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Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL RESEARCH  
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 209-212
Effect of five brands of latex gloves on the setting time of polyvinyl siloxane putty impression materials


1 Department of Prosthodontics, Vyas Dental College and Hospital, Near Kudi Haud, Kudi, NH-65, Pali Road, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Prosthodontics, Rama Dental College Hospital and Research Center, A/1-8, Lakhanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

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Date of Submission11-Jan-2011
Date of Decision12-Jul-2011
Date of Acceptance31-Jan-2012
Date of Web Publication3-Sep-2012
 

   Abstract 

Addition silicone impression materials have been used as impression material for more than 20 years. Although they are among the most expensive impression materials, they became popular during the past decade as they have excellent physical properties. Prevention of infection is an important aspect in dental treatment since dental professionals are routinely exposed to the wide variety of microorganisms present in saliva. Gloves are the most common protective measure used during dental treatment. The gloves are mostly made of latex. In this study, we examine how the setting time of three types polyvinyl putty materials were affected by the use of five different brands of latex gloves and one brand of vinyl gloves. Each material was first mixed without wearing gloves according to the manufacturer's instructions. After the stipulated mixing time, the setting time was measured using the Vicat needle. The setting time is measured from the time of mixing till the time that the needle does not produce any indentation on the surface of the material. The putty material was then mixed with gloved hands (using the five different brands of latex gloves in turn) and the setting time was measured. Then the material was mixed with washed gloved hands, and the setting time was measured again. Finally, the material was mixed with vinyl gloved hands and the setting time was measured.
The following conclusions were drawn from the study:

  • Reprosil™ and Express™ showed significant variation in the setting time with the latex gloved hands.
  • There was no significant variation in the setting time when material was mixed with unwashed vs washed gloved hands.
  • Vinyl gloves did not significantly affect the setting time of any of the putty impression materials.

Keywords: Elastomeric impression materials, infection control, latex gloves, setting time

How to cite this article:
Ravikumar C M, Sangur R. Effect of five brands of latex gloves on the setting time of polyvinyl siloxane putty impression materials. Indian J Dent Res 2012;23:209-12

How to cite this URL:
Ravikumar C M, Sangur R. Effect of five brands of latex gloves on the setting time of polyvinyl siloxane putty impression materials. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2012 [cited 2021 Oct 25];23:209-12. Available from: https://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2012/23/2/209/100427
Many dental procedures require the use of impressions for the fabrication of casts for different purposes. Addition silicones are one of the more commonly used impression materials. Addition silicone impression materials have excellent physical properties. Their accuracy is unsurpassed and they can record fine details. They also have the best elastic recovery among all available impression materials. [1]

Dental professionals are routinely exposed to microorganisms present in saliva and blood and they should be properly protected from this risk during various dental treatments. [2] Gloves are the most commonly used protective measure, and they are mostly made of latex. Latex, however, may influence the setting reaction of polyvinyl siloxane materials. [3],[4] This study was designed to determine the effect of latex gloves and vinyl gloves on the setting time of addition silicone putty materials.


   Materials and Methods Top


In this study three different brands of putty [Reprosil™ (Dentsply), Express™ (3M Dental), and Detaseal™ (Detex)]; five different brands of gloves [Dialstern™, Safe Touch™, Serjun™, Janex™, and Disposable gloves]; and one brand of vinyl gloves were used [Figure 1] and [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Polyvinyl siloxane putty impression materials: Reprosil™, Detaseal™, and Express™

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Figure 2: The latex gloves, vinyl gloves, and soap used in the study

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Base and catalyst putty material were dispensed and mixed according to the manufacturers' directions. First, the putty impression materials were kneaded with clean dry hands till a homogenous mix was obtained; we ensured that mixing was completed within the mixing time recommended by the respective manufacturer. Next, the putty impression materials were mixed with latex-gloved hands [Figure 3]. A different pair of latex gloves was used each time the material was mixed. Each material was again mixed after washing the gloved hands with soap and water. Finally, the material was mixed with vinyl-gloved hands [Figure 4]. The setting time was determined for each mix.
Figure 3: Putty material mixed with latex-gloved hands

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Figure 4: Putty impression material mixed with vinyl-gloved hands

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For each brand of gloves, the polyvinyl siloxane putty material was mixed six times for each impression material used in the study.

The Vicat needle, 1 mm in diameter, 5 cm long, and 300 gm in weight, was used to determine the setting time. A stop watch was used to note the setting time [Figure 5] and [Figure 6]. The values were then subjected to statistical analysis.
Figure 5: Equipments used: Electronic weighing machine, Vicat penetrometer, and stopwatch

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Figure 6: Putty material tested for setting time using the Vicat penetrometer

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   Results Top


The setting time of the three different putty materials when mixed with different methods are shown in [Table 1], [Table 2] and [Table 3]. [Table 1] shows the mean setting time of putty materials when mixed with ungloved hands and with different gloved hands. The setting time of Reprosil™, Detaseal™, and Express™ putty material when mixed with ungloved hands was 2.6 minutes, 3.1 minutes, and 4.1 minutes, respectively. There was no significant difference in mean setting time of putty mixed with ungloved hands and putty mixed with vinyl-gloved hands. There was a significant difference in setting time when putty was mixed with any of the latex gloves. Reprosil™ putty and Express™ putty material showed complete inhibition of polymerization when mixed with any of the latex gloves used in the study, but the Detaseal™ putty material showed delay in the setting time with Serjun™ and Disposable latex gloves both in unwashed and washed gloved hands.
Table 1: Mean setting time in minutes (mean±standard deviation) of different putty impression materials mixed by different methods

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Table 2: Comparison of mean setting time (in minutes) of Detaseal™ (DS) putty impression materials mixed by different methods

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Table 3: Comparison of mean setting time of different types putty impression materials when mixed with ungloved hands and with vinyl-gloved hands

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In [Table 2], comparison of mean setting time (in minutes) of Detaseal™ putty material between different mixing methods and also significance of difference in setting time between groups are presented. Detaseal™ showed a mean setting time of 4.27 minutes with Dialstern™ gloves and 3.67 minutes with washed Dialstern™ gloves, which is higher than the setting time seen with hand mix (3.12 minutes). Detaseal™ mixed with washed or unwashed Serjun™ gloves showed significantly higher (P<.01) setting time as compared to hand mix.

[Table 3] shows a comparison of the mean setting time of different putty materials with hand mix and with vinyl gloves; the significance of the differences in the setting time between two groups are also presented. It can be seen that the difference in mean setting time of different putty materials mixed by bare hand and with vinyl-gloved hands was not statistically significant.


   Discussion Top


Various substances have the potential for interaction with polyvinyl siloxane impression material during the setting reaction. Polymerization inhibition reports were not widespread until expanded infection control guidelines were implemented as standard of care in dentistry. Latex gloves and rubber dam are two prominent infection control barriers within the scope of these guidelines. [4],[5],[6] Contraindication for making impression with rubber dam in place was first noted in the private practice by Noonan et al.[7] When addition silicone impression material was used with a rubber dam in place, it was seen that the surface of the impression did not set wherever it touched the rubber dam.

In this study we found that latex gloves - washed and unwashed - affected the setting time of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials. The polymerization of Reprosil™ and Express™ polyvinyl impression materials were completely inhibited. However, Detaseal™ impression material showed only a delay in the setting time with Dialstern™, Janex™, and Safe Touch™ latex gloves; this delay was not statistically significant as compared to hand mix. On the other hand, with Serjun™ and Disposable latex gloves there was significant increase in the setting time (P<.01) as compared to hand mix. The inhibition of polymerization of polyvinyl siloxane putty impression material that we noted in this study was similar to the results obtained by Kahn et al.[6] Based on the severity of polymerization inhibition, Kahn and Donovan classified latex gloves and rubber dam into three categories, i.e., nonreactive, reactive, and very reactive. [8] Simply washing or rinsing the contaminated area does not prevent the polymerization inhibition. It was found that 20 seconds washing of gloves with soap and water inhibited the setting of Reprosil™ and Express™ putty materials. Even after washing with soap and water, both Disposable latex examination gloves and Serjun™ gloves showed significant difference (P<.01) in setting time of putty as compared to hand mix.

The mechanism of inhibition of polymerization is likely to be contamination of the platinum catalyst in the polyvinyl siloxane impression material by the sulfur-containing compound present in the latex gloves. [6],[7] As the vinyl gloves does not show any significant effect on the setting time of addition silicone, they should be worn during the dispensing and mixing of putty. [9]


   Conclusion Top


Three brands of putty impression materials, five brands of latex gloves, and one brand of vinyl glove were used in this study. The following conclusions were drawn:

  • Reprosil™ and Express™ putty impression material shows significant variation in the setting time when mixed with latex gloves.
  • Detaseal™ putty material shows no significant variation in the setting time with some of the latex gloves used in the study.
  • There was no significant variation in the setting time when washed gloves were used.
  • Use of the vinyl glove did not significantly affect the setting time of any of the putty impression materials used in the study.
  • Even though Detaseal™ putty material shows no significant variation in the setting time when mixed with some of the latex gloves, the possible alteration of the physical properties requires further investigation.




 
   References Top

1.Shen C. Impression materials. In: Anusavice KJ, editor. Phillips' Science of Dental Materials, 11 th ed. New Delhi: Elsevier; 2004. p. 212-31.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Allen AL. Organ RJ. Occult blood accumulation under the fingernails: A mechanism for the spread of blood-borne infection. J Am Dent Assoc 1982;105:455-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Baumann MA. The influence of dental gloves on the setting time of impression materials. Br Dent J 1995;179:130-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.Rosen M, Touyz LZ, Becker PJ. The effect of latex gloves on setting time of vinyl polysiloxane putty impression material. Br Dent J 1989;166:374-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.Jones RH, Cook GS, Moon MG. Effect of provisional luting agents on polyvinyl siloxane impression material. J Prosthet Dent 1996;75:360-3.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Kahn RL, Donovan TE, Chee WW. Interaction of gloves and rubber dam with a poly (vinyl Siloxane) impression material: A screening test. Int J Prosthodont 1989;2:342-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.Noonan JE, Goldfogel MH, Lambert RL. Inhibited set of the surface of addition silicones in contact with rubber dam. Oper Dent 1986;10:46-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Kahn RL, Donovan TE. A pilot study of polymerization inhibition of poly (vinyl siloxane) materials by latex gloves. Int J Prosthodont 1989;2:128-30.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    
9.Reitz CD, Clark NP. The setting of vinyl polysiloxane and condensation silicone putties when mixed with gloved hands. J Am Dent Assoc 1988;116:371-5.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    

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Correspondence Address:
C M Ravikumar
Department of Prosthodontics, Vyas Dental College and Hospital, Near Kudi Haud, Kudi, NH-65, Pali Road, Jodhpur, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.100427

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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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