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   2009| April-June  | Volume 20 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 23, 2009

 
 
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Dental esthetic satisfaction, received and desired dental treatments for improvement of esthetics
Zuhre Zafersoy Akarslan, Burak Sadik, Hulya Erten, Erdem Karabulut
April-June 2009, 20(2):195-200
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52902  PMID:19553722
Aim: The purposes of this research were to investigate factors influencing patients' satisfaction with their present dental esthetic, received previous dental treatments on anterior teeth and basic treatments that they wanted to undergo to improve their dental appearance. Materials and Methods: A total of 1014 patients who attended a dental school in a major city in Turkey participated in the study. The participants were surveyed with a questionnaire containing questions about gender, age, education level, self-reported tooth appearance, received previous dental treatments on anterior teeth and desired basic esthetic dental treatments. Statistical analysis of the verifying data was made with descriptive statistics, χ2 test and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: According to the analyses of the verifying data, 55.1% of the patients were dissatisfied with the color of their teeth, 42.7% with dental appearance, 29.9% with crowding of anterior teeth, 23.3% were hiding teeth while smiling, 16.1% had non-esthetic restorations and 11.9% thought that their anterior teeth were protruding. Esthetic restoration was found to be the most-performed treatment recently (29.0%) and whitening of teeth was the most-desired dental treatment (49.0%). Gender, age and education level had an effect on satisfaction and received previous and desired dental treatments for improvement of esthetics. Conclusion: Many of the Turkish patients surveyed in the study were dissatisfied and desired the improvement of dental esthetics. Therefore, dentists should consider this as an important dimension in their practice.
  62 16,533 948
Association between symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and gender, morphological occlusion, and psychological factors in a group of university students
Leonardo R Bonjardim, Ricardo J Lopes-Filho, Guilherme Amado, Ricardo LC Albuquerque, Suzane RJ Goncalves
April-June 2009, 20(2):190-194
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52901  PMID:19553721
Aim: The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in a sample of university students and its relationship to gender, occlusion, and psychological factors. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 196 subjects, aged 18-25 years. The TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification (classes I, II, and III). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a 14-item self-administered rating scale developed specifically to identify anxiety and depression in nonpsychiatric medical outpatients, was used to assess the levels of anxiety (HADSa) and depression (HADSd). Statistical Analysis: The incidence of TMD level, malocclusion, anxiety, and depression in both genders was calculated as percentages. Association between TMD degree and occlusion, HADSa, and HADSd was tested using the Chi-square test. Results: According to our results, 50% of the subjects had TMD, but it was of moderate or severe degree in only 9.18% of them. No statistically significant association could be found between TMD and gender or occlusion. TMD was found to have statistically significant association with HADSa but not with HADSd. Conclusion : A high prevalence of TMD was found in this student population; however, most of the cases could be classified as mild. Of the variables studied, only HADSa had a statistically significant association with TMD.
  61 12,048 991
Influence of different post design and composition on stress distribution in maxillary central incisor: Finite element analysis
Natercia R Silva, Carolina G Castro, Paulo CF Santos-Filho, Gisele R Silva, Roberto E Campos, Paulo Vinicins Soares, Carlos Jose Soares
April-June 2009, 20(2):153-158
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52888  PMID:19553714
Background: Post design and material has very important effects on dentinal stress distribution since the post placement can create stresses that lead to root fracture. Materials and Methods: In this study we use finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate stress distribution on endodontically treated maxillary central incisors that have been restored with different prefabricated posts. Six models were generated from the image of anatomical plate: Four metallic posts (ParaPost XH, ParaPost XT, ParaPost XP, and Flexi-Flange) and one fiberglass post (ParaPost Fiber Lux). The sixth model was a control-a sound maxillary central incisor. We used CAD software and exported the models to ANSYS 9.0. All the materials and structures were considered elastic, isotropic, homogeneous, and linear except the fiberglass post which was considered orthotropic. The values for the mechanical properties were obtained by a review of the literature and the model was meshed with 8-node tetrahedral elements. A load of 2N was applied to the lingual surface at an angle of 135. Results: The stress results were recorded by shear stress and von Mises criteria; it was observed that there was no difference for stress distribution among the titanium posts in the radicular portions and into posts. There was higher stress concentration on the coronary portion with the titanium posts than with the glass fiber post. It seems that the metallic posts' external configuration does not influence the stress distribution. Conclusion: Fiber posts show more homogeneous stress distribution than metallic posts. The post material seems to be more relevant for the stress distribution in endodontically treated teeth than the posts' external configuration.
  46 12,069 1,865
Radiographic evaluation of the mental foramen in a selected Iranian population
Sina Haghanifar, Mehrak Rokouei
April-June 2009, 20(2):150-152
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52886  PMID:19553713
Background: Information on the position of the mental foramen is important for dental surgeons. Variations in its position can be a cause of complications during local anesthesia or surgical procedures. The usual position of the mental foramen in an Iranian population has not been previously reported. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the most common location of the mental foramen in an Iranian population. We also analyzed gender differences and the symmetry of location within individuals. Materials and Methods : 400 panoramic radiographs were evaluated with regard to the location and symmetry of the mental foramina in male and female subjects. Results : We found that the mental foramen was located between the first and second premolars in 47.2% of patients and in line with the second premolar in 46%. In 49.2% of males, the mental foramen was in line with the second premolar. In 50.9% of females it was between the first and second premolars. It was symmetrical in 85.7%. Conclusions : Based on this study it appears that the most common position of mental foramen is either between the two premolars or in line with the second premolar. This is in concordance with previous studies.
  43 8,298 1,453
REVIEW ARTICLES
Etiopathogenesis of disk displacement of the temporomandibular joint: A review of the mechanisms
Daniele Manfredini
April-June 2009, 20(2):212-221
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.51365  PMID:19553725
Disk displacement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a clinically important condition, showing a high prevalence in both patient and non-patient populations. Despite its clinical importance, there is incomplete understanding of the etiopathogenic mechanisms leading to disk displacement. A number of possible risk factors have been identified. This article analyzes the etiopathogenesis from both the clinical and the biomechanical viewpoints and also reviews the literature on the association between disk displacement and the main risk factors (i.e., trauma, altered disk shape and/or dynamic properties, occlusal abnormalities, steepness of the articular eminence, hyperactivity of the lateral pterygoid muscle, joint hypermobility, etc.). According to our interpretation of available data, an impairment of joint lubrication may be a common finding in cases of disk displacement, thus suggesting the need for future studies addressing both local and systemic neuroendocrine aspects influencing the friction coefficient of the TMJ. A full comprehension of the etiopathogenesis of disk displacement is far from being achieved, and clinicians must take into account this consideration when treating patients with temporomandibular disorders.
  40 14,780 1,167
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Influence of flowable materials on microleakage of nanofilled and hybrid Class II composite restorations with LED and QTH LCUs
Mostafa Sadeghi
April-June 2009, 20(2):159-163
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52891  PMID:19553715
Background: Class II composite restorations are more frequently being placed with margins apical to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and margins within the dentin are prone to microleakage. Aims: This in vitro study was used to evaluate the influence of flowable composite and flowable compomer as gingival liner on microleakage in Class II composite restorations and compare a light-emitting diode (LED) unit with a quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) unit for light-activating composite resins. Materials and Methods: Mesioocclusal and distoocclusal Class II cavity preparations were made in 72 sound extracted premolars. The buccolingual width was 2.5 mm and the gingival margins of all the cavities were placed 1.0 mm apical to the CEJ. The boxes were prepared 1.5 mm deep axially, making 144 slot cavities. Teeth were randomly divided into the following two groups (n = 72): (I) Universal Filtek Supreme XT; Universal Filtek Supreme XT + Flwable Filtek XT and Universal Filtek Supreme XT + Dyract Flow and (II) Filtek Z250; Filtek Z250 + Flwable Filtek XT and Filtek Z250 + Dyract Flow. Flowable materials were injected into the gingival floor of the cavity to a thickness of 1.0 mm. Each increment was cured for 20 s. One-half of the subgroups in each group were cured with QTH and the other half with LED light curing units (LCUs). After 1 week of incubation at 37C, the specimens were thermocycled (5-55C, x1500), immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye for 24 h and sectioned and microleakage was evaluated at the gingival margin by two examiners using a 0-3 score scale. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The groups utilizing flowable liners had significantly less microleakage (P < 0.05). No significant difference was identified between Universal Filtek Supreme XT and Filtek Z250 composites with and without flowable materials. There was no significant between utilizing flowable composite or flowable compomer and between each similar subgroup when polymerized with either the LED or the QTH LCUs. Conclusions: A layer of flowable materials at the gingival floor of Class II composite restorations may be recommended to improve the marginal seal of a restoration.
  23 9,768 827
CASE REPORTS
Riga-Fede disease: A histological study and case report
Azizi Taghi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar Motamedi
April-June 2009, 20(2):227-229
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52893  PMID:19553727
Acute traumatic ulcerations and granulomas of the oral mucosa may result from physical damage via sharp foodstuffs, accidental biting, or talking. Most ulcerations heal within days. Others become chronic, reactive, and exophytic. A histopathologically unique type of chronic traumatic ulceration is the traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia (TUGSE). TUGSE exhibits a deep "pseudoinvasive" inflammatory reaction. This lesion may occur under the tongue in infants as a result of chronic mucosal trauma caused by mandibular anterior primary teeth during nursing and is termed Riga-Fede disease (RFD). The clinical presentation many resemble squamous cell carcinoma causing concern. RFD, although not uncommon, is not frequently reported. Thus, dental practitioners are unfamiliar with such lesions. We present a large Riga-Fede lesion in an infant along with the clinical management.
  21 5,267 522
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Cytotoxicity evaluation of Persica mouthwash on cultured human and mouse cell lines in the presence and absence of fetal calf serum
Saeed Rajabalian, Mohammad Mohammadi, Behrooz Mozaffari
April-June 2009, 20(2):169-173
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52894  PMID:19553717
Background and Aims: The effectiveness of an ideal antimicrobial agent depends on its ability to kill microbes while causing minimal toxicity to host cells. Several studies have been reported on the antimicrobial effects of chewing sticks (Salvadora persica) on oral bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of Persica™ and chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwashes on cultured human and mouse cell lines. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study. The toxic effects of four dilutions of Persica™ and CHX mouthwashes on KB, Saos-2, J744 A1, and gingival fibroblast cells were evaluated by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. The effect of fetal calf serum (FCS) components on the cytotoxicity of these mouthwashes was also investigated. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to evaluate the results. Results: The results indicated that Persica™, at concentrations higher than 0.1%, exerted a very significant cytotoxic effect on all the cell lines (P ≤ 0.01). CHX, at a concentration of 0.001%, exerted toxic effects only on gingival fibroblasts; concentrations higher than 0.001% were required to produce significant cell death in the other cell lines. At all the concentrations under study, both Persica™ and CHX exerted significantly greater cytotoxic effects in the absence of FCS than in its presence (i.e., in control culture medium). The toxicities of both mouthwashes were attenuated in the presence of FCS (10%). Conclusion: Our results indicate that both Persica™ and CHX mouthwashes are toxic to macrophage, epithelial, fibroblast, and osteoblast cells in a concentration-dependent manner.
  21 6,772 582
CASE REPORTS
Bilateral dens invaginatus in the mandibular premolar region
Emin Murat Canger, Saadettin Kayipmaz, Peruze Celenk
April-June 2009, 20(2):238-240
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52887  PMID:19553730
Dens invaginatus (dens in dente, DI) is a rare developmental anomaly resulting from invagination of a portion of the crown rare. It is an important dental anomaly due to the possible pulpal involvement. DI can be detected clinically in a tooth presenting unusual crown morphology or having deep foramen coaceum. Also, clinically, non-suspected affected teeth are commonly diagnosed as an incidental radiographic finding. Presence of DI in the mandibular premolar teeth is unusual. Aims is to introduce a case of bilateral occurrence of DI in mandibular first premolar teeth. A 33- year-old man was referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of severe pain in his lower third molar tooth. Radiographic examination revealed bilateral DI (single at the left, double at the right) in mandibular first premolar teeth. The teeth were restored with fissure sealant. Although bilateral appearance of DI is a frequent situation, mandibular occurrence is very rare. Our review of the literature reveals just nine cases of DI, and only one of them is in a premolar tooth.
  15 5,025 526
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
The relative diagnostic yields of clinical, FOTI and radiographic examinations for the detection of approximal caries in youngsters
Fabio Luiz Mialhe, Antonio Carlos Pereira, Marcelo de Castro Meneghim, Glaucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano, Vanessa Pardi
April-June 2009, 20(2):136-140
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52881  PMID:19553711
Background: The detection of carious lesions in the initial stages of development is very important in order to prevent the occurrence of cavitation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare three methods-visual examination, FOTI, and bitewing radiographic examination-for the detection of noncavitated and cavitated approximal carious lesions. Materials and Methods: Seventy students (mean age 14 years) with low caries prevalence were examined by three examiners. The tooth surfaces judged as having caries by at least one examiner or one diagnostic method were scheduled for tooth separation. Results: The results showed that the incorporation of FOTI and radiographic examination represented an additional diagnostic yield of 50% and about 110%, respectively, compared to clinical examination alone. Conclusion: We conclude that FOTI or radiographic examination, or both, used as adjuncts to clinical examination, could improve the detection of noncavitated and cavitated approximal carious lesions. Although FOTI should not replace bitewing radiographic examination, it does seem to have additional value for the detection of carious lesions on approximal surfaces of the posterior teeth in school children with low caries prevalence.
  15 5,886 1,354
CASE REPORTS
Bilateral bifid mandibular canal: Report of two cases
Kasra Karamifar, Shoaleh Shahidi, Afsoon Tondari
April-June 2009, 20(2):235-237
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52889  PMID:19553729
Bifid mandibular canal is a rare anatomical variation that can be of considerable interest to a dentist. This condition can lead to complications when performing mandibular anesthesia or during surgery of the lower third molar, orthognatic or reconstructive mandibular surgery, or placement of dental implants and prosthesis; bleeding and traumatic neuroma are possible complications. Therefore, awareness of this condition is important. We report two cases of bilateral bifid mandibular canal: one in a 22-year-old male and the other in a 24-year-old female.
  11 5,432 604
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Effect of repeated use on dentin bond strength of two adhesive systems: All-in-one and one-bottle
Fershteh Shafiei, Mahtab Memarpour
April-June 2009, 20(2):180-184
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52897  PMID:19553719
Aims: To compare the effects of repeated use of two one-bottle adhesives with that of two all- in- one adhesives (with acetone solvent) on bond strength to dentin. Materials and Methods: A flat dentin surface was prepared on 120 bovine incisors using 600- grit abrasive pape. The teeth were randomly assigned into 12 equal groups. The four adhesive systems [Prime and Bond NT (P&B NT), One-Step Plus (OS), iBond (iB), and G-Bond (GB)] were used at baseline, after the lid of the container had been opened 30 times, and after it had been opened 60 times. Before each use of the adhesives, the lids of the containers were left open for 1 min. The resin composites were applied on the dentin in a cylindrical split mold. After thermocycling, shear bond strength test was performed with a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min. We used Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for statistical analysis. Results: There was no statistically significant difference among bond strength (MPa) of the groups of P&B NT (31.9 4.6, 31.8 6.5, 26.1 6.7) and OS (33.2 5.1, 30.9 7, 29.3 5.9), respectively (P > 0.05). The mean of the bond strength of iB and GB after 60 times (15.3 4.1 and 12.2 3.9, respectively) was significantly lower than that of iB and GB at baseline (23.5 4.8 and 22.2 4.5, respectively) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Repeated use (60 times) of the all-in-one adhesive led to a decline in the dentin bond strength. To avoid this problem it would be advisable to have containers with smaller amounts of adhesive or perhaps those with only a singe dose.
  11 3,783 394
CASE REPORTS
Endodontic treatment of a periradicular lesion on an invaginated type III mandibular lateral incisor
B Carvalho-Sousa, F Almeida-Gomes, LF Gominho, DS Albuquerque
April-June 2009, 20(2):243-245
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52883  PMID:19553732
Dens invaginatus (DI), commonly known as dens in dente, is a developmental malformation of teeth that most commonly affects permanent maxillary incisor teeth. DI can present in a variety of forms, knowledge of which can usefully help in endodontic diagnosis and treatment. This article reports on an unusual case of DI type III with a periradicular lesion in a mandibular lateral incisor. Non-surgical endodontic treatment was performed and resolution of the periradicular lesion was observed at 1 year follow-up. Clinical considerations and treatment are discussed and reported.
  8 4,472 578
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
The relationship between overjet size and dentoalveolar compensation
Nadia Lashin Soliman, Mona Mahmoud El-Batran, Ahmed Wael Abou-Zeid, Azza Mohamed Sarry El-Din, Moushira Erfan Zaki
April-June 2009, 20(2):201-205
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52900  PMID:19553723
Background : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of overjet size and the dento-alveolar compensation in subjects with normal class I molar relationship. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalometric head records of 59 Egyptian children (34 boys and 25 girls) aged 7.5 to 10.5 years with mean age of 8.690.73. All had normal class I type of occlusion. The sample was classified into four quartiles according to the overjet size and the cephalometric analysis was based on seven linear and eight angular measurements using a dental tracer programme. Results: showed that, in spite of presence of high significant over jet size differences between the groups; there was no significant differences in all the studied parameters were found. Applying the least significant differences (LSD) test and coefficient correlations between the studied parameters clarifying that there was a significant differences in angular measurements (SN-AB, SN-Occl, I-I, I-ML, I-NB). Conclusion: during transitional dentition there was a sufficient dento-alveolar adaptation to growth changes in the saggittal jaw relation ship to attain normal class I type of occlusion. This compensation is pronounced in angular parameters and clustered in the lower arches particularly in incisal area.
  7 7,998 465
CASE REPORTS
Odontoameloblastoma: Report of two cases
Rodrigo C Mosca, Marcia M Marques, Sandra C Barbosa, Marcelo Marcucci, Jefferson X Oliveira, Cesar A Lascala
April-June 2009, 20(2):230-234
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52890  PMID:19553728
Odontoameloblastoma (OA) is a very rare mixed odontogenic neoplasm, characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of an ameloblastoma and a compound or complex odontoma in the same tumor mass. To date, less than 50 cases of OA and/or ameloblastic odontoma have been reported in the English dental literature. This neoplasm was called ameloblastic odontoma. The term OA was included in the 1971 WHO classification. In this study, we present two cases of OA, which we hope will contribute to the awareness and knowledge of surgeons regarding the existence of this odontogenic tumor so that patients having it may be treated and followed-up properly.
  5 6,067 693
LETTERS TO EDITOR
How useful is journal impact factor?
Amit Chattopadhyay
April-June 2009, 20(2):246-248
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52878  PMID:19553733
  5 5,218 598
Use of Ayurveda in promoting dental health and preventing dental caries
Shirley Telles, KV Naveen, Acharya Balkrishna
April-June 2009, 20(2):246-246
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52877  PMID:19553734
  4 5,998 844
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Porphyromonas gingivalis decreases osteoblast proliferation through IL-6-RANKL/OPG and MMP-9/TIMPs pathways
Xuan Khanh Le, Claude Laflamme, Mahmoud Rouabhia
April-June 2009, 20(2):141-149
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52884  PMID:19553712
Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important periodontal pathogen, is closely associated with inflammatory alveolar bone resorption. This bacterium exerts its pathogenic effect indirectly through multiple virulence factors, such as lipopolysaccharides, fimbriae, and proteases. Another possible pathogenic path may be through a direct interaction with the host's soft and hard tissues (e.g., alveolar bone), which could lead to periodontitis. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the direct effect of live and heat-inactivated P gingivalis on bone resorption, using an in vitro osteoblast culture model. Results: Optical microscopy and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide MTT assay revealed that live P gingivalis induced osteoblast detachment and reduced their proliferation. This effect was specific to live bacteria and was dependent on their concentration. Live P gingivalis increased IL-6 mRNA expression and protein production and downregulated RANKL and OPG mRNA expression. The effect of live P gingivalis on bone resorption was strengthened by an increase in MMP-9 expression and its activity. This increase was accompanied by an increase in TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA expression and protein production by osteoblasts infected with live P gingivalis. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that direct contact of P gingivalis with osteoblasts induces bone resorption through an inflammatory pathway that involves IL-6, RANKL/OPG, and MMP-9/TIMPs.
  4 5,410 1,221
REVIEW ARTICLES
Tissue engineering and its implications in dentistry
Parimala Tyagi, Manpreet Kaur Dhindsa
April-June 2009, 20(2):222-226
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52895  PMID:19553726
Tissue engineering is a novel and highly exciting field of research. With tissue engineering techniques it may be possible to repair damaged tissues or even create replacement organs. This article reviews the principles underlying key tissue engineering strategies and the typical components used. Examples of tissue engineering include passive approaches, such as dental implants, and inductive approaches, in which specific molecular signals are used to activate cells.
  4 8,709 1,325
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis and their roles in systematic diseases: True or false?
Ali M Tavana
April-June 2009, 20(2):248-248
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52880  PMID:19553735
  3 4,415 355
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Helicobacter pylori coinfection is a confounder, modulating mucosal inflammation in oral submucous fibrosis
R Rajendran, R Rajeev, S Anil, Mohammed Alasqah, Abdul Gafoor Rabi
April-June 2009, 20(2):206-211
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52898  PMID:19553724
The oral cavity has been considered a potential reservoir for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) , from where the organism causes recurrent gastric infections. Aim: With this case-control study we tried to evaluate the role of H pylori in the etiology of mucosal inflammation, a condition that compounds the morbid state associated with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Materials and Methods : Subjects ( n = 150) were selected following institutional regulations on sample collection and grouped into test cases and positive and negative controls based on the presence of mucosal fibrosis and inflammation. The negative controls had none of the clinical signs. All patients underwent an oral examination as well as tests to assess oral hygiene/periodontal disease status; a rapid urease test (RUT) of plaque samples was also done to estimate the H pylori bacterial load. We used univariate and mutivariate logistic regression for statistical analysis of the data and calculated the odds ratios to assess the risk posed by the different variables. Results : The RUT results differed significantly between the groups, reflecting the variations in the bacterial loads in each category. The test was positive in 52% in the positive controls (where nonspecific inflammation of oral mucosa was seen unassociated with fibrosis), in 46% of the test cases, and in 18% of the negative controls (healthy volunteers) (χ2 = 13.887; P < 0.01). A positive correlation was seen between the oral hygiene/periodontal disease indices and RUT reactivity in all the three groups. Conclusions: The contribution of the H pylori in dental plaque to mucosal inflammation and periodontal disease was significant. Logistic regression analysis showed gastrointestinal disease and poor oral hygiene as being the greatest risk factors for bacterial colonization, irrespective of the subject groups. A positive correlation exists between RUT reactivity and the frequency of mucosal inflammation.
  3 5,027 639
Tensile bond strength of composite luting cements to metal alloys after various surface treatments
Saip Denizoglu, Cem S Hanyaloglu, Bunyamin Aksakal
April-June 2009, 20(2):174-179
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52896  PMID:19553718
Aims: To evaluate the effects of two different surface treatments and bonding agents on tensile bond strength between a Co-Cr and a Ni-Cr cast alloy and two resin-luting cements. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty alloy samples were cast and subjected to surface treatments such as sandblasting, chemical etching, and sandblasting plus chemical etching. Panavia F and CandB cement were used as cementing mediums. The etching qualities were examined by a stereooptic microscope. Failure surfaces were examined throughout scanning electron microscopy. The data were evaluated using statistical methods, namely analysis of variance and multiple comparison test (Tukey HSD). Results: Significant differences were found in the bonding provided by the various cements (P < 0.001) and also type of surface treatments (P < 0.001). For all groups, sandblasted surfaces showed the highest bond strength values. There was no significant difference between the Cr-Co and the Cr-Ni alloys (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Panavia F showed higher tensile strength and the sandblasted samples possessed higher tensile strength.
  3 4,909 468
The knowledge and attitude of general dentists toward denture adhesives in Tehran
Hamidreza Fakhri, Amir Fayaz, Farhad Faramarzi, Homan H Javaheri
April-June 2009, 20(2):164-168
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52892  PMID:19553716
Background: The purpose of this study was to generate discussion and communication among a group of general dentists in Tehran on their viewpoints regarding denture adhesives. Have they accepted denture adhesive as a material to enhance denture retention, stability and function? Materials and Methods: In the summer of 2007, a questionnaire was mailed to 300 general dentists who were assigned with a random systematic sampling method from general dentists in Tehran. The questions were arranged in two parts of evaluating knowledge and attitude. In evaluation of knowledge, dentists were classified into groups of good, moderate, weak and lack of knowledge. In evaluation of attitude, dentists were classified into positive, moderate and negative groups. (Evaluating attitude was carried out in good and moderate groups of knowledge.) Results: The study showed that 14%, 32% and 37% of the general dentists had respectively good, moderate and weak knowledge toward denture adhesive while 16.3% had no knowledge about this material. In evaluation of attitude through dentists with positive and moderate knowledge toward denture adhesive, 9.3%, 71.3% and 19.4% had respectively positive, moderate and negative attitude toward denture adhesive. The χ2 test showed a significant statistical relation between situation of knowledge and experiences of dentists. Discussion: This study demonstrated that the rate of knowledge of these 300 general dentists in Tehran towards denture adhesives has not been in a good situation. It is believed that denture adhesive be able to enhance the fitness of a denture and provide psychological relief to the patient. Dentists agreed that education, not only for practitioners but also for patients, would raise the advantageous features and reduce the misuse of denture adhesive. Education of the topic "Denture adhesive" should be more concerned in dental universities.
  3 4,695 366
CASE REPORTS
Three root canals in the maxillary second premolar
Fabio de Almeida-Gomes, Bruno Carvalho de Sousa, Fabricio Dias de Souza, Roberto Alves dos Santos, Claudio Maniglia-Ferreira
April-June 2009, 20(2):241-242
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52885  PMID:19553731
In this study, we report an endodontic treatment of the maxillary second premolar with three root canals and distinct foramens. The possibility of three root canals in this tooth is quite small; however, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. Many times, their presence is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort.
  1 5,642 610
GUEST EDITORIAL
Vision and challenges for dental research worker
M Rahmatulla
April-June 2009, 20(2):135-135
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52879  PMID:19553710
  1 3,359 1,201
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Open questions on carcinogenesis of oral cancer: Interaction between the environmental and genetic aspects
Dennis de Carvalho Ferreira, Jose Alexandre da Rocha Curvelo, Mauro Romero Leal Passos
April-June 2009, 20(2):249-249
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52882  PMID:19553736
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
The influence of water temperature during toothbrushing on root dentine: An in vitro study
Tais Scaramucci, Marcia M Marques, D Soares-Geraldo, SRM Braga, Maria Angela Pita Sobral
April-June 2009, 20(2):185-189
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52899  PMID:19553720
Background/Aims: The use of cold water during toothbrushing can cause dentine sensitivity and, to avoid this painful stimulus, some patients used to rinse their mouths with warm water when brushing. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of water temperature on the dental root surface during toothbrushing. Materials and Methods : Fragments of bovine dental roots were submitted to 15,000 strokes in a toothbrushing machine using a slurry of toothpaste/water, medium brushes, and a 200-g load. They were randomly divided into two groups: toothbrushing with cold water or with hot water. Tooth wear was measured by loss of weight and by tissue height. Statistical Analysis: The weight and height data obtained in 17 and 10 replicas respectively are presented as mean standard error of mean. The data were compared using the Kolgomorov-Smirnof (Lilliefors) test followed by one-way ANOVA. The level of significance was 5% (P < 0.05). Results: There were no significant differences between the two experimental groups. The mean percentages of weight losses were 5.61 1.66 for cold water and 6.25 1.98 for hot water. The mean dentine height losses were 51.02 15.92 m for cold water and 63.54 17.75 m for hot water. Conclusion: The use of warm water during toothbrushing promoted root dentine wear similar to that produced by the use of cold water. The results suggest that warm or cold water may be used during toothbrushing without any additional damage to the patients' dental hard tissues.
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