| Abstract|| |
Background: The most crucial evidence that is left behind at the crime scenarios that might narrow down the suspect pool are lip prints and fingerprints. These are undoubtedly the most reliable and valuable evidence till date in the court of law. One more biological record that remains unchanged throughout the lifespan of a person is the blood group. Aim and Objectives: To study, correlate and compare cheiloscopy and dactyloscopy with blood group among dental students in the Western Maharashtra population. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 dental students with age groups ranging between 18–25 years were included in the study. Lip print pattern, fingerprint pattern and ABO blood groups were collected and compared. SPSS version 20.0 was used to analyse the data. Results: There was a statistically significant correlation between lip prints and ABO – Rh (χ2 37.56, P < 0.05) as well as between fingerprints and ABO-Rh blood groups (χ2 30.6, P < 0.05).Conclusion: Hence, this study concluded that fingerprints–ABO blood group and lip prints–ABO blood groups are valuable evidence that can be relied upon in forensic investigations for the identification of the suspect in crime.
Keywords: ABO Blood groups, ABO blood group system, blood group antigens, cheiloscopy, dactyloscopy, finger print patterns, forensic odontology, lip print patterns, personnel identification, Rh factor
|How to cite this article:|
Sisodia M, Bommanavar S, Baad R, Vibhute N, Belgaumi U, Kadashetti V. Correlation and comparison of dactyloscopy and palatoscopy with blood groups – An institutional study. Indian J Dent Res 2020;31:728-33
|How to cite this URL:|
Sisodia M, Bommanavar S, Baad R, Vibhute N, Belgaumi U, Kadashetti V. Correlation and comparison of dactyloscopy and palatoscopy with blood groups – An institutional study. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 28];31:728-33. Available from: https://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2020/31/5/728/306448
| Introduction|| |
Proper identification in forensic odontology is required for ethical, humanitarian and official records, in particular, the legal and criminal investigations. There is ever-increasing demand placed upon law enforcement to provide sufficient physical evidence linking a perpetrator to crime. Fingerprints and lip prints remain constant and are permanent individualistic unique characteristics that are impressively detailed and not easily altered, thus serving as a life long markers in one's identity., On the other hand, one more biological record that remains unchanged throughout the lifetime of a person is the blood group.
Being unique, fingerprints are epidermal ridges that are differentiated into their derivative forms during the 3rd or 4th month of foetal life. In the same manner, lip prints with its grooves and furrows present on the vermilion are commonly left out evidence in any crime scenarios. The study of these lip prints and fingerprints is called as chieloscopy and dactlyloscopy, respectively. Studies of the association between lip prints, fingerprints and blood groups are scant in literature. Reference data including various parameters like lip print and fingerprint are of paramount importance in solving forensic cases. Hence, the present study is aimed to correlate and compare chieloscopy and dactlyoscopy with blood groups so as to serve as an aid in forensic identification.
| Materials and Methods|| |
A cross-sectional analytical study design was planned during the period of March 2016– August 2016 among 200 dental students of age group 18–25 years from the Western Maharashtra population, India. The inclusion criteria were subjects who are free from any trauma or lesions on fingers as well as any cuts or injuries on the lips. The exclusion criteria are subjects with deformities on lips and fingers and allergy to the ink pad. Before executing the study, the permission from the institutional ethical committee was obtained (Ref No. KIMSDU/IEC/03/2015 dated 10/12/2015). Ethical considerations were fulfilled by obtaining written informed consent of all the participants who fit in the study inclusion criteria. Informed written consent was taken from all the participants. No threat or pressure was imposed on the participants who denied participation in the study. The confidentiality of all the participants was maintained. A simple random method of sampling and lottery method of blinding of participants was employed to avoid selection and performance bias.
For lip prints
The labial mucosa was cleaned first. Lipstick was applied to the lips of the participants. The lip print of the participants was recorded on A4 sheets (Royal Executive Bond, 85 gsm, premium white) and visualized using the magnifying glass (TAG 3TM, 50 mm double reading glass optical graded lens with 5 × and 10 × magnifying capacity) as shown in [Figure 1]. The lip print was studied according to the classification given by Suzuki and Tsuchihashi. Klein's zone was considered for recording the lip prints.
The subject was asked to place his right thumb over the stamp pad (Camlin Company of size 157 × 96 mm) and the fingerprint were recorded on the A4 sheet (Royal Executive Bond, 85 gsm, premium white) and visualized using the magnifying glass (TAG 3TM, 50 mm double reading glass optical graded lens with 5 × and 10 × magnifying capacity) as shown in [Figure 2]a. Since the print was not appreciable on the first impression, we could realize that the second press on the same sheet obtained better appreciable prints without immersing the thumb on the ink pad, hence the second print was used for final interpretation as shown in [Figure 2]b. Immediately after recording, the fingerprints were interpreted based on Michael and Kucken's fingerprint classification. Individuals with known blood groups were noted and those who were not aware of the blood group were subjected to standard ABO blood grouping method as given by Karl Landsteiner.
|Figure 2: (a)- llustrates fingerprint pattern with the first second impression of the thumb. (b)- llustrates fingerprint pattern with the second impression of the same thumb|
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| Results|| |
A total of 200 students with a known blood group participated in the study of which 150 (75%) were females and 50 (25%) were males. All the students were from the age group ranging from 18–25 years. In the present study, the predominant ABO blood group in the population is group B (42%), followed by group O (25%), group A (24%) and then group AB (9%) whereas the predominant ABO-Rh blood group was B+ (78%), O+ (52%), A+ (46%), AB+ (16%), O- (2%), A- (2%), B- (2%) and AB- (2%).
Percentage distributions of the most prevalent lip print patterns
According to the general distribution of lip prints, most commonly occurring lip prints within the participants were vertical (37%) followed by intersecting (22%), branched (21.5%), reticular (23%) and undetermined (8%).
Percentage distribution of the most prevalent lip print patterns in the respective blood group
Most of the participants belonged to blood group B followed by O, A and AB. Within the respective blood group, the intersecting pattern showed a slightly higher prevalence in A blood group (25.0%) followed by reticular (23.9%), vertical (23.9%) and least was seen in undetermined (12.5%). The participants with O blood group showed a vertical pattern (38.9%) followed by intersecting (22.2%), branched (16.7%) and undetermined (9.3%). In case of AB blood group, the vertical pattern showed the highest percentage (44.4%) and least was undetermined (0%), whereas B blood group being the most common within the participants showed vertical pattern (42.5%), followed by branched (25%) and reticular type (5%) [Figure 3] (χ2 = 18.84, P > 0.05).
Percentage distribution of lip prints within rhesus blood groups
The vertical pattern (35.4%) is the most predominant in rh+ve individuals followed by intersecting (22.9%) and with the least occurrence seen in undetermined type (8.3%). While only 8 out of 200 participants were rh-ve of which 75% was the vertical pattern followed by branched pattern (25%) [Figure 4] (χ2 = 6.758, P > 0.05).
Percentage distribution of the most prevalent lip print patterns within ABO - rhesus blood group
B +ve being the most predominant blood group in the study showed the highest percentage of the vertical pattern (41%). B –ve individuals also showed a higher percentage of the vertical pattern (100%) followed by O +ve & O-ve (36.5%). AB +ve and AB-ve also showed highest percentage of vertical pattern 37.5% and 100% respectively. Only A -ve showed the highest percentage of the branched pattern (100%) as shown in [Table 1]. Thus, there was a statistically significant difference reported in lip pattern according to ABO rhesus blood group (χ2 = 37.56, P value < 0.05)
Percentage distributions of the most prevalent fingerprint patterns
The most commonly occurring fingerprints within the participants are the loops (62.5%) followed by whorl pattern (29%) and the least occurring pattern is of the arch type (8.5%).
Percentage distribution of the most prevalent fingerprint patterns in the respective blood group
The majority of the participants belonged to blood group B followed by O, A and AB. Within the respective blood group, the loop showed a slightly higher prevalence in A blood group (47.9%) followed by whorl (35.4%) and the least was seen with arch (16.7%). In the case of AB blood group which was the least presented within the participants showed significantly higher percentage with loop (88.9%). B blood group being the commonly presented blood group in the study showed the highest percentage of individuals with loop pattern (75%), second-most with whorl (22.5%) with only 2.5% showing the arch type [Figure 5]. The second most commonly featuring blood group was the O blood group of which 48.1% individuals showed a loop pattern followed by whorl with 38.9% of occurrence and arch at 12.9% (χ2 = 23.02, P < 0.05).
Percentage distribution of the most prevalent fingerprint patterns within rhesus blood group
The loops are the most predominant in rh +ve individuals with 61.9% followed by whorl with 29.2% and with the least occurrence seen in the arch (8.9%) while only 8 out of 200 was rh-ve of which 75% was loop followed by whorl at 25% [Figure 6] (χ2 = 0.963, P > 0.05).
Percentage distribution of the most prevalent fingerprint patterns within ABO - rhesus blood group
The general distribution of the pattern of fingerprint showed a high frequency of loops (51.87%) followed by whorls and arches. Almost same order was noticed in both Rh-positive and Rh-negative individuals in A, B, AB and O blood groups, except blood group A-ve and O-ve, which showed more whorls B being the most predominant blood group in the study, showed the highest percentage of the loop (74.4%) as well as B –ve individuals also showed a higher percentage of loops (100%) [Table 2] (χ2 = 30.6, P < 0.05).
|Table 2: Shows cross-tabulation of the chi-square test between fingerprint patterns and ABO-Rhesus blood group. Within the respective ABO-Rhesus blood groups, the loop had higher percentages compared to arch and whorl except for the A-ve blood group. There was a significant association between fingerprint patterns and ABO- Rhesus blood group (P < 0.05)|
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| Discussion|| |
Every individual is born with specific traits that make their personnel identity. These physical characteristics are used as an identification marker in forensic cases. They range from precise molecular DNA typing to macroscopic structures that are unique, permanent and persistent from birth to death of an individual. The present study was an attempt to determine if there was any correlation between lip print, fingerprint and blood groups among the individuals in the Western Maharashtra population.
Lip prints and blood group
Edmond Locard in 1932 made use of lip prints for the first time as a means of personal identification and crime detection. A detailed study on the method of mapping the pattern and its subsequent use in the forensic application was given by Suzuki in 1967. It was Suzuki & Tsuchihashi (1970) who gave a proper classification of lip prints. Hence in the present study, the classification of Suzuki & Tsuchihashi as type I, I', II, III, IV, V, VI and the Klein's zone present over the lips that are covered with grooves and wrinkles which form a unique characteristic pattern was considered for recording the lip prints. In addition, type I and I' pattern of lip print were categorized under one category as vertical lip print pattern (type I), which was similarly done by Nagasupriya et al. in his study. The advantage of doing this was for the ease of convenience. Similarly, there are two main types of blood groups in humans—ABO, & RH types. Also, evidences of correlations between lip print pattern and ABO, RH blood groups as being governed by genes is a known fact. Hence, both types of blood groups were included in the present study.
According to the general distribution of lip prints amongst the study participants, the most commonly occurring lip prints in the present study was vertical (37%) followed by intersecting (22%), branched (21.5%), reticular (23%) and type I' (8%). Shilpa Patel et al. in 2010 on 100 Mumbai subjects found type I pattern predominantly in B+ blood that was in accordance with the present study whereas type II pattern was predominant in A+ & O+ blood groups which was not in concordance with our study. In the present study, A+ showed type IV as a predominant pattern and O+ showed type III as a predominant pattern. Nethu et al. in 2011 among 150 individuals from Karnataka found a correlation of type II with A+ & B+ group which was not the same in the present study whereas type III with O+ blood group showed similar results. Verma P et al. in 2013 found type IV lip print to be associated with A+, O+ groups and type I & type I' with B+ blood group respectively in random subjects from Rajasthan which was similar to the present study except for O+ which showed type III as predominant pattern. Srilekha N et al. in 2014 correlated only type I with O+ and type IV with B+ blood group in a random study of Andhra Pradesh subjects. The results in the present study differed for the same blood groups. These differences of patterns occurring in different blood groups should be further sorted out by conducting similar studies on larger scales. Also, one of the major difficulties faced in the present study was recording the lip print. One of the contributing factors for such varied results could be due to substantial mobility and smudging of the lip prints as well as duplication of different lip prints due to pressure applied while taking the print.
Finger prints and blood group
Fingerprints are one of the oldest valuable types of physical evidence of identification in crime scenes. The various ridge patterns found in fingerprints are permanent, genetically determined and remain constant till death. The probability that any two individuals having the same pattern is almost nil. Also, the blood group that includes both the types—ABO and Rh are constant and specific to every individual. Conceding these points, the present study also determined to explore the correlation between fingerprints and lip prints with ABO blood groups in the Western Maharashtra population.
The three basic patterns of fingerprints as given by Micheal and Kucken was considered. The present study reiterates that the loop pattern (62.5%) was the most predominant followed by whorl (29%), arch pattern (8.5%). Noor et al. in 2012 carried out a similar study among 305 Libyan students wherein the results inferred that whorl pattern was predominant in B+ and B– individuals. This was in discordance with the present study in which the loop pattern was predominant in the same blood groups. Bharadwaja et al. in 2004 conducted a study on 300 medical students in Rajasthan. The study results revealed that subjects with blood group A+ have more loops and those with blood group AB+ have more of whorls. This was similar to the results of the present study. Rastogi et al. in 2010 found loops and arches to be more common in blood group A and whorls in blood group O among Rh-positive groups, which showed varied results when compared to the present study. The study conducted by Sharma et al. in 2008 showed that blood group O have the highest frequency of whorls which is not similar to the result obtained in the present study. Radhika et al. in 2016 showed that loops were predominant in blood group O followed by whorls. Arch and composite were common among O and A positive subjects. This was in concordance with the present study except for composite pattern which was nil.
Although there was a noteworthy association between lip prints, fingerprints and ABO blood group in the present study, variations in the patterns of lip prints, fingerprints and blood groups among different geographic populations exist. These differences could be attributed to substantial mobility and smudging of these prints while recording. In the present study, we found that the first fingerprint impression obtained was difficult to interpret using a magnifying glass and hence we attempted to take the second fingerprint impression without immersing the same finger again on the ink pad. This gave a better interpretation of the ridges, core and delta points present on the fingers. Similar difficulties were encountered during lip print interpretation. Due to its flexibility and smudging of lip prints on cellophane tape, we decided to record the prints directly on A 4 bond paper. However, this method could not record the prints present on the corner of the lips.
| Conclusion|| |
To conclude, future research on the proper standard uniform procedure on collection, development and recording of these prints should be conducted on a large scale. Future studies should also be conducted on applying the digitalised method of recording these prints and compare this method with a manual method to find out the easiest and efficient way for application in forensic odontology.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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Dr. Sushma Bommanavar
Department of Oral Pathology & Microbiology, School of Dental Sciences, KIMS “Deemed to be University”, Karad - 415 539, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]
[Table 1], [Table 2]