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   2008| April-June  | Volume 19 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 29, 2008

 
 
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Estimation of nicotine content in popular Indian brands of smoking and chewing tobacco products
Sujatha S Reddy, KH Shaik Hyder Ali
April-June 2008, 19(2):88-91
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40458  PMID:18445921
Objectives: To estimate the nicotine content of some popular Indian brands of smoking tobacco (cigarettes and bidis) and pan masalas (chewable tobacco). Materials and Methods: Commercially available cigarettes, bidis, and pan masalas (chewable tobacco) were obtained from local retail outlets for the study. Nicotine was estimated using gas-liquid chromatography. Results: The analyses showed relatively higher levels of nicotine in tobacco from bidis (26.9 mg gm) as compared to cigarettes(15 mg/gm); the difference is stastically significant ( P < 0.001). The nicotine concentration of tobacco from filtered cigarettes averaged 14.5 mg/gm whereas unfiltered cigarettes averaged 15.6 mg/gm; the difference was not stastically significant ( P > 0.01). Nicotine concentration in chewing tobacco was 3.4 mg/gm. Conclusion: The study concludes that the nicotine content of Indian brands of smoking tobacco was slightly high compared to other international brands. Higher concentration of nicotine was found in bidis compared to cigarettes. The nicotine content in commercially available chewing tobacco products was found to be much lower than in the smoking form of tobacco, but the average daily consumption made it comparable to the smoking form.
  122,404 2,612 18
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Oil pulling therapy
Sharath Asokan
April-June 2008, 19(2):169-169
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40476  PMID:18445939
  45,573 1,203 13
Research as a career choice for Indian dentists
Satheesh Elangovan
April-June 2008, 19(2):170-171
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40477  PMID:18445940
  33,614 1,272 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients visiting a dental school in Southern India
Anuna Laila Mathew, Keerthilatha M Pai, Amar A Sholapurkar, Manoj Vengal
April-June 2008, 19(2):99-103
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40461  PMID:18445924
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Manipal, Karnataka State, India. A total of 1190 subjects who visited the department of oral medicine and radiology for diagnosis of various oral complaints over a period of 3 months were interviewed and clinically examined for oral mucosal lesions. The result showed the presence of one or more mucosal lesions in (41.2%) of the population. Fordyce's condition was observed most frequently (6.55%) followed by frictional keratosis (5.79%), fissured tongue (5.71%), leukoedema (3.78%), smoker's palate (2.77%), recurrent aphthae, oral submucous fibrosis (2.01%), oral malignancies (1.76%), leukoplakia (1.59%), median rhomboid glossitis (1.50%), candidiasis (1.3%), lichen planus (1.20%), varices (1.17%), traumatic ulcer and oral hairy leukoplakia (1.008%), denture stomatitis, geographic tongue, betel chewer's mucosa and irritational fibroma (0.84%), herpes labialis, angular cheilitis (0.58%), and mucocele (0.16%). Mucosal lesions like tobacco-related lesions (leukoplakia, smoker's palate, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral malignancies) were more prevalent among men than among women. Denture stomatitis, herpes labialis, and angular cheilitis occurred more frequently in the female population.
  17,397 2,145 67
Prevalence of dental caries among adults and elderly in an urban resettlement colony of New Delhi
Binod Kumar Patro, B Ravi Kumar, Anil Goswami, Vijay Prakash Mathur, Baridalyne Nongkynrih
April-June 2008, 19(2):95-98
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40460  PMID:18445923
Background: Dental caries remains the most important dental health problem in developing countries. In India the prevalence of dental caries is reported to be about 50-60%. Most of the Indian studies have been carried out in school children and very few in adults. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dental caries in the adult population (aged 35-44 years) and in the elderly (60 years and above) in an urban resettlement colony in New Delhi. Methodology: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Dakshinpuri, New Delhi, from January to February 2007. A local adaptation of the WHO questionnaire was used. Oral examination was done and dentition status was recorded by trained investigators and according to the standard procedures. Results: A total of 452 participants were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of dental caries in the 35-44 years age-group was 82.4% and it was 91.9% in those ≥60 years. The DMF index was 5.7 4.7 in the 35-44 years age-group and 13.8 9.6 in the ≥60 years age-group. Of the participants, 27.9% were currently using tobacco. A statistically significant association was found between tobacco consumption and dental caries ( P = 0.026). The awareness about good and bad dental practices was found to be low among the study participants. One-fifth of the individuals with dental problems relied on home remedies. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among adults is high in this population. There is a need to generate awareness about oral health and the prevention of dental caries and to institute measures for the provision of dental care services at the primary level.
  15,175 1,455 18
Stature estimation using odontometry and skull anthropometry
Shalini Kalia, Shwetha K Shetty, Karthikeya Patil, VG Mahima
April-June 2008, 19(2):150-154
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40471  PMID:18445934
Objective: To investigate the possibility of estimating height from odontometry and anthropometric data of the skull for the positive identification of height in forensic investigations concerned with fragmentary human remains. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 100 Mysorean patients, 50 males, and 50 females. Measurements of mesiodistal widths of the six maxillary anterior teeth, circumference of the skull, and height were made directly on each patient. Anteroposterior diameter of the skull was obtained on the lateral cephalograph. The data collected were subjected to statistical methods. The known heights of the combined data, data for males, and females were regressed against the odontometric and anthropometric variables using linear regression analysis. Results: Significant sexual dimorphism was observed for the parameters studied ( P < 0.05). Highly significant correlation was found between height and other parameters when combined data and data for males were regressed. The equation relating height to the combined mesiodistal width of maxillary anterior teeth was derived as height = 982.421 + 13.65 x combined mesiodistal width of maxillary anterior teeth ( P < 0.0001). Similarly equations were obtained by regressing height to head circumference and skull diameter ( P < 0.0001 for both). The above findings may hence provide reliable method of estimation of height from skeletal remains in the forensic setup.
  11,926 1,205 31
Subepithelial connective tissue grafts for the coverage of denuded root surfaces: A clinical report
RS Ahathya, D Deepalakshmi, T Ramakrishnan, N Ambalavanan, Pamela Emmadi
April-June 2008, 19(2):134-140
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40468  PMID:18445931
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of subepithelial connective tissue grafts (SCTG) in the coverage of denuded roots. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 sites with ≥2 mm of recession height were included in the study for treatment with SCTG. The clinical parameters, such as recession height, recession width, width of keratinized gingiva, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were measured at the baseline, third month, and at the end of the study [sixth month]. The defects were treated with a coronally positioned pedicle graft combined with connective tissue graft. Results: Out of 16 sites treated with SCTG, 11 sites showed complete (100%) root coverage; the mean root coverage obtained was 87.5%. There was a statistically significant reduction in recession height, recession width, and probing pocket depth. There was also a statistically significant increase in the width of keratinized gingiva and also a gain in clinical attachment level. The postoperative results were both clinically and statistically significant ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: From this study, it may be concluded that SCTG is a safe and effective method for the coverage of denuded roots.
  9,923 994 1
CASE REPORTS
Molluscum contagiosum in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients
Mayur Chaudhary, Meena Kulkarni
April-June 2008, 19(2):155-159
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40472  PMID:18445935
Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a cutaneous lesion caused by a DNA virus from the poxvirus family. Worldwide in distribution, MC is most frequently encountered as an easily treated disease of childhood and has rarely been a cause of serious morbidity. With the advent of new populations of immunocompromised individuals, especially those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), MC has emerged as a difficult clinical challenge and the focus of renewed interest for dental professionals. This article presents four cases of HIV positive patients afflicted by MC along with a review of the literature on this dermatopathological lesion.
  9,008 462 8
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Evaluation of microtensile bond strength of total-etch, self-etch, and glass ionomer adhesive to human dentin: An in vitro study
Lakshmi Neelima, Emmanuel S Sathish, Deivanayagam Kandaswamy, Bupesh
April-June 2008, 19(2):129-133
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40467  PMID:18445930
Aim: To evaluate the microtensile bond strength of Single Bond, AdheSE, and Fuji Bond LC to human dentin. Fifteen non-carious third molars were selected for the study. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups of five teeth each. Each group was given a different bonding treatment. Group I was treated with Single Bond (3M, ESPE), group II with AdheSE (Ivoclar, Vivadent), and group III was treated with Fuji Bond LC (GC America). A T-band metal matrix was placed and composite resin bonded on to the tooth surface using appropriate bonding agents. The composite resin was packed in increments and light cured. Each tooth was sectioned to obtain 1 mm 1 mm beams of dentin-resin samples. Tensile bond testing was done using a universal testing machine (Instron) at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Results: The mean bond strength of Single Bond (35.5 MPa) was significantly higher than that of AdheSE (32.8 MPa) and Fuji Bond LC (32.6 MPa). The difference between the microtensile bond strength values of AdheSE and Fuji Bond LC was statistically insignificant. Inference: Though the bond strength of AdheSE and Fuji Bond LC was above 30 MPa, it was less than that of Single Bond as evaluated by testing of microtensile bond strength.
  8,017 869 24
Knowledge and attitudes of pharmacists regarding oral health care and oral hygiene products in Chennai city
Shanmuga Priya, PD Madan Kumar, S Ramachandran
April-June 2008, 19(2):104-108
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40462  PMID:18445925
Objectives : This study was done to find out the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacists regarding oral health care and oral hygiene products in Chennai city. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional survey among a sample of the pharmacists in Chennai city was done and data regarding their knowledge and attitudes towards oral health care and oral hygiene products were obtained using a closed-ended questionnaire. Results: Among the 60 pharmacies approached, 50 pharmacists participated in the study and completed the questionnaire. Though 48% of the participants gave a positive answer when asked whether they had met the dentist practicing close to their pharmacies, the frequency with which they met the dentist ranged from once a week (24%) to once a month (28%). Most of the pharmacists stocked oral health-related products, which comprised 15-25% of their total stock. Of these products toothpaste was the most common (62%), followed by mouth rinses (12%). Toothache or painful teeth was the most common dental problem (78%) for which patients approached the pharmacists for advice. With regard to the advice given, 38.5% of the pharmacists asked the patient to consult a nearby dentist after dispensing medications, while 22.4% of the pharmacists dispensed antibiotics and painkillers without any referral. Seventy percent of the pharmacists expressed interest in giving oral health care advice to patients. However, many of them (38%) felt that lack of proper knowledge is a barrier to providing oral health care advice. Conclusion : It is clear from the present study that pharmacists are presently an underutilized resource, and there is a definitive need to improve their training and access to information on available dental services.
  8,237 580 20
Study of the patterns of periodontal destruction in smokers with chronic periodontitis
Sukumaran Anil
April-June 2008, 19(2):124-128
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40466  PMID:18445929
Cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for periodontitis and carries an increased risk for loss of periodontal attachment as well as for bone loss. Aims: The purpose of the study was to investigate the pattern of the intraoral distribution of periodontal destruction among cigarette smokers with periodontitis by assessing the periodontal probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Materials and Methods: Thirty smokers with chronic periodontitis were enrolled in the study. PPD, CAL, plaque index (PI), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were measured. The data was pooled for the anterior sextant and the posterior sextant as well as for the facial and lingual surfaces. The degree of periodontal destruction was compared in these sextants. Statistical Analysis: Comparisons were made between maxillary anterior, maxillary posterior, mandibular anterior, and mandibular posterior using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. When the overall ANOVA showed statistical significance, post hoc testing (Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons test) was performed to explore the differences between any two groups. P -values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: The maxillary anterior sextant showed significantly higher PPD and CAL loss than the other sextants. Similarly, the maxillary palatal area showed higher probing depth and clinical attachment loss than the facial sites and the mandibular regions. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded that there is variation in the periodontal tissue destruction in different areas of the oral cavity, with the maximum periodontal destruction in the maxillary palatal region. These observations emphasize the deleterious effects of smoking on the periodontal tissues.
  7,158 978 13
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Dental age estimation using amino acid racemization
K Kiran Kumar
April-June 2008, 19(2):172-174
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40478  PMID:18445941
  6,947 822 6
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Evaluation of the pulp chamber size of human maxillary first molars: An institution based in vitro study
Natanasabapathy Velmurugan, Nagendrababu Venkateshbabu, Mohan Abarajithan, Deivanayagam Kandaswamy
April-June 2008, 19(2):92-94
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40459  PMID:18445922
The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the morphological measurements of the pulp chamber and also to establish the relationship of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) to the roof of the pulp chamber of the maxillary first molars in an Indian population. One hundred extracted human maxillary first molars were used. Each molar tooth was radiographed by radio visiography (RVG). Measurements were made by using the grid option in RVG. The results (mean SD; in mm) were as follows: distance from floor of the pulp chamber to the furcation = 2.7 0.63; distance from roof of the pulp chamber to the furcation = 5.34 0.9; distance from tip of the palatal cusp to the furcation = 11.58 1.01; distance from the tip of the palatal cusp to the floor of the pulp chamber = 8.86 0.68; distance from the tip of the palatal cusp to the roof of the pulp chamber = 6.2 0.66; height of the pulp chamber = 2.62 0.61. The results of these measurements revealed that the morphological measurements of the maxillary first molars in the Indian population were similar to that reported by previous studies; the roof of the pulp chamber was found at the CEJ in 96% of the specimens.
  6,685 781 4
Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions in inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral lesions: A quantitative and qualitative assessment
T Elangovan, NJ Mani, N Malathi
April-June 2008, 19(2):141-146
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40469  PMID:18445932
Background and Objective: Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) have found widespread application in the past, especially in tumor histopathology. This study was undertaken to evaluate the significance of various AgNOR parameters and to assess their role in differentiating hyperplastic, premalignant, and malignant lesions. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of archival biopsy specimens of ten squamous cell carcinomas, ten premalignant lesions, and five inflammatory lesions. Two biopsies from normal mucosa acted as control. AgNORs were assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The data were analyzed using Student's independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multiple range test (Tukey-HSD). Results: Quantitatively significant difference existed in the number of AgNORs between the normal mucosa, inflammatory lesions, and carcinomas, but the premalignant lesions failed to differ significantly from the normal mucosa. The number of AgNORs was found to be related to epithelial proliferation. Qualitatively, in terms of size, shape, and pattern of distribution, the normal mucosa and inflammatory lesion were alike, but the premalignant and malignant lesions differed significantly from the normal, with a marked degree of AgNOR pleomorphism being observed in carcinomas. Conclusions: AgNOR quantity is strictly proportional to the proliferative activity of the cell and does not necessarily indicate malignancy. It is the qualitative characteristics of AgNOR that help to differentiate hyperplastic, premalignant, and malignant lesions.
  6,098 937 37
The antimicrobial and antifungal efficacy of tetracycline-integrated gutta-percha
Emre Bodrumlu, Tayfun Alacam, Mustafa Semiz
April-June 2008, 19(2):112-115
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40464  PMID:18445927
The purpose of this study was in vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial and antifungal efficacy of commercially available gutta-percha containing tetracycline on some potential endodontic pathogens. The test microorganisms were Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Candida albicans . Tetracycline-integrated gutta-percha (TGP) cones, tetracycline disc, and conventional gutta-percha cones of the same size were placed on the inoculated plates. The plates were incubated at 37C aerobically or anaerobically. Growth inhibition zones on each plate were inspected at 24, 48, and 72 h. Tetracycline disc and TGP cones inhibited all the tested bacterial strains, however the greatest antimicrobial effect was seen on S. aureus. Tetracycline disc and TGP seemed less effective on E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa. However, all tested treatments were unable to affect C. albicans . Based on the results of this study, it seems that TGP offers an antimicrobial advantage over conventional gutta-percha.
  5,926 706 6
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Geriatric dentistry: Is rethinking still required to begin undergraduate education?
Manjit Talwar, Harpinder Singh Chawla
April-June 2008, 19(2):175-177
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40479  PMID:18445942
  5,993 625 14
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Evaluation of the regenerative potential of 25% doxycycline-loaded biodegradable membrane vs biodegradable membrane alone in the treatment of human periodontal infrabony defects: A clinical and radiological study
Rashi Chaturvedi, Amarjit Singh Gill, Poonam Sikri
April-June 2008, 19(2):116-123
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40465  PMID:18445928
Background: Microbial colonization of the barrier membranes used for guided tissue regeneration is inevitable and can lead to delayed healing. Aims: Antimicrobial coating of the membrane with 25% doxycycline paste has been attempted to prevent infection and achieve enhanced regeneration in periodontal infrabony defects. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients with 2-walled or 3-walled infrabony defects were selected and randomly divided into two equal groups. Infrabony defects of group A were treated with a biodegradable membrane coated with 25% doxycycline while those of group B were treated with membrane alone. Clinical assessment of probing depth and attachment level and radiographic evaluation of the defect depth was done preoperatively and at 12 and 24 weeks postoperatively. Statistical Analysis: The relative efficacy of the two treatment modalities were evaluated using the paired Student's t- test and the comparative evaluation between the two groups was done using the independent Student's t -test. Results: Both the groups exhibited a highly significant reduction in probing depth and gain in clinical attachment level and linear bone fill at the end of 24 weeks. Comparative evaluation between the two study groups revealed a significant reduction in probing depth ( P = 0.016 * ) and linear bone fill ( P = 0.02 * ) in group A as compared to group B. Mean gain in attachment level was greater for group A than for group B but the difference was statistically nonsignificant ( P = 0.065 NS ). Conclusions: The results suggest that doxycycline is beneficial in reducing membrane-associated infection and can potentiate regeneration through host modulation.
  5,679 687 21
CASE REPORTS
Dynamic commissural splint
Chandrasekharan K Nair, G Sivagami, Ashish T Kunnekel, Munirathnam E Naidu
April-June 2008, 19(2):165-168
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40475  PMID:18445938
Microstomia, an abnormally small oral orifice, can manifest as a sequela of burns involoving the oral and perioral tissues due to contraction of the tissues and hypotonia of the circumoral musculature. Regardless of the etiology, scar contracture results in deformities that produce esthetic and functional impairment. Changes in the circumoral anatomy prevent optimal dental care and maintenance of good oral hygeine. The anatomic changes may detrimentally alter eating, speech, and mandibular motion. Prosthetic treatment involves providing physical resistance to scar contracture by maintaining the oral commisssures in their normal relationship by means of a splint. This article describes a method to fabricate a dynamic commissural splint and decribes its use in two cases.
  4,719 505 11
A massive ameloblastic fibro-odontoma of the maxilla
Veda Hegde, S Hemavathy
April-June 2008, 19(2):162-164
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40474  PMID:18445937
Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma is a rare, benign mixed odontogenic tumor. It occurs exclusively as an intraosseous lesion. It usually has a slow growth and is seen in children and young adults. A painless swelling is the most common clinical sign. Radiographically, ameloblastic fibro-odontoma appears as a circumscribed radiolucency which may contain radiopaque foci. Most cases of ameloblastic fibro-odontoma exhibit benign behavior, but cases of malignant transformation have been reported. The treatment modality in most cases involves conservative surgery, but cases with malignant transformation will require more radical treatment. A massive ameloblastic fibro-odontoma involving the maxilla has been described here with its clinical, radiological, and histopathological features.
  4,504 601 17
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Maxillofacial intervention in trauma patients aged 60 years and older
K Subhashraj, C Ravindran
April-June 2008, 19(2):109-111
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40463  PMID:18445926
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of trauma victims of age 60 years and older who required maxillofacial intervention. The study analyses the pattern of injuries and the various factors that predict the treatment plan of these patients. A retrospective study was carried out in 1820 trauma patients who reported to the Sri. Ramachandra Dental College and Hospital and required maxillofacial intervention, over a period of 5 years (October 2000 and September 2005). Of the total trauma victims, 185 patients were found to be aged 60 years more. In the majority of the patients, the injury was due to road traffic accidents (79.4%). Males (72.4%) sustained more injuries than females (27.6%). Soft tissue injuries were seen in 49.1% of the patients, while 14% had mandibular fractures. People in their early 60s were injured more often than their older counterparts. The findings of this study highlight the present situation with regard to maxillofacial trauma in patients aged 60 years and older and its management in this part of the country.
  4,125 458 8
CASE REPORTS
Glass embedded in labial mucosa for 20 years
KN Sumanth, Karen Boaz, Naresh Y Shetty
April-June 2008, 19(2):160-161
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40473  PMID:18445936
Foreign bodies may be deposited in the oral cavity either by traumatic injury or iatrogenically. Among the commonly encountered iatrogenic foreign bodies are restorative materials like amalgam, obturation materials, broken instruments, needles, etc. Few reports of glass pieces embedded in the soft tissues of the mouth have been published. We report a case where glass pieces had been lodged in the lower labial mucosa for 20 years, with consequent peripheral reactive bone formation.
  3,911 346 4
EDITORIAL
Scientific writing: The Indian scenario
B Sivapathasundharam
April-June 2008, 19(2):87-87
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40457  PMID:18445920
  3,546 581 1
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Heat radiation vs air drying to remove interfacial water from self-etch adhesives
Irene Elza Mathews, G Arathi, S Balagopal
April-June 2008, 19(2):147-149
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40470  PMID:18445933
The clinician's quest for time-saving and technique-insensitive technology has led to the development of simplified self-etch adhesives that are predominantly water or solvent based. Several studies have shown that conventional air-drying procedures are incapable of eliminating all the residual water in the adhesive and that it may even cause collapse of the underlying collagen matrix. We hypothesized that heat from a light source may be effective in removing water from these adhesives. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effectiveness of heat vs conventional air drying in eliminating water droplets from self-etch adhesive. A self-etch adhesive was applied to bur-cut dentin surfaces, which were then allotted to one of two treatment procedures for eliminating residual water from the adhesive: conventional air drying or the experimental heat application. Specimens were then prepared and analyzed using SEM. Specimens in the experimental group showed no evidence of water treeing within the adhesive layer. Thus, it was concluded that heat radiation was an effective method to remove residual water from simplified adhesives.
  2,634 265 2
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