Indian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental Research
Indian Journal of Dental Research   Login   |  Users online:

Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size         


Table of Contents   
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 323-328
Trends in dental caries in Indian children for the past 25 years

Department of Public Health Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication13-Jun-2018


Background: The economic liberalization which was started 25 years back in India has led to a rising gross domestic product and per capita income and a decline in poverty. There has been an improvement in various health status indicators in the Indian population. As oral health is an integral part of general health, a retrospective study was designed to assess the effect of economic liberalization on dental caries experience in Indian children. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted to find studies done on dental caries prevalence in children in India from the year 1992–2016. Mesh and free text terms “child,” “dental caries,” and “India” were searched in databases – PubMed and PubMed Central. A total of 1468 titles were screened, out of which 191 articles were shortlisted for further inspection. Finally, 69 studies were found suitable for final analysis. Results: The pooled caries prevalence was between 50.84% and 62.41% at 5-year interval. There was a decline in caries prevalence in 2–5 and 11–15 years of age group. The overall weighed mean of 2.4, 2.7, and 1.9 was observed in three different age groups. Significant caries index (SiC) of more than 3 was observed in all the age groups. Conclusion: The present review suggests that more than half of Indian children have been affected by dental caries. High SIC index score suggests a skewed distribution of caries among Indian children. This data may aid in planning further exploratory research and oral health care services for children by the stakeholders.

Keywords: Children, dental caries, DMF/dmf index, India, significant caries index

How to cite this article:
Mehta A. Trends in dental caries in Indian children for the past 25 years. Indian J Dent Res 2018;29:323-8

How to cite this URL:
Mehta A. Trends in dental caries in Indian children for the past 25 years. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2023 Sep 21];29:323-8. Available from:

   Introduction Top

As stated by the World Health Organization in their oral health report of 2003,[1] dental caries and periodontal diseases are pandemic diseases affecting all population irrespective of gender, age, or socioeconomic status. This situation is more alarming in developing countries due to lack of access to oral health care services and preventive measures like fluorides.

India is a developing mixed economy country of 1.3 billion. It initiated economic liberalization in late 1991, before that the growth rate of India was 3%–4%, but currently, it is one of the fastest growing and the 5th largest (in terms of the gross domestic product [GDP]) economies in the world.[2] The total expenditure on healthcare as a proportion of GDP in 2014 was 4.7%. India was declared Polio-free in 2014 and maternal and neonatal tetanus free in 2015.[3] It has a dentist population ratio of 1:10,271, but there is a disparity between urban and rural areas as urban centers attracting more dental workforce.[4] Last National Oral Health Survey conducted in 2002–2003 stated that DMFT index score for Indian children was around 2 and caries prevalence was increasing with age from 51.9% to 63.1% in 5–15 years of age group, respectively.[5]

Keeping these facts in mind, a retrospective study was planned with a rationale that as oral health is considered to be an integral part of general health, it is expected that there shall be an improvement in oral diseases morbidity indicators among the children who are born in the era economic liberalization in India. The main purpose of this study was to assess the trend in caries prevalence and mean decayed, missing, filled/Decayed, Missing, Filled (dmf/DMF) index score among Indian children for the past 25 years.

   Materials and Methods Top

Search strategy

An electronic literature search was conducted in PubMed and PubMed Central databases for the following Mesh and free text terms – “child,” “dental caries,” and “India.” The search period was from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 2016. Articles in English language only were included in this search. Terms searched by PubMed and PMC were-(“dental caries” [MeSH Terms]) OR (“dental” [All Fields] AND “caries” [All Fields]) OR “dental caries” [All Fields]) AND (“child” [MeSH Terms] OR “child” [All Fields] OR “children” [All Fields]) AND (“India” [MeSH Terms] OR “India” [All Fields]).

The initial search in databases found 3440 hits. After removal of duplicates, 1468 articles remained for initial screening, out of these 191 articles were selected for detail inspection. Based on the predecided inclusion criteria, 69 studies were found eligible for participation in this study [Flow Chart 1]. Full text of the included studies was retrieved by electronic and manual search from the library.

Inclusion criteria

Studies satisfying the following criteria were included in this review:

  • Studies done on children less than or equal to 15 years of age
  • Studies published between 1992 and 2016 in PubMed and PubMed central databases
  • Studies mentioned average DMF/dmf score with a measure of variance and/or caries prevalence in percentage.

Exclusion criteria

Studies which were done on children suffering from any systemic conditions such as asthma, leukemia, diabetes, obesity, and physical or mental disabilities were excluded from this review. Comparison or correlation studies, for example, studies done to find an association between diet or obesity or body mass index and dental caries experience or where the assessment of caries risk was done were excluded from this review. Studies done on children of Indian origin living outside India were not included in this review.

Data extraction

A template was prepared in Excel spreadsheet to extract the following data from the articles-year of the study/publication, age, study region, mean dmf/DMF value with standard deviation (SD), and total prevalence of dental caries. Following groups were prepared for further analysis: different age groups (2–5, 6–10 and 11–15 years), 5-year interval (1992–1996, 1997–2001, 2002–2006, 2007–2011 and 2012–2016) and different regions of India (North, East, West, and South). Those groups in which 2 or <2 articles were present and they were excluded from further analysis. “dmf” index was considered for analysis in 0–5 and 6–10 years group, whereas “DMF” was considered for 11– 15-year group. If articles have mentioned the year of a survey conducted, that was used; otherwise, year of publication was considered.

Statistical analysis

Average proportion, standard error (SE), confidence interval, weighted mean, and significant caries index (SiC) value were found for each group using the following formulas:[6]

  1. Average proportion = p1 × n1 + p2 × n2+------pn × nn/n1 + n2+---nn
  2. Weighted mean (W) = m1 × n1 + m2 × n2+----mn × nn/n1 + n2+---nn
  3. Combined SD = Sum of SD12 × n1 + SD22 × n2+----SDn2 × nn/n1 + n2+------nn
  4. SE calculation in case of mean DMFT/dmft = SD/Square root of n
  5. SE calculation in case of prevalence of dental caries = Square root of average proportion (1-average proportion)/total sample
  6. C. I = Weighted Mean ± (1.96 × S. E)
  7. SIC value = m1 × n1 + m2 × n2+-----mn × nn/n1 + n2+---nn (1/3rd of the population with a higher DMFT score in each group)[7]

Where P is proportion, m is mean, SD is the standard deviation, SE is standard error, and n is the total sample.

   Results Top

In total 69 studies were included in this review. When the number of studies was divided according to 5-year interval group, it was observed that there are 4, 15, 8, 18, and 24 studies in 1992–1996, 1997–2001, 2002–2006, 2007–2011, and 2012–2016 group, respectively [Table 1]. Average pooled caries prevalence was 56.7% with a range of 50.8%–62.4% [Table 2]. Caries prevalence was 48.9%, 69.1%, and 52.1% for 2–5, 6–10, and 11–15 year, of age group, respectively. There was a decline in caries prevalence in the youngest and eldest age group children [Graph 1] and [Graph 2], whereas middle age group (6–10 years) showed an upward trend [Graph 3].
Table 1: Total number of studies included-year wise

Click here to view
Table 2: Trend in caries prevalence at 5 year interval

Click here to view

Overall weighed mean caries experience was 2.3. [Table 3] describes the weight mean dmf/DMF score in different year groups along with SD, SE and confidence interval. Mean dmf/DMF in different age groups ranged from 1.9 to 2.7 as shown in [Table 4]. Region-wise distribution of dental caries shows more caries prevalence in the southern and western part of India as compared to the northern and eastern part of India. The weighed mean dmf/DMF was also higher for these two regions [Table 5]. SIC values are showing an overall decline from 3.8 to 2.7 over the past 25 years [Graph 4].
Table 3: Weighed mean Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth/decayed, missing, and filled teeth in 5-year interval group

Click here to view
Table 4: Weighed mean Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth/decayed, missing, and filled teeth in different age group

Click here to view
Table 5: Region wise distribution of caries in India

Click here to view

   Discussion Top

Principal findings

This review shows that pooled prevalence of dental caries in Indian children is more than 50% and average dmf/DMF values are between 2 and 3 in all the age groups. These figures are quite similar to those reported by the World Health Organization,[1] Dental Council of India,[5] Moreira R [76] and Kundu et al.[6] for Indian children. Caries experience was found less in the northern and eastern part of India as compared to southern and western parts, this is contrary to findings by Kundu et al. where they found children of north India having higher caries experience as compared to other parts of the country. India despite being a developing country has less caries experience in comparison to other developing countries.[1],[77] High SiC values suggest a skewed distribution of dental caries in Indian children and are comparable to its neighboring countries but less than the developed world.[78]

In India, the magnitude and impact of oral diseases, especially caries and periodontal diseases are unknown. There is no nationwide comprehensive disease surveillance in place, and hence, recent epidemiological data are not available to make a strong case about the oral diseases burden. Moreover, there is no national oral health research agenda to coordinate and prioritize research according to national needs. Thus, the indicators commonly used to assess oral health status do not provide clear or easily understandable information about burden or severity.[79] A set of guidelines should be established in our country, especially regarding the way an oral health survey is to be carried out as a part of postgraduate dissertation or faculty research; this will help in maintaining uniformity and creating a national oral health data bank.

Strengths of the study

The biggest strengths of this study are first, higher of (69) studies were found eligible for final data analysis. This helps to increase the sample size and confidence level for further observations and comparisons. Second, studies which were published in PubMed and PubMed Central indexed journals were included in this review. These two databases provide reasonably good quality and comprehensive search of scientific articles related to the field of medicine and dentistry.

Unanswered questions

This review has described certain trends and values such as the decline of caries in certain age groups, region-wise variations in caries prevalence, but these observations are based on pooling of data from descriptive surveys; therefore, no particular reasons can be assigned for such trends. Further exploratory studies are required in this regard.

   Conclusions and Recommendations Top

The present review suggests one out of two children in India is affected by dental caries and there is an increase in caries burden in deciduous dentition. Signs of decline in caries should be treated with caution because the current oral health-care services are inadequate to sustain this gain and it does not mean that dental caries is not a public health problem in India. This study has shown that all the regions and age groups are affected by caries. Therefore, efforts should be directed to improve access to fluorides, dental sealants, and other established methods of caries control such as proper oral hygiene advice and dietary counseling for our future generations. Furthermore, a database of the international standard must be established in India for surveillance of dental caries.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

Petersen PE. The world oral health report 2003: Continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century – The approach of the WHO global oral health programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003;31 Suppl 1:3-23.  Back to cited text no. 1
Economic Liberalisation in India. Available from: [Last accessed on 2017 May 21].  Back to cited text no. 2
World Bank Group – International Development, Poverty and Sustainability. Available from: [Last accessed on 2017 May 21].  Back to cited text no. 3
Vundavalli S. Dental manpower planning in India: Current scenario and future projections for the year 2020. Int Dent J 2014;64:62-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
Bali RK, Mathur VB, Talwar PP, Channa HB. National Oral Health Survey & Fluoride Mapping. New Delhi: Dental Council of India; 2002.  Back to cited text no. 5
Kundu H, Patthi B, Singla A, Jankiram C, Jain S, Singh K, et al. Dental caries scenario among 5, 12 and 15-year-old children in India- A retrospective analysis. J Clin Diagn Res 2015;9:ZE01-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
Bratthall D. Introducing the significant caries index together with a proposal for a new global oral health goal for 12-year-olds. Int Dent J 2000;50:378-84.  Back to cited text no. 7
Bhowate RR, Borle SR, Chinchkhede DH, Gondhalekar RV. Dental health amongst 11-15-year-old children in Sevagram, Maharashtra. Indian J Dent Res 1994;5:65-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
Jalili VP, Sidhu SS, Kharbanda OP. Status of dental caries and treatment needs in tribal children of Mandu (Central India). J Pierre Fauchard Acad 1993;7:7-15.  Back to cited text no. 9
Damle SC, Patel AR. Caries prevalence and treatment need amongst children of Dharavi, Bombay, India. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1994;22:62-3.  Back to cited text no. 10
Rao SP, Bharambe MS. Dental caries and periodontal diseases among urban, rural and tribal school children. Indian Pediatr 1993;30:759-64.  Back to cited text no. 11
Ali YA, Chandranee NJ, Khan A, Khan ZH. Prevalence of dental caries in nursery school children of Akola city. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 1998;16:21-5.  Back to cited text no. 12
Retnakumari N. Prevalence of dental caries and risk assessment among primary school children of 6-12 years in the Varkala municipal area of Kerala. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 1999;17:135-42.  Back to cited text no. 13
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Rao A, Sequeira SP, Peter S. Prevalence of dental caries among school children of Moodbidri. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 1999;17:45-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Chakraborty M, Saha JB, Bhattacharya RN, Roy A, Ram R. Epidemiological correlates of dental caries in an urban slum of West Bengal. Indian J Public Health 1997;41:56-60, 67.  Back to cited text no. 15
Mascarenhas AK. Determinants of caries prevalence and severity in higher SES Indian children. Community Dent Health 1999;16:107-13.  Back to cited text no. 16
Menon A, Indushekar KR. Prevalence of dental caries and co-relation with fluorosis in low and high fluoride areas. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 1999;17:15-20.  Back to cited text no. 17
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Goel P, Sequeira P, Peter S. Prevalence of dental disease amongst 5-6 and 12-13 year old school children of Puttur municipality, Karnataka state-India. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2000;18:11-7.  Back to cited text no. 18
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Rodrigues JS, Damle SG. An epidemiological study on the prevalence of dental caries and treatment need in 12-15 year old children in Bhiwandi (Maharashtra). J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 1998;16:84-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Mandal KP, Tewari AB, Chawla HS, Gauba KD. Prevalence and severity of dental caries and treatment needs among population in the Eastern States of India. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2001;19:85-91.  Back to cited text no. 20
Tewari S, Tewari S. Caries experience in 3-7 year-old children in Haryana (India). J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2001;19:52-6.  Back to cited text no. 21
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Gopinath VK, Barathi VK, Kannan A. Assessment and treatment of dental caries in semi-urban school children of Tamilnadu (India). J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 1999;17:9-12.  Back to cited text no. 22
Singh AA, Singh B, Kharbanda OP, Shukla DK, Goswami K, Gupta S, et al. A study of dental caries in school children from rural Haryana. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 1999;17:24-8.  Back to cited text no. 23
Kuriakose S, Joseph E. Caries prevalence and its relation to socio-economic status and oral hygiene practices in 600 pre-school children of Kerala-India. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 1999;17:97-100.  Back to cited text no. 24
Sogi G, Bhaskar DJ. Dental caries and oral hygiene status of 13-14 year old school children of Davangere. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2001;19:113-7.  Back to cited text no. 25
Dash JK, Sahoo PK, Bhuyan SK, Sahoo SK. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among children of Cuttack (Orissa). J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2002;20:139-43.  Back to cited text no. 26
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Kulkami SS, Deshpande SD. Caries prevalence and treatment needs in 11-15 year old children of Belgaum city. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2002;20:12-5.  Back to cited text no. 27
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
David J, Wang NJ, Astrøm AN, Kuriakose S. Dental caries and associated factors in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Int J Paediatr Dent 2005;15:420-8.  Back to cited text no. 28
Saravanan S, Anuradha KP, Bhaskar DJ. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among school going children of Pondicherry, India. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2003;21:1-2.  Back to cited text no. 29
Sudha P, Bhasin S, Anegundi RT. Prevalence of dental caries among 5-13-year-old children of Mangalore city. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2005;23:74-9.  Back to cited text no. 30
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Jose B, King NM. Early childhood caries lesions in preschool children in Kerala, India. Pediatr Dent 2003;25:594-600.  Back to cited text no. 31
Mahejabeen R, Sudha P, Kulkarni SS, Anegundi R. Dental caries prevalence among preschool children of Hubli: Dharwad city. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2006;24:19-22.  Back to cited text no. 32
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Mahesh Kumar P, Joseph T, Varma RB, Jayanthi M. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city – An epidemiological study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2005;23:17-22.  Back to cited text no. 33
Dhar V, Jain A, Van Dyke TE, Kohli A. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in the school-going children of rural areas in Udaipur district. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2007;25:119-21.  Back to cited text no. 34
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Dhar V, Bhatnagar M. Dental caries and treatment needs of children (6-10 years) in rural Udaipur, Rajasthan. Indian J Dent Res 2009;20:256-60.  Back to cited text no. 35
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Grewal H, Verma M, Kumar A. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in the rural child population of Nainital district, Uttaranchal. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2009;27:224-6.  Back to cited text no. 36
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Grewal H, Verma M, Kumar A. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs amongst the school children of three educational zones of urban Delhi, India. Indian J Dent Res 2011;22:517-9.  Back to cited text no. 37
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Singh A, Bharathi MP, Sequeira P, Acharya S, Bhat M. Oral health status and practices of 5 and 12 year old Indian tribal children. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2011;35:325-30.  Back to cited text no. 38
Christian B, Evans RW. Has urbanization become a risk factor for dental caries in Kerala, India: A cross-sectional study of children aged 6 and 12 years. Int J Paediatr Dent 2009;19:330-7.  Back to cited text no. 39
Singh A, Purohit B, Sequeira P, Acharya S. Oral health status of 5-year-old aborigine children compared with similar aged marginalised group in South Western India. Int Dent J 2011;61:157-62.  Back to cited text no. 40
Goyal A, Gauba K, Chawla HS, Kaur M, Kapur A. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2007;25:115-8.  Back to cited text no. 41
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Meghashyam B, Nagesh L, Ankola A. Dental caries status and treatment needs of children of fisher folk communities, residing in the coastal areas of Karnataka region, South India. West Indian Med J 2007;56:96-8.  Back to cited text no. 42
Simratvir M, Moghe GA, Thomas AM, Singh N, Chopra S. Evaluation of caries experience in 3-6-year-old children, and dental attitudes amongst the caregivers in the Ludhiana city. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2009;27:164-9.  Back to cited text no. 43
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Das UM, Beena JP, Azher U. Oral health status of 6- and 12-year-old school going children in Bangalore city: An epidemiological study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2009;27:6-8.  Back to cited text no. 44
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Saravanan S, Kalyani V, Vijayarani MP, Jayakodi P, Felix J, Arunmozhi P, et al. Caries prevalence and treatment needs of rural school children in Chidambaram Taluk, Tamil Nadu, South India. Indian J Dent Res 2008;19:186-90.  Back to cited text no. 45
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Priyadarshini HR, Hiremath SS, Puranik M, Rudresh SM, Nagaratnamma T. Prevalence of early childhood caries among preschool children of low socioeconomic status in Bangalore city, India. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2011;1:27-30.  Back to cited text no. 46
Sakeenabi B, Hiremath SS. Dental caries experience and salivary streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli scores, salivary flow rate, and salivary buffering capacity among 6-year-old Indian school children. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2011;1:45-51.  Back to cited text no. 47
Pramila M, Murthy AK, Chandrakala B, Ranganath S. Dental fear in children and its relation to dental caries and gingival condition – A cross sectional study in Bangalore city, India. Int J Clinical Dental Sci 2010;1:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 48
Shailee F, Sogi GM, Sharma KR, Nidhi P. Dental caries prevalence and treatment needs among 12- and 15- year old schoolchildren in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. Indian J Dent Res 2012;23:579-84.  Back to cited text no. 49
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Gaidhane AM, Patil M, Khatib N, Zodpey S, Zahiruddin QS. Prevalence and determinant of early childhood caries among the children attending the anganwadis of Wardha district, India. Indian J Dent Res 2013;24:199-205.  Back to cited text no. 50
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Shekar C, Cheluvaiah MB, Namile D. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water in an endemic fluoride belt of Andhra Pradesh. Indian J Public Health 2012;56:122-8.  Back to cited text no. 51
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Murthy AK, Pramila M, Ranganath S. Prevalence of clinical consequences of untreated dental caries and its relation to dental fear among 12-15-year-old schoolchildren in Bangalore city, India. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2014;15:45-9.  Back to cited text no. 52
Suprabha BS, Rao A, Shenoy R, Khanal S. Utility of knowledge, attitude, and practice survey, and prevalence of dental caries among 11- to 13-year-old children in an urban community in India. Glob Health Action 2013;6:20750.  Back to cited text no. 53
Arora G, Bhateja S. Prevalence of dental caries, periodontitis, and oral hygiene status among 12-year-old schoolchildren having normal occlusion and malocclusion in Mathura city: A comparative epidemiological study. Indian J Dent Res 2015;26:48-52.  Back to cited text no. 54
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Hiremath A, Murugaboopathy V, Ankola AV, Hebbal M, Mohandoss S, Pastay P, et al. Prevalence of dental caries among primary school children of India – A cross-sectional study. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10:ZC47-ZC50.  Back to cited text no. 55
Chopra A, Rao NC, Gupta N, Vashisth S, Lakhanpal M. The predisposing factors between dental caries and deviations from normal weight. N Am J Med Sci 2015;7:151-9.  Back to cited text no. 56
Karunakaran R, Somasundaram S, Gawthaman M, Vinodh S, Manikandan S, Gokulnathan S, et al. Prevalence of dental caries among school-going children in Namakkal district: A cross-sectional study. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2014;6:S160-1.  Back to cited text no. 57
Mittal M, Chaudhary P, Chopra R, Khattar V. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years old school going children in rural Gurgaon, India: An epidemiological study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2014;32:3-8.  Back to cited text no. 58
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Anandakrishna L, Bhargav N, Hegde A, Chandra P, Gaviappa D, Shetty AK, et al. Problematic eating and its association with early childhood caries among 46-71-month-old children using children's eating behavior questionnaire (CEBQ): A cross sectional study. Indian J Dent Res 2014;25:602-6.  Back to cited text no. 59
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Gopal S, Chandrappa V, Kadidal U, Rayala C, Vegesna M. Prevalence and predictors of early childhood caries in 3- to 6-year-old South Indian children – A cross-sectional descriptive study. Oral Health Prev Dent 2016;14:267-73.  Back to cited text no. 60
Koya S, Ravichandra KS, Arunkumar VA, Sahana S, Pushpalatha HM. Prevalence of early childhood caries in children of West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, South India: An epidemiological study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9:251-5.  Back to cited text no. 61
Sankeshwari RM, Ankola AV, Tangade PS, Hebbal MI. Association of socio-economic status and dietary habits with early childhood caries among 3- to 5-year-old children of Belgaum city. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2013;14:147-53.  Back to cited text no. 62
Retnakumari N, Cyriac G. Childhood caries as influenced by maternal and child characteristics in pre-school children of Kerala-an epidemiological study. Contemp Clin Dent 2012;3:2-8.  Back to cited text no. 63
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Mandal S, Ghosh C, Sarkar S, Pal J, Kar S, Bazmi BA, et al. Assessment of oral health status of santal (tribal) children of West Bengal. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2015;33:44-7.  Back to cited text no. 64
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Gupta D, Momin RK, Mathur A, Srinivas KT, Jain A, Dommaraju N, et al. Dental caries and their treatment needs in 3-5 year old preschool children in a rural district of India. N Am J Med Sci 2015;7:143-50.  Back to cited text no. 65
Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S, et al. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6:106-10.  Back to cited text no. 66
Sujlana A, Pannu PK. Family related factors associated with caries prevalence in the primary dentition of five-year-old children. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2015;33:83-7.  Back to cited text no. 67
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Joshi N, Sujan SG, Joshi K, Parekh H, Dave B. Prevalence, severity and related factors of dental caries in school going children of Vadodara city – An epidemiological study. J Int Oral Health 2013;5:40-8.  Back to cited text no. 68
Basha S, Swamy HS. Dental caries experience, tooth surface distribution and associated factors in 6- and 13- year- old school children from Davangere, India. J Clin Exp Dent 2012;4:e210-6.  Back to cited text no. 69
Prakash P, Subramaniam P, Durgesh BH, Konde S. Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors in preschool children of urban Bangalore, India: A cross-sectional study. Eur J Dent 2012;6:141-52.  Back to cited text no. 70
Goel R, Vedi A, Veeresha KL, Sogi GM, Gambhir RS. Oral hygiene practices and dental caries prevalence among 12 & 15 years school children in Ambala, Haryana-A cross-sectional study. J Clin Exp Dent 2015;7:e374-9.  Back to cited text no. 71
Prakasha Shrutha S, Vinit GB, Giri KY, Alam S. Feeding practices and early childhood caries: A cross-sectional study of preschool children in Kanpur district, India. ISRN Dent 2013;2013:275193.  Back to cited text no. 72
Sachdeva A, Punhani N, Bala M, Arora S, Gill GS, Dewan N, et al. The prevalence and pattern of cavitated carious lesions in primary dentition among children under 5 years age in Sirsa, Haryana (India). J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2015;5:494-8.  Back to cited text no. 73
Singh S, Vijayakumar N, Priyadarshini HR, Shobha M. Prevalence of early childhood caries among 3-5 year old pre-schoolers in schools of Marathahalli, Bangalore. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2012;9:710-4.  Back to cited text no. 74
Sharma A, Bansal P, Grover A, Sharma S, Sharma A. Oral health status and treatment needs among primary school going children in Nagrota Bagwan block of Kangra, Himachal Pradesh. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2014;18:762-6.  Back to cited text no. 75
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Moreira R, da S. Epidemiology of dental caries in the world. In: Oral Health Care – Pediatric, Research, Epidemiology and Clinical Practices. InTech Open publishers;2012. p. 149-70.  Back to cited text no. 76
Bagramian RA, Garcia-Godoy F, Volpe AR. The global increase in dental caries. A pending public health crisis. Am J Dent 2009;22:3-8.  Back to cited text no. 77
Petersen PE. Global policy for improvement of oral health in the 21st century – Implications to oral health research of World Health Assembly 2007, World Health Organization. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2009;37:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 78
Janakiram C, Sanjeevan V, Br R, Joseph J, Stauf N, Benzian H, et al. Political priority of oral health in India: Analysis of the reasons for Neglect. J Public Health Dent 2017;1-10.  Back to cited text no. 79

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abhishek Mehta
Faculty of Dentistry, Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi - 110 025
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_615_17

Rights and Permissions


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]

This article has been cited by
1 Rural–urban disparities in knowledge, attitude, and practice toward child oral health among mothers of 9–36-month-old children
Ambrish Mishra, Divashree Sharma, Geeta Mishra Tripathi, Tauseef Ahmed Khan
Journal of Rural Medicine. 2023; 18(3): 175
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 “Patterns of occurrence and management abilities of birth defects: A study from a highly urbanized coastal district of India”
Koteswara Rao Pagolu, Raghava Rao Tamanam
Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. 2022; 15: 101062
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Antibacterial activity of garlic extract, tea tree oil, and its mouthwashes against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus: An In vivo study
Pooja Latti, R Subramaniam, Sakeenabi Basha, GM Prashant, PG Naveen Kumar, Sushanth Hirekalmath
Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry. 2022; 20(3): 271
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Knowledge, attitude, and practice of probiotics for oral health among dental students: A cross-sectional study
Lakshmi Krishnan, Saravanan Poorni, MS Nivedhitha, ManaliRamakrishnan Srinivasan
Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry. 2022; 0(0): 0
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Effect of oral health education on the parents knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding dietary habits in 4- to 6-year-old children and its relation to dental caries incidence: A prospective study
DempsyChengappa Mandepanda Mandanna, Praveen Prasanna, Anantharaj Athimuthu, Sudhir Ramakrishna, Karthik Venkataraghavan, PrathibhaRani Shankarappa
Journal of International Oral Health. 2022; 14(6): 582
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Association of Mothers’ Genetic Taste Perception to Eating Habits and Its Influence on Early Childhood Caries in Preschool Children: An Analytical Study
Krithi Nellamakkada, Sandya S Patil, Madhu Kakanur, Rachna Thakur, Ravi S Kumar
International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2022; 15(S2): S135
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Silver Diamine Fluoride in Preventing Caries: A Review of Current Trends
Padmapriya Surendranath, Srinath Krishnappa, Sahana Srinath
International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2022; 15(S2): S247
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Effectiveness of Parental Participation in a Dental Health Program on the Oral Health Status of 8–10-year-old School Children
Divya Natarajan, RA Sowmiya Sree, C Joe Louis, AR Senthil Eagappan, Daya Srinivasan, V Dhanalakshmi
International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2022; 15(4): 417
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Correlation between CD4 Count and Dental Caries in HIV-seropositive Children Undergoing Antiretroviral Therapy
Monica Mohanram, Madan PD Kumar
Journal of Oral Health and Community Dentistry. 2021; 15(1): 20
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Impact of oral hygiene training to Anganwadi and Accredited Social Health Activist workers on oral health of young children in tribal regions of Rajasthan State, India
SuhaniRakesh Khanna, Dinesh Rao, Sunil Panwar, Safna Ameen
Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. 2021; 39(4): 429
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Behavior of Pediatric Dental Postgraduate Students on Non-restorative Cavity Control Technique: A Cross-sectional Study
Sharath Asokan, Pollachi Ramakrishnan Geetha Priya, Kesavaraj Balasubramani
International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2021; 14(2): 217
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Hindi version of Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ 11-14 ) in school children
Vishal Jain, Nidhi Agarwal, Zohra Jabin, Shilpi Singh, Ashish Anand, Meena Jain
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2021; 31(4): 459
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Can dermatoglyphics predict dental caries? A review
Shreyasi Roy, Jaydip Sen
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences. 2021; 10(2): 95
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Effect of 38% silver diamine fluoride on control of dental caries in primary dentition: A Systematic review
Zohra Jabin, V Vishnupriya, Nidhi Agarwal, Iffat Nasim, Meena Jain, Ankur Sharma
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2020; 9(3): 1302
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Single-nucleotide polymorphism in Vitamin D receptor gene and its association with dental caries in children
VictoriaGuru Aribam, Nalini Aswath, Arvind Ramanathan
Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. 2020; 38(1): 8
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Acceptance of Parents to Silver Diamine Fluoride in Pre-cooperative Children: A Cross-sectional Study
Pooja R Shivasharan, Neha N Pankey, Surej Unnikrishnan
Journal of South Asian Association of Pediatric Dentistry. 2019; 2(2): 49
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

    Materials and Me...
    Conclusions and ...
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded1567    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 16    

Recommend this journal