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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 393
Nanobacteria in dental pulp stones

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Mahatama Gandhi Dental College, Sitapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

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Date of Web Publication12-Sep-2013

How to cite this article:
Sharma N. Nanobacteria in dental pulp stones. Indian J Dent Res 2013;24:393

How to cite this URL:
Sharma N. Nanobacteria in dental pulp stones. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2013 [cited 2023 Jun 10];24:393. Available from:

I am writing in the response to the article "A radiographic correlation between systemic disorders and pulp stones", IJDR, 21(3), 2010. I would like to add that there are many theories of pulpal calcification. There is also evidence that hypertension, hypercalciuria, gout, and renal lithiasis are predisposing factors to pulpal calcification. [1],[2] Nanobacteria is also found in the calcific plaque of CVD and also in pulpal calcification. [3] Nanobacterium, a submicroscopic blood particle was discovered in 1988 by Finnish researcher Dr. Olavi Kazander at Scripps Research Institute in California. [4] The identification of nanobacteria has been inferred exclusively from the presence of coccoid-shaped particles with diameter of 0.1 μm, in scanning electron micrograph of rock and mineral surfaces. Similar structures have been reported from serum and blood of CVD patients. [3],[4],[5] They are believed to cause pathological extraskeletal calcification. Nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in, e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, and malignant disease. In nanobacteria-infected fibroblasts, electron microscopy revealed intra- and extracellular needle-like crystal deposits, which were stainable with von Kossa stain and resemble calcospherules found in pathological calcifications. [6] Some investigators indicated the presence of nanobacterial antigens in dental pulp stone and the role of nanobacteria in dental pulp stone formation was shown by nanobacterial colonization and mineralization in human tooth in vitro. [5]

   References Top

1.Edds AC, Walden JE, Scheetz JP, Goldsmith LJ, Drisko CL, Eleazer PD. Pilot study of correlation of pulp stones with cardiovascular disease. J Endod 2005;31:504-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Bernick S. Age changes in the blood supply to human teeth. J Dent Res 1967;46:544-50.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Cisar JO, Xu DQ, Thompson J, Swaim W, Hu L, Kopecko DJ. An alternative interpretation of nanobacteria-induced biomineralization. PNAS 2000;97:11511-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Mulhall D. The nanobacteria link to heart disease and cancer. Nexus Magazine 2005;12:5.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Ciftcioglu N, Ciftcioglu V, Vali H, Turcott E, Kazander EO. Sedimentary rocks in our mouth: Dental pulp stones made by Nanobacteria. Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology, Proc SPIE 1998:3441;130-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Ciftcioglu N, Bjorklund M, Kajander E Olavi. Stone formation and calcification in human body. Department. of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211, Kuopio, Finland.  Back to cited text no. 6

Correspondence Address:
Neeta Sharma
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Mahatama Gandhi Dental College, Sitapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.118012

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