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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2009| October-December  | Volume 20 | Issue 4  
    Online since January 29, 2010

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Periodontitis as a potential risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A retrospective study
Vikas Deo, Manohar L Bhongade, Salman Ansari, Ramesh S Chavan
October-December 2009, 20(4):466-470
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59456  PMID:20139573
Aims and Objectives : A relationship between poor periodontal health and respiratory disease has been suggested by a number of recent studies. The present study was undertaken to evaluate potential association between respiratory diseases and periodontal health status and to co-relate the severity of periodontal disease with that of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and Methods : 150 patients of COPD (test group) and 50 Patients without COPD (control group) were recruited for the study. Information regarding patient's demographic and socioeconomic status and lifestyle (history of smoking) were considered in the study. Patients with COPD were grouped into mild, moderate and severe category on the basis of Spirometry. Periodontal health was assessed by measuring probing pocket depth, Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL) and Oral Hygiene Index (OHI). Results : The results showed that the subjects with COPD had significantly more mean CAL) and a higher mean OHI than those without COPD. The risk for COPD appeared to be significantly elevated when attachment loss was found to be severe. A trend was noted in that lung function appeared to diminish as the amount of attachment loss increased. Conclusion : On the basis of the observed results of the study it can be concluded that the risk for COPD appeared to be significantly elevated when attachment loss was found to be severe. It is conceivable that oral interventions that improve oral health status may prove to lower the severity of lung infection in susceptible populations.
  39 8,389 603
Comparative reliability of cheiloscopy and palatoscopy in human identification
Preeti Sharma, Susmita Saxena, Vanita Rathod
October-December 2009, 20(4):453-457
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59451  PMID:20139570
Background: Establishing a person's identity in postmortem scenarios can be a very difficult process. Dental records, fingerprint and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used in this context, allowing fast and reliable identification processes. However, under certain circumstances they cannot always be used; sometimes it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques. In forensic identification, lip prints and palatal rugae patterns can lead us to important information and help in a person's identification. This study aims to ascertain the use of lip prints and palatal rugae pattern in identification and sex differentiation. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 subjects, 50 males and 50 females were selected from among the students of Subharti Dental College, Meerut. The materials used to record lip prints were lipstick, bond paper, cellophane tape, a brush for applying the lipstick, and a magnifying lens. To study palatal rugae, alginate impressions were taken and the dental casts analyzed for their various patterns. Results: Statistical analysis (applying Z-test for proportion) showed significant difference for type I, I', IV and V lip patterns (P < 0.05) in males and females, while no significant difference was observed for the same in the palatal rugae patterns (P > 0.05). Conclusion: This study not only showed that palatal rugae and lip prints are unique to an individual, but also that lip prints is more reliable for recognition of the sex of an individual.
  26 12,494 1,468
Relationship between the size of patency file and apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite
Izabel CG Camoes, Milton R Salles, Mourao Vieira M Fernando, Lilian F Freitas, Cinthya C Gomes
October-December 2009, 20(4):426-430
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59443  PMID:20139565
Background: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most widely used endodontic irrigant because of its excellent antimicrobial, organic tissue dissolving, and lubricating properties. However, it is highly cytotoxic to the periapical tissues. Aim: This study evaluated in vitro the extrusion of 5.25% NaOCl through the apical foramina of mesiobuccal (MB) root canals of maxillary first molars in two experimental conditions: Before apical debridement and after apical debridement with different instrument sizes to ensure direct access to the apical foramen (apical patency). Materials and Methods: Coronal accesses were prepared in 17 teeth and the apical foramina of the distobuccal and palatal root canals were sealed. The teeth were held in acrylic receptacles with the roots turned upwards to reproduce their position in the maxillary dental arch. The receptacles were filled with a starch/KI solution (a reagent that changes its color to blue after contacting NaOCl) covering the roots. The experiment had two phases: P1: Irrigation of the MB canals with 5.25% NaOCl without previous establishment of apical patency; P2: Canal irrigation after use of size 10 K-file and size 15 Flexofile as patency files. Only specimens with no NaOCl extrusion in P1 were assigned to P2. NaOCl was delivered pressureless at the canal entrance. The moment that the starch/KI solution contacted NaOCl was captured on digital photographs. Results and Conclusions: There was no NaOCl extrusion in nine specimens in P1, but all of these teeth had irrigant extrusion in P2. The 5.25% NaOCl used as an endodontic irrigant showed great capacity to extrude beyond both intact and small-sized apical foramina of MB root canals of maxillary first molars.
  23 6,724 446
Effects of platelet-rich plasma on healing of alveolar socket: Split-mouth histological and histometric evaluation in Cebus apella monkeys
Roberto S Pessoa, Sergio R Oliveira, Helder HM Menezes, Denildo de Magalhaes
October-December 2009, 20(4):442-447
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59448  PMID:20139568
Context: The prediction of implant treatment is directly influenced by the quality of the remaining bone after tooth extraction. Aims : The purpose of this experimental study was to, histologically and histometrically, evaluate the bone repair process in the central areas of extraction sockets filled with platelet-rich plasma. Materials and Methods: Four young adult male Cebus apella monkeys were used. The extraction of both right and left inferior second premolars was accomplished. After extraction, in one of the extraction sockets, coagulum was maintained while in the other it was removed; the alveolus was dried with gauze compress and filled up with platelet concentrate. For PRP production, Sonnleitner's protocol was followed. The specimens for histological and histometric assessment were obtained in 30, 90, 120 and 180 days intervals. Results: In 30 days new bone formation was intense in both experimental and control sockets and no significant differences were observed between the two groups. After 90 days of the extraction, while the control group showed signs of decrease in osteogenesis, in the experimental unit, the process of bone formation and fibroblast-like cell proliferation remained intense. After 120 days, the PRP treated socket was occupied by large trabeculae of bone. After 180 days, the control unit was occupied mostly with bone marrow. The experimental unit remained occupied with large amounts of bone tissue. Conclusions: It was possible to conclude that bone repair was enhanced by the use of platelet- rich plasma in alveolar sockets.
  17 4,373 307
Obstructive sleep apnea: Clinical and diagnostic features
C Sunitha, S Aravindkumar
October-December 2009, 20(4):487-491
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59457  PMID:20139577
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an increasingly common disorder. It is characterized by frequent episodes of airway obstruction associated with a reduced caliber of the upper airway and is vulnerable to further narrowing and collapse. Acute and repetitive effects of apnea and hypopnea include oxygen desaturation, reduction in intrathoracic pressure, excessive daytime sleepiness, impaired executive function and central nervous system arousals. The apnea-hypopnea index and respiratory distress index help quantify the severity of the condition. The condition is associated with several clinical symptoms of which daytime sleepiness is considered the cardinal symptom. Obesity is one of the major predisposing factors. Three types of apneas have been recognized -obstructive, central and mixed; OSA is the commonest. This review will cover aspects of their radiologic features, diagnosis and management.
  16 5,132 565
Evaluation of oral health awareness in parents of preschool children
Bhavneet Kaur
October-December 2009, 20(4):463-465
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59455  PMID:20139572
Objectives: Little data are available on the initiative shown by the parents for dental health care of their preschool children in India. This study was conducted to evaluate the status of oral health awareness in parents of preschool children. Materials and Methods: A total of 230 preschool children were included in the study and their parents were analyzed for their child dental awareness by holding free dental checkups and interactive meetings with the help of their respective schools. Results and Conclusion: Results revealed that there is a low initiation of the parents when oral health care of small children is concerned; however, an active collective effort of the school and dental team can make awareness program effective.
  15 10,082 736
Evaluation of gastric tolerability, antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity of combination NSAIDs in rats
Bhupinder Singh Kalra, Shalini , Sonali Chaturvedi, Vandana Tayal, Usha Gupta
October-December 2009, 20(4):418-422
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59439  PMID:20139563
Background : Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical practice. Presently, several varieties of fixed dose combinations (FDCs) of NSAIDs are available over the counter and are being prescribed too. There is paucity of literature regarding comparative efficacy of these combinations against their individual component. Various clinical studies have documented increased incidence of gastric ulcerations with usage of more than one NSAID simultaneously. Objectives : To study gastric tolerability, antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity of combination NSAIDs in rats. Materials and Methods : Gastric tolerability of different NSAIDs was observed after administration of drugs for 7 days orally. On 7 th day, 4 h after drug administration, rats were sacrificed and stomach mucosa was examined for ulcerations. Analgesic or antinociceptive activity of single and combination NSAIDs was evaluated using Writhing test model. For induction of writhing, 4% normal saline (hypertonic saline) was injected (0.1 ml/10 gm) intraperitoneally. Evaluation of antiinflammatory activity for FDCs of NSAIDs was done by using rat paw edema model with the aid of plethysmometer. Paw edema was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of 1% formalin in sub-planter region of hind paw. Results : Analgesic activity was found to be enhanced or significant only in the group pretreated with combination of nimesulide with ibuprofen as compared to ibuprofen-alone group (P = 0.01). Decrease in mean paw edema (antiinflammatory activity) was not significant in rats pretreated with combination NSAIDs as compared to NSAID-alone group. Mean gastric ulcer index was significant in groups pretreated with diclofenac alone (P = 0.03) and in combination groups of nimesulide with diclofenac and ibuprofen with paracetamol as compared to control (P = 0.03, P = 0.007). Conclusion : Addition of ibuprofen to paracetamol and combining diclofenac to nimesulide, significantly increased severity of gastric ulcerations. Fixed dose combination does not possess additional analgesic activity over their individual components, only exception being combination of nimesulide with ibuprofen, which has additional analgesic activity over ibuprofen alone, and this combination was not found to be ulcerogenic. Antiinflammatory activity of ibuprofen, paracetamol and nimesulide was significantly enhanced after addition of diclofenac.
  15 6,103 482
The efficacy of a herbal-based toothpaste in the control of plaque and gingivitis: A clinico-biochemical study
Jacob George, Shashikant Hegde, KS Rajesh, Arun Kumar
October-December 2009, 20(4):480-482
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59460  PMID:20139575
Objective: A double-blinded controlled clinical trial with parallel groups was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a herbal-based toothpaste in the control of plaque and gingivitis as compared with a conventional dentifrice. The efficacy of Colgate Herbal over Colgate tooth paste was assessed in this study. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects with gingivitis participated in the study. All participants had at least 20 natural teeth with no probing depths greater than 3 mm and a plaque index score of 2 or more at baseline. At baseline, the clinical parameters like gingival index, plaque index and salivary pH were estimated. Paired t-test was used to compare the difference within the groups and unpaired t-test was used to compare the difference between the groups at baseline and on the 30 th day. Results: At the end of the study, there were statistically significant reductions in the gingival index and the plaque index scores within the test group. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the test and the control groups. The salivary pH changes were not statistically significant in the test group but were displaced more toward the acidic range in the control group. Conclusion: It was however concluded that the herbal-based toothpaste was as effective as the conventionally formulated dentifrice in the control of plaque and gingivitis.
  14 13,522 1,066
Osteoid osteoma
BS Manjunatha, D Nagarajappa
October-December 2009, 20(4):514-515
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59438  PMID:20139585
Osteoid osteoma is a benign tumor of the bone which arises from osteoblasts and is extremely rare in jaws. Only 15 cases of osteoid osteoma have been reported in English-language literature. This case report is presented here due to its rarity.
  14 4,076 305
Ultrasonographic evaluation of inflammatory swellings of buccal space
K Srinivas, KN Sumanth, SS Chopra
October-December 2009, 20(4):458-462
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59454  PMID:20139571
Objectives : The main objective of the study was a) to differentiate cellulitis and abscess in buccal space region, b) to study the ultrasonographic anatomy of cheek region and c) to investigate the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis of inflammatory swellings of cheek region. Patients and Methods : The study consisted of 25 patients with unilateral buccal space inflammatory swellings of odontogenic origin. The contra lateral side was used as control. Toshiba ultrasonographic device with a linear array transducer (5-8 MHz) was used. The areas of interest were scanned under both transverse and longitudinal sections and were interpreted by a single observer. The clinical diagnosis of cellulitis or abscess was confirmed by the absence or presence of pus respectively both sonographically and by aspiration. Also various anatomical structures present in buccal space were studied. Results : Clinically 23(92%) were diagnosed as buccal space abscess and 2 (8%) were cellulitis. Ultrasonographically and therapeutically 24 (96%) were buccal space abscess and 1 (4%) was cellulits. The sensitivity of clinical criteria over ultrasonographic diagnosis was 96% with a specificity of 100%. Also the cheek thickness in males and females varied from 8.2 to 17.1mm with a mean of 11.6mm±2.1 (SD) and 8.2 mm to 14.2 mm with a mean of 11±1.8 (SD). The subcutaneous tissue appeared moderately echogenic, buccinator - highly echogenic, deep adipose tissue - less echogenic and parotid duct was appreciated as a thin hyperechogenic band crossing the buccinator muscle. Buccal space, masticator space and parotid space were appreciated. Conclusion : This study supports the ultrasonographic method of imaging of orofacial inflammatory swellings with high sensitivity and specificity. This imaging modality can also help in aspiration of pus in different spaces. We have described the ultrasonographic anatomy of the above mentioned spaces which can help a beginner in this field.
  10 5,559 516
Prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with microstomia
DR Prithviraj, Sushma Ramaswamy, Soni Romesh
October-December 2009, 20(4):483-486
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59458  PMID:20139576
Microstomia is defined as an abnormally small oral orifice which can be due to various factors. Microstomia is a definite prosthodontic hindrance to carry out the different treatment successfully. To rehabilitate a patient with microstomia, successfully, the methods and designs incorporated in the prosthesis have to be modified. In the past, various techniques have been tried, incorporating certain biological and scientific methods to rehabilitate patients with microstomia. This article reviews the previously described treatment modalities in case of patients with microstomia.
  10 8,397 965
SEM evaluation of marginal sealing on composite restorations using different photoactivation and composite insertion methods
Murilo Baena Lopes, Leticia A Costa, Simonides Consani, Alcides Junior Gonini, Mario AC Sinhoreti
October-December 2009, 20(4):394-399
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59428  PMID:20139558
Aim: This in vitro study evaluates the influence of marginal sealing methods in composite restorations with different adhesive systems submitted to mechanical load. Materials and Methods: Eighty bovine incisor crowns were embedded in Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) molds with the buccal surface exposed, where cavities (4mm x 4mm x 3mm) were made. Samples had the adhesive systems, Single Bond or Clearfil SE Bond, applied according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The cavities were filled with a Z-250 composite according to the restoration technique (bulk filling or three increments) and photoactivation (conventional, soft start, pulsatile light or light-emitting diode [LED]). The samples were duplicated with epoxy resin for scanning electron microscopy observations. Samples were also submitted to mechanical load (200,000 cycles; 2 Hz) and new replicas were made. Results: The results, in percentages, were submitted to ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P < 0.05). There was statistical difference between the cycle group (23.84%) and the non cycle group (18.63%). Comparing the restoration technique, there was no statistical difference between bulk filling (19.62%) and three increments (22.84%). There was no statistical difference among the groups: Pulsatile light (24.38%), soft start (22.75%), LED (21.47%) or conventional (16.34%). Furthermore, there were no statistical differences between the adhesive systems: Clearfil SE Bond (21.32%) and Single Bond (20.83%). Conclusions: The photoactivation methods, the restorative techniques and the adhesive systems did not influence gap formation.
  9 4,308 347
Fabrication of fixed partial dentures using functionally generated path technique and double casting
E Prashanti, Suresh Sajjan, Jagan Mohan Reddy
October-December 2009, 20(4):492-495
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59453  PMID:20139578
Harmonious occlusion is a critical requirement for successful oral rehabilitation. Conventional techniques of construction have been unsuccessful in producing a prosthesis that can be inserted without intraoral occlusal adjustment. This article discusses the use of functionally generated path technique with double casting to fabricate fixed partial dentures. The merits of this approach and the technique involved are discussed in detail.
  7 12,564 1,277
Some aspects of dental care in Russia
Sergei V Jargin
October-December 2009, 20(4):518-519
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59435  PMID:20139589
  7 3,032 107
Calcium phosphate cement as a "barrier-graft" for the treatment of human periodontal intraosseous defects
JB Rajesh, K Nandakumar, HK Varma, Manoj Komath
October-December 2009, 20(4):471-479
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59459  PMID:20139574
Background : Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are apparently good candidates for periodontal treatment by virtue of their biocompatibility, mouldability and osteoconductivity. However, the clinical efficacy in this regard has not been established. This study is aimed at the evaluation of the efficacy of a formulation of CPC in healing human periodontal intraosseous defects in comparison with hydroxyapatite ceramic granules. Materials and Methods : In this clinical study, 60 patients with periodontal defects were divided into 2 test groups and 1 control group. The defect sites in the test groups were repaired with CPC and hydroxyapatite ceramic granules (HAG). Debridement alone was given in the control group. The progress was assessed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months observation intervals through soft tissue parameters (probing depth, attachment level and gingival recession). Results: CPC showed significantly better outcome. Probing depth reduction values of CPC, HAG and Control at 6 months were 5.40 ± 1.43, 3.75 ± 1.71 and 2.90 ± 1.48, and those at 12 months were 6.20 ± 1.80, 4.5 ± 1.91 and 2.95 ± 1.73. Clinical attachment gain values of CPC, HAG and Control at 6 months were 5.15 ± 1.50, 3.45 ± 1.96 and 2.25 ± 1.52, and those at 12 months were 5.80 ± 2.02, 3.55 ± 2.06 and 2.30 ± 1.78, In both cases the P value was < 0.001 showing high significance. The gingival recession over 12 months, for the CPC group is lesser than that in the HAG group and the value for the control group is marginally higher than both. Soft-tissue measurements were appended by postoperative radiographs and surgical re-entry in selected cases. Conclusions: Calcium phosphate cement is found to be significantly better than hydroxyapatite ceramic granules. The material could be considered as a "barrier-graft".
  7 5,401 419
Nanotechnology: Role in dental biofilms
Sonia B Bhardwaj, Manjula Mehta, K Gauba
October-December 2009, 20(4):511-513
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59440  PMID:20139584
Biofilms are surface- adherent populations of microorganisms consisting of cells, water and extracellular matrix material Nanotechnology is promising field of science which can guide our understanding of the role of interspecies interaction in the development of biofilm. Streptococcus mutans with other species of bacteria has been known to form dental biofilm. The correlation between genetically modified bacteria Streptococcus mutans and nanoscale morphology has been assessed using AFMi.e atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology application includes 16 O/ 18 O reverse proteolytic labeling,use of quantum dots for labeling of bacterial cells, selective removal of cariogenic bacteria while preserving the normal oral flora and silver antimicrobial nanotechnology against pathogens associated with biofilms. The future comprises a mouthwash full of smart nanomachines which can allow the harmless flora of mouth to flourish in a healthy ecosystem
  7 6,264 758
Tooth regeneration: Current status
Shifali S Dadu
October-December 2009, 20(4):506-507
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59444  PMID:20139582
Regeneration of a functional tooth has the potential to be a promising therapeutic strategy. Experiments have shown that with the use of principles of bioengineering along with adult stem cells, scaffold material, and signaling molecules, tooth regeneration is possible. Research work is in progress on creating a viable bioroot with all its support. A new culture needs to be created that can possibly provide all the nutrients to the stem cells. With the ongoing research, tissue engineering is likely to revolutionize dental health and well-being of people by regenerating teeth over the next decade.
  7 9,114 690
Sialography: Report of 3 cases
Sujatha S Reddy, N Rakesh, Namita Raghav, D Devaraju, Shridevi G Bijjal
October-December 2009, 20(4):499-502
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59449  PMID:20139580
Salivary gland examination is an important part of oral examination, especially because of it's involvement in most of the systemic diseases. Patients most commonly seek medical attention when the major salivary glands like parotid and submandibular gland become enlarged or painful. The various imaging modalities practiced to check the salivary gland disorders include conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computerized tomography, radionuclide imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. Sialography is one of the oldest imaging procedures and still most commonly practiced, as it is a chair side procedure, simple to perform, and cost effective. We report the role of sialography as an adjuvant in the diagnosis of bacterial sialadenitis and sialadenosis and as a diagnostic and therapeutic aid in a case of juvenile recurrent parotitis.
  4 7,344 562
A rare case of sarcoid-like reaction of lymph nodes associated with squamous cell carcinoma of alveolar mucosa
Shweta Nag, TR Saraswathi, Ganthimathy Sekhar, A Einstein, B Sivapathasundharam
October-December 2009, 20(4):503-505
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59446  PMID:20139581
Non-necrotizing granulomas are occasionally seen in patients with certain malignant disorders and are termed as "sarcoid-like reaction," which have many similarities with sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology characterized by organ involvement and interference of organ function by granuloma or fibrosis. Sarcoidosis is occasionally found in a variety of malignant diseases with an overall incidence of 4.4% in carcinoma patients. We present here a rare case of moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of alveolar mucosa with regard to mandible associated with sarcoid-like reaction of cervical lymph nodes in a female patient in the absence of clinical evidence of systemic sarcoidosis. The relevant literature including pathogenesis is also discussed.
  4 4,829 240
Effect of water storage on resin-dentin bond strengths formed by different bonding approaches
GC Martins, AL Calixto, OMM Gomes, AD Loguercio, PHP D'Alpino, A Reis
October-December 2009, 20(4):431-436
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59445  PMID:20139566
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of water storage on resin-dentin bond strengths [µTBS] using different adhesive bonding approaches. Materials and Methods: Flat superficial dentin surfaces of 24 extracted human third molars were exposed and polished to create a standardized smear layer. The teeth were randomly distributed into four different groups: Three-step etch-and-rinse (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE - SBMP), two-step etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond 2, 3 M ESPE - SB); two-step self-etch (AdheSE, Ivoclar/Vivadent - AD); and self-etch 1 step (Adper Prompt L-Pop, 3M ESPE - LP). Following the adhesive application (n = 6), resin composite was incrementally applied (Filtek™ Supreme XT - 3 M ESPE) in order to obtain bonded sticks, with a cross-sectioned area of 0.81 mm 2 . The bonded sticks were randomly divided and assigned to be tested after one day [OD] (n 30) or six months [6 M] of water storage [6 M] (n = 30). Results: Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test showed that none of the adhesives showed degradation after 6 M. SB achieved the highest µTBS both in the [OD] (49.13 MPa) and [6M] (40.27 MPa). Despite the highest values in both time evaluations, the µTBS of SB significantly reduced after 6M. LP showed the lowest µTBS in both periods of evaluation (18.35 and 18.34 MPa). Conclusions: Although a significant degradation was only observed for SB, this was the adhesive that showed the highest µTBS after 6 M of water storage.
  4 3,390 220
A comparative evaluation of metallurgical properties of stainless steel and TMA archwires with timolium and titanium niobium archwires - An in vitro study
R Devaki Vijayalakshmi, KS Nagachandran, Pradeep Kummi, P Jayakumar
October-December 2009, 20(4):448-452
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59450  PMID:20139569
Objectives: This study aims to evaluate and compare the mechanical and metallurgical properties of stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA) archwires, with recently introduced timolium and titanium niobium arch wires. Materials and Methods: Archwires were categorized into four groups (group I to IV) with 10 samples in each group. They were evaluated for tensile strength, yield strength, modulus of elasticity, load deflection, frictional properties and weld characteristics. Results: The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and it indicated that stainless steel has high strength, high stiffness and low friction compared to other arch wires, thereby proving that it is the best choice for both sliding as well as frictionless retraction mechanics. TMA with its high formability, low stiffness and low load deflection property is suited to apply consistent force in malaligned teeth but, high friction limits its use in retraction only with loop mechanics. Conclusion: Timolium possesses comparatively low stiffness, better strength and behaves as an intermediate between stainless steel and TMA and hence can be tried for almost all clinical situations. Low springback and high formability of titanium-niobium archwire allows creation of finishing bends and thus it can be used as finishing archwire.
  3 12,136 477
Correlation of " in vivo" microcirculation and degeneration of the basal cells of the epithelium in lingual lichen planus
GA Scardina, A Ruggieri, P Messina
October-December 2009, 20(4):407-411
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59434  PMID:20139561
Background: Oral lichen planus is an inflammatory chronic disease with an autimmune pathogenesis and unknown etiology that affects oral mucosa, with or without the involvement of the skin and other mucous membranes. The principal histological characteristics are the degeneration of the basal cell layer and the abnormal infiltration of inflammatory cells into the subepithelial layer of connective tissue. Objectives: This study is aimed to appraise if lingual lichen planus (LLP) is sustained by alteration of the oral microcirculation and if this abnormal vascularisation increases the degeneration of basal keratinocytes and the disruption of the basement membrane. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with a histological diagnosis of LLP with higher degree of degeneration of the basement membrane, fifteen LLP patients with lower degree of basement membrane (BM) degeneration and fifteen healthy patients were included in the study. The microcirculation of the left margin of the lingual mucosa of all the patients and subjects was analysed with the videocapillaroscopy. The following parameters were analyzed on each capillaroscopic image: c0 apillary loop length, loop diameter, and capillary density. The results obtained by videocapillaroscopy software were subjected to statistical analysis using Mann Whitney U-test (P < 0.001). Statistical analysis was performed using PAST software, v. 1.53. Results: Capillary density, loop length, and total diameter showed statistically significant differences between LLP patients with histologically lower degree of BM degeneration and healthy subjects and a meaningful significant difference between LLP patients with higher degree of BM degeneration. Conclusions: A remarkable increase in capillary density was showed by videocapillaroscopic exam. The increased value of the density could be associated with angiogenesis mechanism and it could be an indicator of the evolutionary condition of LLP. Videocapillaroscopy may be useful for the evaluation of the evolution or regression of the disease.
  3 2,991 224
A comparative study of inter-abutment distance of dies made from full arch dual-arch impression trays with those made from full arch stock trays: An in vitro study
Jagan Mohan Reddy, E Prashanti, G Vinay Kumar, MC Suresh Sajjan, Xavier Mathew
October-December 2009, 20(4):412-417
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59437  PMID:20139562
Objectives: The dual-arch impression technique is convenient in that it makes the required maxillary and mandibular impressions, as well as the inter-occlusal record in one procedure. The accuracy of inter-abutment distance in dies fabricated from dual-arch impression technique remains in question because there is little information available in the literature. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of inter-abutment distance in dies obtained from full arch dual-arch trays with those obtained from full arch stock metal trays. Results and Conclusion: The metal dual-arch trays showed better accuracy followed by the plastic dual-arch and stock dentulous trays, respectively, though statistically insignificant. The pouring sequence did not have any effect on the inter-abutment distance statistically, though pouring the non-working side of the dual-arch impression first showed better accuracy.
  3 4,131 334
Regenerative endodontics: A paradigm shift in dental practice
Manoj Kumar Hans, Shashit Shetty
October-December 2009, 20(4):517-518
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59433  PMID:20139588
  2 4,503 638
Effect of a single-use toothbrush on plaque microflora
Vidya Pai
October-December 2009, 20(4):404-406
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59431  PMID:20139560
Aim: To study and compare the microbial flora of dental plaque after the use of a self-contaminated toothbrush and that of a single-use toothbrush. Materials and Methods: The study group included 40 young volunteers from Yenepoya Dental College, who were free from any systemic or oral disease. In these subjects, plaque samples were collected after 1 month use of a self-contaminated toothbrush. Each subject was given a set of 30 new toothbrushes and a toothpaste tube and instructed to use one toothbrush everyday and discard it after use. The plaque samples were collected on a weekly interval and cultured on Mitis Salivarius agar. The colonies were identified and speciated and their count was recorded. Results: Streptococcus mitis, S. mutans, S. sanguis, S. milleri and Candida were recovered from the samples. A highly significant decrease in their numbers was found after the use of a single-use toothbrush (P value 0.001). Conclusions : As a contaminated toothbrush can reintroduce microorganisms into the oral cavity, it may be a sound practice to change the toothbrush as frequently as possible.
  2 4,937 464
Phalange metastasis from carcinoma of alveolus
Rajeev Shrivastava, KK Singh, BR Umbarker, R Karle, M Shrivastava
October-December 2009, 20(4):496-498
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59452  PMID:20139579
Metastatic involvement of a phalanx by head and neck cancers is rare. We report a case of a 66-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma of the alveolus who had no residual disease or local recurrence after treatment but presented with metastasis to the middle phalanx of the middle finger.
  1 2,580 134
Canal-centring ability of three rotary file systems in simulated curved canals: A comparative study
Zohreh Khalilak, Kaveh Alavi, Nahid Mohammad Zadeh Akhlaghi, Payman Mehrvarzfar, Bahareh Dadresanfar
October-December 2009, 20(4):400-403
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59430  PMID:20139559
Objective: To compare the canal-centring ability of M two , ProFile and RaCe rotary files, in simulated curved canals. Materials and Methods: About 30 simulated canals were prepared by M two , ProFile and RaCe rotary files. Pre and post-operative pictures were super-imposed and transportations recorded. Measurements were carried out at five different points: Canal orifice (O); half-way to the orifice in the straight section (HO); the beginning of the curve (BC); the apex of the curve (AC); the end point (EP). Intra- and inter-group comparisons were carried out by Wilcoxon`s signed ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis test respectively, using SPSS 14.0 software. Results: ProFile did not change canal centricity in any point. RaCe kept centricity at HO, BC, AC and EP. M two changed canal centricity in points BC, AC and EP. M two group kept the centricity significantly less than the other two groups at BC (P = 0.004), AC (P = 0.015) and EP (P = 0.01). There was no significant difference between these three rotary files at HO. However, the difference between RaCe, M two and ProFile was significant at O (P = 0.015). Conclusion: ProFile and RaCe rotary files remained better centred than M two rotary files
  1 5,553 494
In vitro evaluation of force-expansion characteristics in a newly designed orthodontic expansion screw compared to conventional screws
Morteza Oshagh, SH Momeni Danaei, MR Hematian, MR Oshagh, A Hadiun Zade, AA Saboori
October-December 2009, 20(4):437-441
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59447  PMID:20139567
Objective : Expansion screws like Hyrax, Haas and other types, produce heavy interrupted forces which are unfavorable for dental movement and could be harmful to the tooth and periodontium. The other disadvantage of these screws is the need for patient cooperation for their regular activation. The purpose of this study was to design a screw and compare its force- expansion curve with other types. Materials and Methods : A new screw was designed and fabricated in the same dimension, with conventional types, with the ability of 8 mm expansion (Free wire length: 12 mm, initial compression: 4.5 mm, spring wire diameter: 0.4 mm, spring diameter: 3 mm, number of the coils: n0 ine, material: s0 tainless steel). In this in vitro study, the new screw was placed in an acrylic orthodontic appliance, and after mounting on a stone cast, the force-expansion curve was evaluated by a compression test machine and compared to other screws. Results : Force-expansion curve of designed screw had a flatter inclination compared to other screws. Generally it produced a light continuous force (two to 3.5 pounds) for every 4 mm of expansion. Conclusion : In comparison with heavy and interrupted forces of other screws, the newly designed screw created light and continuous forces.
  1 3,875 208
Continuing dental education
B Sivapathasundharam
October-December 2009, 20(4):393-393
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59427  PMID:20139557
  - 3,871 318
Dental research: Some bitter aspects.....
Jaysankar Pillai
October-December 2009, 20(4):519-519
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59436  PMID:20139590
  - 1,724 189
Comment on 'standards on restoratives'
K Padmanabhan
October-December 2009, 20(4):516-516
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59429  PMID:20139587
  - 1,767 76
Copper content of various constituents of betel quid
Shrijana Shakya, Ravikiran Ongole, KN Sumanth
October-December 2009, 20(4):516-517
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59432  PMID:20139586
  - 2,518 323
Community periodontal index of treatment needs index: An indicator of anaerobic periodontal infection
S Muthukumar, R Suresh
October-December 2009, 20(4):423-425
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59441  PMID:20139564
Background : Community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) index is commonly used to measure periodontal disease. It's uniqueness, apart from assessing the periodontal status, also gives the treatment needs for the underlying condition. Benzoyl-DL-arginine napthylamide (BANA) test is a chair side diagnostic test used to detect the presence of putative periodontal pathogens. We correlated the CPITN scores of patients with BANA test results to assess the validity of CPITN as an indicator of anaerobic periodontal infection. Objectives : The present study was aimed to correlate the CPITN scores with the BANA activity of subgingival plaque. The objective was to assess the validity of CPITN index as indicator of anaerobic periodontal infection. Patients and Methods : A total of 80 sites were selected from 20 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. After measuring the probing depth with CPITN C probe, the highest score from each sextant was selected according to the CPITN criteria and subgingival plaque samples were collected using a sterile curette and the BANA test was performed. Results : Kendall's tau-b and Chi- square test were used to assess the correlation between the BANA test results and CPITN scores. Results indicated sensitivity (92.86%), specificity (80%) and agreement (91.25%); indicating the validity of CPITN in assessing anaerobic infection. Conclusion : There was a significant correlation between BANA test results and scores 3 and score 4 of CPITN index (P < 0.001) clearly indicating the presence of anaerobic periodontal infection.
  - 14,169 451
SS Mohamed Riyaz, S Jayachandran
October-December 2009, 20(4):508-510
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.59442  PMID:20139583
Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, sporadic, autosomal dominant syndrome that involves premature ageing and death at early age due to myocardial infarction or stroke. A 30-year-old male with clinical and radiologic features highly suggestive of HGPS is presented here with description of differential diagnosis, dental considerations and review of literature.
  - 6,231 375
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