluated. Subjects wore acrylic palatal orthodontic appliances, containing 6 brackets each, for two 3-day cycles. On the end of first cycle, the amount of dental biofilm formed on the samples was extracted using 1.0-M NaOH and analyzed by spectrophotometry for quantification. An additional cycle was carried out to verify the dental biofilm formation using scanning electronic microscope analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Three-way ANOVA was used to analyze the difference among the materials (metallic, ceramic and composite) concerning the dental biofilm absorbance spectrum. Multiple comparisons were made using the Tukey's test (α =0.05). Results: Composite brackets showed greater values concerning biofilm formation, when compared with the metallic and ceramic ones, both of which presented similar scores. The hypothesis is accepted. There are differences on the biofilm formation according to the type of material. Conclusions: The in situ model tested was found to be effective in evaluating the accumulation and development of biofilm on orthodontic brackets. In the quantitative analysis, composite brackets showed greater biofilm adhesion values while metallic and ceramic presented similar biofilm absorbance spectrum.
  1,945 76 4
Effect of protective coating on marginal integrity of nanohybrid composite during bleaching with carbamide peroxide: A microleakage study
A Ashok Kumar, VP Hariharavel, Ashwin Narayanan, S Murali
March-April 2015, 26(2):167-169
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159150  PMID:26096111
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the microleakage on the marginal integrity of nanohybrid composite during bleaching with carbamide peroxide after applying a protective coating of G-Coat plus (GC, Japan). Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared and restored with nanohybrid composite restoration in 60 freshly extracted noncarious premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons. Then they were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 - bleaching with carbamide peroxide without G coat plus (n = 20), Group 2 - bleaching with carbamide peroxide with G-Coat plus (n = 20), Group 3 - without bleaching procedure (n = 20) (control group). In Group 2, G coat plus was applied over the restorative surface and margins. Then all teeth in Groups 1 and 2 were taken and mounted in dental stone. Bleaching trays were custom fabricated over the cast with the help of a heated vacuum-forming machine. 10% carbamide peroxide (opalescence PF) was applied over the tooth, and the bleaching process was done for about 2 weeks. Then all samples underwent thermocycling and were then immersed in the 2% methylene blue solution for 24 h and observed under a stereomicroscope to evaluate the amount of dye penetration. Data were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test using SPSS Inc.; Chicago, IL, USA, Version 17.0. Results: Mann-Whitney test shows that the difference in microleakage between Group 1-Group 2 and Group 2-Group 3 is statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Significant reduction in microleakage was seen in Group 2 when compared to other groups.
  1,879 127 -
Dimensional change in soft tissues with complete dental prosthesis and its effect on airway space and natural head position
TV Padmanabhan, R Fathima Banu, A Mahalakshmi, Abdul Aziz, Suman Bohra, V Anand Kumar
March-April 2015, 26(2):144-147
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159140  PMID:26096106
Background: Insertion of the intraoral prosthesis causes deflection of the tongue, soft palate affecting the patency of the airway. Aims: To evaluate the cephalometric soft tissue variation in tongue, soft palate, and its effect on posterior airway space in edentulous patients with the insertion of the denture. Settings and Design: Randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Complete denture (CD) prosthesis was fabricated for first time denture wearers comprising 22 males and 18 females within the age range of 50-65 years. Lateral skull radiographs were taken for each of the subjects in their resting position without CDs (T0), with CDs (T1) at least 1-week postinsertion and after 6 months of usage (T2), respectively. The reference points, lines, and angles on the cephalometric films were used to evaluate the position or inclination of the head, variations in tongue position and length, the changes in the anteroposterior dimension of the soft palate, and posterior airway space variations. Intra-investigator error variance was not found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Statistical Analysis Used: Using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) v16.0 the significant difference in the paired samples (without CD and with CD) was found using the paired t-test. The probability value P = 0.05 is considered as a significant level. Results : On comparison of T1 and T0, the heads were more extended with the downward position of the tongue with an increase in its length and the posterior airway space was decreased in T1. Significant differences in values were not observed between T1 and T2. Conclusions : With CDs, the change in airway space was related to alteration in soft palate and tongue dimension. There were no changes in dimension at 6 months follow-up.
  1,850 137 -
Forward together (Excelsior!)
Marc W Heft
March-April 2015, 26(2):115-116
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159128  PMID:26096100
  1,434 95 -
Scientific misconducts: Debunking myths
SM Balaji
March-April 2015, 26(2):117-117
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.159130  PMID:26096101
  1,367 118 -
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