Indian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental Research
HOME | ABOUT US | EDITORIAL BOARD | AHEAD OF PRINT | CURRENT ISSUE | ARCHIVES | INSTRUCTIONS | SUBSCRIBE | ADVERTISE | CONTACT
Indian Journal of Dental Research   Login   |  Users online:

Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size         

 


 
REVIEW ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 350-355
Physiology and toxicity of fluoride


1 Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Darshan Dental College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Faculty of Science, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission09-Aug-2008
Date of Decision30-Apr-2009
Date of Acceptance23-Jun-2009
Date of Web Publication30-Oct-2009
 

   Abstract 

Fluoride has been described as an essential element needed for normal development and growth of animals and extremely useful for human beings. Fluoride is abundant in the environment and the main source of fluoride to humans is drinking water. It has been proved to be beneficial in recommended doses, and at the same time its toxicity at higher levels has also been well established. Fluoride gets accumulated in hard tissues of the body and has been know to play an important role in mineralization of bone and teeth. At high levels it has been known to cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. There are suggested effects of very high levels of fluoride on various body organs and genetic material. The purpose of this paper is to review the various aspects of fluoride and its importance in human life.

Keywords: Dental, fluoride, fluorosis, skeletal, toxicity

How to cite this article:
Dhar V, Bhatnagar M. Physiology and toxicity of fluoride. Indian J Dent Res 2009;20:350-5

How to cite this URL:
Dhar V, Bhatnagar M. Physiology and toxicity of fluoride. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2009 [cited 2021 Dec 9];20:350-5. Available from: https://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2009/20/3/350/57379
Fluoride has been described as an essential nutrient and fluorine has also been included in the list of 14 elements recognized to be physiologically essential for the normal development and growth of human beings.

The fluoride ion comes from the element fluorine. Fluorine, the 17 th most abundant element in the earth's crust, is a gas and never occurs in a free state in nature. Fluorine exists only in combination with other elements as fluoride compounds, which are constituents of minerals in rocks and soil.


   Fluoride From the Air Top


The atmosphere normally contains negligible concentrations of airborne fluorides. Studies reporting the levels of fluoride in air in the United States suggest that ambient fluoride contributes little to an individual's overall fluoride intake. [1],[2]


   Fluoride in Food Top


Fish, such as sardines, may contribute to higher dietary fluoride intake if the bones are ingested. Brewed teas may also contain fluoride concentrations of 1-6 ppm depending on the amount of dry tea used, the water fluoride concentration and the brewing time. [3]

The average daily dietary intake of fluoride (expressed on a body weight basis) by children residing in optimally fluoridated (1 ppm) communities is 0.05 mg/kg/day; in communities without optimally fluoridated water, average intakes for children are about 50% lower. Dietary fluoride intake by adults in optimally fluoridated (1 ppm) areas averages 1.4-3.4 mg/day, and in nonfluoridated areas averages 0.3-1.0 mg/day. [4]


   Water Fluoridation Top


Based on extensive research, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS, 1986) established the optimum concentration for fluoride in the water in the United States in the range of 0.7-1.2 ppm. This range effectively reduces tooth decay while minimizing the occurrence of dental fluorosis. The optimum level is dependent on the annual average of the maximum daily air temperature in the geographic area. [5]


   Indian Scenario Top


In India, fluoride level in ground water varies substantially in different regions.

High concentrations of fluoride (>1.5 mg/l) have been reported in the states of Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Maharastra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Orissa, Himachal Pradesh, and Bihar. [6]

Due to lack of central water supply in most of the country, groundwater is being used for drinking purposes. Fluoride levels in drinking water are also found to be low or normal in certain areas. Unfortunately, proper fluoride mapping has not been carried in India so as to locate areas with normal, low, or high levels of fluoride. Dietary fluoride supplements are available only by prescription and are intended for use by children living in nonfluoridated areas to increase their fluoride exposure so that it is similar to that by children who live in optimally fluoridated areas. [7],[8],[9] Dietary fluoride supplements are available in two forms: Drops for infants aged six months and up, and chewable tablets for children and adolescents. [10] The correct amount of a fluoride supplement is based on the child's age and the existing fluoride level in the drinking water [Table 1] and [Table 2]. [11],[12] While total costs for the purchase of supplements and administration of a program are small (compared with the initial cost of the installation of water fluoridation equipment), the overall cost of supplements per child is much greater than the per capita cost of community fluoridation. [13] In addition, community water fluoridation provides decay prevention benefits for the entire population regardless of age, socioeconomic status, educational attainment, or other social variables. [14] This is particularly important for families who do not have access to regular dental services.


   Metabolism of Fluoride Top


After ingestion of fluoride, such as drinking a glass of optimally fluoridated water, the majority of the fluoride is absorbed from the stomach and small intestine into the blood stream. [15] This causes a short-term increase of fluoride levels in the blood. The fluoride levels increase quickly and reach a peak concentration within 20-60 min. [16] The concentration declines rapidly, usually within 3-6 h following the peak levels, due to the uptake of fluoride by hard tissue and efficient removal of fluoride by the kidneys. [3] Approximately, 50% of the fluoride absorbed each day by young or middle- aged adults becomes associated with hard tissues within 24 h while virtually all of the remainder is excreted in the urine. Approximately, 99% of the fluoride present in the body is associated with hard tissues. [15]

Fluoride exists in both ionic and bound forms in plasma, with the bound form being present in larger quantity. Fluoride concentrations in human saliva are slightly less than those found in plasma, ranging from less than 0.01 to 0.05 ppm.

Ingested or systemic fluoride becomes incorporated into forming tooth structures. Fluoride ingested regularly during the time when teeth are developing is deposited throughout the entire surface of the tooth and contributes to long lasting protection against dental decay. [17]

An individual's age and stage of skeletal development will affect the rate of fluoride retention. The amount of fluoride taken up by bone and retained in the body is inversely related to age. More fluoride is retained in young bones than in the bones of older adults. [3],[14],[15]

According to generally accepted scientific knowledge, the ingestion of optimally fluoridated water does not have an adverse effect on bone. [18],[19],[20],[21],[22]

The kidneys play the major role in the removal of fluoride from the body. Normally kidneys are very efficient and excrete fluoride very rapidly. However, decreased fluoride removal may occur among persons with severely impaired renal function who may not be on renal dialysis. [23] No cases of dental fluorosis or symptomatic skeletal fluorosis have been reported among persons with impaired renal function; however, the overall health significance of reduced fluoride removal is uncertain and continued follow-up is recommended especially for children with impaired renal function. [12]


   Fluoride in Hard Tissues Top


Teeth

Simply put, fluoride is obtained in two forms: Topical and systemic. Topical fluorides strengthen teeth already present in the mouth. In this method of delivery, fluoride is incorporated into the surface of teeth making them more decay resistant. Topically applied fluoride provides local protection on the tooth surface. Topical fluorides include toothpastes, mouth rinses, and professionally applied fluoride gels and rinses.

Systemic fluorides are those that are ingested into the body and become incorporated into forming tooth structures. In contrast to topical fluorides, systemic fluorides ingested regularly during the time when teeth are developing are deposited throughout the entire surface and provide longer lasting protection than those applied topically. [17] Systemic fluorides can also give topical protection because ingested fluoride is present in saliva, which continually bathes the teeth providing a reservoir of fluoride that can be incorporated into the tooth surface to prevent decay. Fluoride also becomes incorporated into dental plaque and facilitates further remineralization. [24] Sources of systemic fluorides include water, dietary fluoride supplements in the forms of tablets, drops or lozenges, and fluoride present in food and beverages.

Researchers have observed fluoride's decay preventive effects through three specific mechanisms: [25],[26]

  1. It reduces the solubility of enamel in acid by converting hydroxyapatite into less soluble fluorhydroxyapatite/fluorapatite.
  2. It exerts an influence directly on dental plaque by reducing the ability of plaque organisms to produce acid.
  3. It promotes the remineralization or repair of tooth enamel in areas that have been demineralized by acids.


The remineralization effect of fluoride is of prime importance. Fluoride ions in and at the enamel surface result in fortified enamel that is not only more resistant to decay, but enamel that can repair or remineralize early dental decay caused by acids from decay-causing bacteria. [27],[28],[29],[30],[31]

Maximum decay reduction is produced when fluoride is available for incorporation during all stages of tooth formation (systemically) and by topical effect after eruption. [32]

Bone

The quantity of fluoride accumulation by the skeleton is closely related to the concentration of fluoride in drinking water, although it would be influenced by large deviations from normal levels of fluoride in the diet. Numerous studies have established that fluoride is bound within the bone replacing hydroxyl or bicarbonate groups normally associated with hydroxyapatite structures and it increases the crystallinity or crystal structure of the apatite.


   Fluoride Toxicity Top


It is well established that prolonged use of fluoride at recommended levels does not produce any harmful physiological effects in the human. However, there are safe limits for fluoride beyond which harmful effects can occur. These effects can be classified as acute and chronic toxicity.

Acute toxicity

This can occur due to a single ingestion of a large amount of fluoride. Ingestion of an acute fatal dose of fluoride is very rare. The amount of fluoride considered lethal when taken orally is 35-70 mg F per kg body weight. This is equivalent to 5-10 g sodium fluoride for a 70-kg adult and 1-2 g sodium fluoride for a 15-kg child. [33]

Symptoms of acute toxicity occur rapidly. There is diffuse abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, excess salivation, and thirst. Rapid measures to reduce fluoride absorption should be started by inducing vomiting and administrating large volume of calcium as in lime water or milk. Because alkaline urine prevents fluoride reabsorption, it is suggested that expeditious manipulation of urinary pH by diuresis with an alkalinizing agent might favorably affect the clinical outcome in such cases. Due to rapid elimination of fluoride in the urine, a patient surviving the first 24 h has a good prognosis. [3]

Chronic toxicity

This is caused due to long-term ingestion of smaller amounts of fluoride in drinking water. Excessive fluoride more than 8 ppm in drinking water daily for many years can lead to skeletal fluorosis. Severe cases are normally found only in warm climates where drinking water contains very high levels of fluoride. Due to chronic toxicity, bone density slowly increases; the joints stiffen and becomes painful.

At higher levels of ingestion-from 2 to 8 mg daily, skeletal fluorosis may arise. Whereas dental fluorosis is easily recognized, the skeletal involvement is not clinically obvious until the advanced stage and early cases may be misdiagnosed as rheumatoid or osteoarthritis. [33]

Fluoride increases the stability of the crystal lattice in bone, but makes bone more brittle. The total quantity of fluoride ingested is the single most important factor in determining the clinical course of skeletal fluorosis; the severity of symptoms correlates directly with the level and duration of exposure.

Bone changes observed in human skeletal fluorosis are structural and functional, with a combination of osteosclerosis, osteomalacia, osteoporosis and exostosis formation, and secondary hyperparathyroidism in a proportion of patients. At very high fluoride concentrations, stages 2 and 3 of skeletal fluorosis are likely to occur. The clinical signs of these stages are chronic joint pain, dose related calcification of ligaments, osteosclerosis, possible osteoporosis of long bones, and in severe cases, muscle wasting and neurological defects. Because some of the clinical symptoms mimic arthritis, the first two clinical phases of skeletal fluorosis could be easily misdiagnosed.

Dental fluorosis

It can be described as a diffuse symmetric hypomineralization disorder of ameloblasts. Fluorosis is irreversible and only occurs with exposure to fluoride when enamel is developing.

Instead of being a normal creamy-white translucent color, fluorosed enamel is porous (objectionable secondary staining often occurs) and opaque; teeth can resemble a ghastly white chalk color (light refractivity is greatly reduced because the enamel's prism structure is defective). Cloudy striated (lines of demarcation) enamel, white specks or blotches, 'snow- capping', yellowish-brown spots, or brown pits on teeth are all characteristic of fluorosis. In its more severe form, fluorosed enamel is structurally weak (brittle) and prone to erosion and breakage, especially when drilled and filled. Even in the milder forms, there is increased enamel attrition. Fluorotic lesions are not just confined to enamel but can be seen by microscope in dentin as well. Because fluoride is a powerful bone and tooth seeking element, it also deposits bone or bone-like material externally on the roots of teeth, and internally in the tooth's pulp chamber; the calcified material narrows the pulp chamber, and thereby interferes with tooth nutrition. Fluorosis is a toxic manifestation of chronic (low-dose, long-term) fluoride intake. To prevent fluorosis from occurring in the most prominent and/or most susceptible teeth, the most critical time to avoid fluoride exposure is the first three to six years of a child's life.

Fejerskov et al. (1977) stated that the effect of fluoride on enamel formation can follow several possible pathogenic pathways: [29]

  1. Effect on ameloblasts

    1. Secretory phase

      • Diminished matrix production
      • Change of matrix composition
      • Change in ion transport mechanism


    2. Maturation phase

      • Diminished withdrawal of protein and water


  2. Effect on nucleation and crystal growth in all stages of enamel formation
  3. Effect on calcium homeostasis generally with dental fluorosis as an indirect result


During tooth formation, the cells of the dental tissues, particularly the ameloblasts, are very sensitive to fluoride. At relatively low doses, e.g., 2 ppm of fluoride in the water, small spots, or mottling, vary in color from paper white to dark brown. The brown stain of the latter condition usually accumulates after eruption. These doses affect only the appearance and not the structure of the tooth. At higher doses, the cells may be affected and the tooth structure severely altered, so that the normally smooth surface shows hypoplastic corrugations. These effects, mottled appearance and altered form, are produced only when excessive amounts of fluoride are ingested during the period of formation and calcification, i.e., during the first eight years of life in man. After the tooth erupts and calcification has been completed, ingested fluoride does not have adverse dental consequences. Fluorosis is seen to affect mainly permanent dentition and very high fluoride levels (>10 ppm) are required in drinking water for it to cross placental barrier and affect primary dentition.

Dental fluorosis might be more than a cosmetic defect if enough fluorotic enamel is fractured and lost to cause pain, adversely affect food choices, compromise chewing efficiency, and require complex dental treatment.


   Genotoxicity of Fluoride Top


Many studies have examined the possible effects of fluoride on chromosome damage. While there are no published studies on the genotoxic (damage to DNA) effect of fluoride in humans, numerous studies have been done on mice. [23] These studies have shown no evidence of effect of fluoride on chromosomes in bone marrow or sperm cells even at fluoride levels 100 times higher than that in fluoridated water. [34],[35],[36],[37],[38],[39],[40] Another independent group of researchers reported a similar lack of fluoride-induced chromosomal damage to human white blood cells, which are especially sensitive to agents that cause genetic mutations. Not only did fluoride fail to damage chromosomes but it also protected them against the effect of a known mutagen. [41] The genotoxic effects of fluoride were also studied in hamster bone marrow cells and cultured hamster ovarian cells. Again, the results supported the conclusion that fluoride does not cause chromosomal damage, and therefore, was not a genetic hazard. [42] In further tests, fluoride has not caused genetic mutations in the most widely used bacterial mutagenesis assay (the Ames test) over a wide range of fluoride levels. [43],[44],[45]

Occasional questions arise regarding fluoride's effects on human reproduction, fertility and birth rates. Very high levels of fluoride intake have been associated with adverse effects on reproductive outcomes in many animal species. Based on these findings, it appears that fluoride concentrations associated with adverse reproductive effects in animals are far higher (100-200 ppm) than those to which human populations are exposed. Consequently, there is insufficient scientific basis on which to conclude that ingestion of fluoride at levels found in community water fluoridation (0.7-1.2 ppm) would have adverse effects on human reproduction. [23]

The National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences 1993 [23] supports the conclusion that drinking optimally fluoridated water is not a genetic hazard. In a statement summarizing its research, the NRC states that:

  1. The genotoxicity of fluoride is limited primarily to doses much higher than those to which humans are exposed.
  2. Even at high doses, genotoxic effects are not always observed.
  3. The preponderance of the genotoxic effects that have been reported are of the types that probably are of no or negligible genetic significance.


The lowest dose of fluoride reported to cause chromosomal changes in mammalian cells was approximately 170 times than normally found in human cells in areas where drinking water is fluoridated, which indicates a very large margin of safety.


   Others Top


Fluoride toxicity at high levels has been associated with thyroid changes, growth retardation, kidney changes, and even urolithiasis.

Existing data indicate that some subsets of the population may be unusually susceptible to the toxic effects of fluoride and its compounds. These populations include the elderly, people with deficiencies of calcium, magnesium, and/or vitamin C, and people with cardiovascular and kidney problems.


   Conclusions Top


It is very clear that fluoride in recommended concentrations is definitely beneficial to health. So as to capitalize on the beneficial effects of fluoride, judicious use of fluoride supplements is mandatory. The need to mark out areas with low, recommended, and high levels of fluoride in drinking water or food cannot be underestimated. Measures should be taken to use fluoride to our advantage in achieving optimal health.

 
   References Top

1.Hodge HC, Smith FA. Occupational fluoride exposure. J Occup Med 1977;19:12-39.   Back to cited text no. 1  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
2.Committee on Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants. Biologic effects of atmospheric pollutants: Fluorides. Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences; 1971.p. 5-9.   Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Whitford GM. The metabolism and toxicity of fluoride. 2 nd rev. ed. Monographs in oral science. Vol. 16. Basel, Switzerland: Karger; 1996.   Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D and fluoride. Report of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Washington, DC: National Academy Press;(In press).   Back to cited text no. 4      
5.US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, Dental Disease Prevention Activity. Water fluoridation: A manual for engineers and technicians. Atlanta; 1986.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Susheela AK. Fluorosis: Indian scenario. A Treatise on Fluorosis. Fluorosis Research and Rural Development Foundation; 2001. p. 13-5.  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Largent E. The supply of fluorine to man: 1. Introduction. Fluorides and human health. Geneva: World Health Organization Monograph Series No. 59; 1970. p. 17-8.   Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Rugg-Gunn AJ. Nutrition and dental health. New York: Oxford University Press; 1993.   Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Safe Drinking Water Committee, National Research Council. Drinking water and health. Washington, DC; National Academy of Sciences; 1977.   Back to cited text no. 9      
10.American Dental Association, Council on Access Prevention and Interprofessional Relations. Caries diagnosis and risk assessment: A review of preventive strategies and management. J Am Dent Assoc 1995;126.   Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Levy SM, Kiritsy MC, Warren JJ. Sources of fluoride intake in children. J Public Health Dent 1995;55:39-52.   Back to cited text no. 11      
12.US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Review of fluoride: Benefits and risks. Washington, DC; Report of the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Fluoride; 1991.   Back to cited text no. 12      
13.Garcia AI. Caries incidence and costs of prevention programs. J Public Health Dent 1989;49:259-71.  Back to cited text no. 13      
14.Horowitz HS. The effectiveness of community water fluoridation in the United States. J Public Health Dent 1996;56:253-8.  Back to cited text no. 14      
15.Whitford GM. The physiological and toxicological characteristics of fluoride. J Dent Res 1990;69:539-49.   Back to cited text no. 15      
16.Whitford GM. Intake and metabolism of fluoride. Adv Dent Res 1994;8:5-14.  Back to cited text no. 16      
17.Newbrun E. Fluorides and dental caries. 3 rd ed. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, publisher; 1986.   Back to cited text no. 17      
18.Cauley JA, Murphy PA, Riley TJ, Buhari AM. Effects of fluoridated drinking water on bone mass and fractures: The study of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Min Res 1995;10:1076-86.   Back to cited text no. 18      
19.Gordon SL, Corbin SB. Summary of workshop on drinking water fluoridation influence on hip fracture on bone health. (National Institutes of Health, 10 April, 1991) Osteoporos Int 1992;2:109-17.   Back to cited text no. 19      
20.Jacobsen SJ, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ 3 rd . Hip fracture incidence before and after the fluoridation of the public water supply, Rochester, Minnesota. Am J Public Health 1993;83:743-5.   Back to cited text no. 20      
21.Karagas MR, Baron JA, Barrett JA, Jacobsen SJ. Patterns of fracture among the United States elderly: Geographic and fluoride effects. Ann Epidemiol 1996;6:209-16.   Back to cited text no. 21      
22.Suarez-Almazor ME, Flowerdew G, Saunders LD, Soskolne CL, Russell AS. The fluoridation of drinking water and hip fracture hospitalization rates in two Canadian communities. Am J Public Health 1993;83:689-93.   Back to cited text no. 22      
23.National Research Council. Health effects of ingested fluoride. Report of the Subcommittee on Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press;1993.   Back to cited text no. 23      
24.Lambrou D, Larsen MJ, Fejerskov O, Tachos B. The effect of fluoride in saliva on remineralization of dental enamel in humans. Caries Res 1981;15:341-5.   Back to cited text no. 24      
25.DePaola PF, Kashket S. Prevention of dental caries. In: Fluorides, effects on vegetation, animals and humans. Schupe JL, Peterson HB, Leone NC, editors. Salt Lake City: Paragon Press; 1983. p. 199-211.   Back to cited text no. 25      
26.Mellberg JR, Ripa LW. Fluoride in preventive dentistry: Theory and clinical applications. Chicago: Quintessence; 1983. p. 41-80.   Back to cited text no. 26      
27.Backer-Dirks O, Kunzel W, Carlos JP. Caries-preventive water fluoridation. In: Progress in caries prevention. Ericsson Y, editor. Caries Res 1978;12:7-14.   Back to cited text no. 27      
28.Featherstone JD. The mechanism of dental decay. Nutrition Today; 1987. p. 10-6.   Back to cited text no. 28      
29.Fejerskov O, Thylstrup A, Larsen MJ. Rational use of fluorides in caries prevention. A concept based on possible cariostatic mechanisms. Acta Odontol Scan 1981;39:241-9.   Back to cited text no. 29      
30.Silverstone LM, Wefel JS, Zimmerman BF, Clarkson BH, Featherstone MJ. Remineralization of natural and artificial lesions in human dental enamel in vitro. Effect of calcium concentration of the calcifying fluid. Caries Res 1981;15:138-57.   Back to cited text no. 30      
31.Silverstone LM. Remineralization and enamel caries: New concepts. Dental Update 1993;10:261-73.   Back to cited text no. 31      
32.Hargreaves JA. The level and timing of systemic exposure to fluoride with respect to caries resistance. J Dent Res 1992;71:1244-8.   Back to cited text no. 32      
33.Mellberg JR, Ripa LW. Flouride metabolism. Fluorides in Preventive Dentistry-Theory and clinical Applications. Quintessence Publishing Co Limited; 1983. p. 81-102.  Back to cited text no. 33      
34.Dunipace AJ, Zhang W, Noblitt TW, Li Y, Stookey GK. Genotoxic evaluation of chronic fluoride exposure: Micronucleus and sperm morphology studies. J Dent Res 1989;68:1525-8.   Back to cited text no. 34      
35.Kram D, Schneider EL, Singer L, Martin GR. The effects of high and low fluoride diets on the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges. Mutat Res 1978;57:51-5.   Back to cited text no. 35      
36.Li Y, Dunipace AJ, Stookey GK. Effects of fluoride on the mouse sperm morphology test. J Dent Res 1987;66:1509-11.   Back to cited text no. 36      
37.Li Y, Dunipace AJ, Stookey GK. Lack of genotoxic effects of fluoride in the mouse bone-marrow micronucleus test. J Dent Res 1987;66:1687-90.   Back to cited text no. 37      
38.Li YM, Heerema NA, Dunipace AJ, Stookey GK. Genotoxic effects of fluoride evaluated by sister-chromatid exchange. Mutat Res 1987;192:191-201.   Back to cited text no. 38      
39.Li YM, Zhang W, Noblitt TW, Dunipace AJ, Stookey GK. Genotoxic evaluation of chronic fluoride exposure: Sister-chromatid exchange study. Mutat Res 1989;227:159-65.   Back to cited text no. 39      
40.Zeiger E, Gulati DK, Kaur P, Mohamed AH, Revazova J, Deaton TG. Cytogenetic studies of sodium fluoride in mice. Mutagenesis 1994;9:467-71.   Back to cited text no. 40      
41.Obe G, Slacik-Erben R. Suppressive activity by fluoride on the induction of chromosome aberrations in human cells and alkylating agents in vitro. Mutat Res 1973;19:369-71.   Back to cited text no. 41      
42.Martin GR, Brown KS, Singer L, Ophaug R, Jacobson-Kram D. Cytogenic and mutagenic assays on fluoride. In: Fluorides, effects on vegetation, animals and humans. Schupe JL, Peterson HB, Leone NC, editors. Salt Lake City: Paragon Press; 1983. p. 271-80.   Back to cited text no. 42      
43.Li Y, Dunipace AJ, Stookey GK. Absence of mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of fluoride in Ames salmonella assays. Mutut Res 1987;120:229-36.   Back to cited text no. 43      
44.Martin GR, Brown KS, Matheson DW, Lebowitz H, Singer L, Ophaug R. Lack of cytogenetic effects in mice or mutations in salmonella receiving sodium fluoride. Mutat Res 1979;66:159-67.  Back to cited text no. 44      
45.Tong CC, McQueen CA, Brat SV, Williams GM. The lack of genotoxicity of sodium fluoride in a battery of cellular tests. Cell Biol Toxicol 1988;4:173-86.   Back to cited text no. 45      

Top
Correspondence Address:
Vineet Dhar
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Darshan Dental College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.57379

Rights and Permissions



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]

This article has been cited by
1 A comprehensive review on endemic and experimental fluorosis in sheep: Its diverse effects and prevention
Abdellatif Rahim, Abdelkhalid Essamadi, Bouchra El Amiri
Toxicology. 2022; 465: 153025
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Fluoride concentrations in drinking water and health risk assessment in the south of Algeria
Mohamed Amine Kerdoun, Sabah Mekhloufi, Oum El Kheir Adjaine, Zineb Bechki, Mohamed Gana, Hakim Belkhalfa
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2022; 128: 105086
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Presence of fluoride in water diminishes fast the SPR peak of silver nanocrystals showing large red shift with quick sedimentation – A fast sensing and fast removal case
Babli Debnath, Ratan Das
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2021; 249: 119306
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Structure–Activity Relationship of Lanthanide-Incorporated Nano-Hydroxyapatite for the Adsorption of Fluoride and Lead
A. K. D. Veromee Kalpana Wimalasiri, M. Shanika Fernando, Karolina Dziemidowicz, Gareth R. Williams, K. Rasika Koswattage, D. P. Dissanayake, K. M. Nalin de Silva, Rohini M. de Silva
ACS Omega. 2021; 6(21): 13527
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 A comparison of fluoride removal techniques using multi criteria analysis
Bidyutprava Behera, Himanshu Bhushan Sahu
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Association between Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Gene Polymorphisms and Skeletal Fluorosis of The Brick-tea Type Fluorosis in Tibetans and Kazakhs, China
Qun Lou, Ning Guo, Wei Huang, Liaowei Wu, Mengyao Su, Yang Liu, Xiaona Liu, Bingyun Li, Yanmei Yang, Yanhui Gao
International Journal of Environmental Health Research. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 The influence of vegetarian and vegan diets on the state of bone mineral density in humans
Alexey Galchenko, K. Gapparova, E. Sidorova
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Fraxetin prevented sodium fluoride-induced chronic pancreatitis in rats: Role of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antifibrotic and anti-apoptotic activities
Mohamed Balaha, Nehad Ahmed, Ayman Geddawy, Samah Kandeel
International Immunopharmacology. 2021; 93: 107372
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Microwave assisted accelerated fluoride adsorption by porous nanohydroxyapatite
A.K.D. Veromee K. Wimalasiri, M. Shanika Fernando, Gareth R. Williams, Dhammike P. Dissanayake, K.M. Nalin de Silva, Rohini M. de Silva
Materials Chemistry and Physics. 2021; 257: 123712
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Fluoride sources, toxicity and fluorosis management techniques – A brief review
Shreyas J. Kashyap, Ravi Sankannavar, G.M. Madhu
Journal of Hazardous Materials Letters. 2021; 2: 100033
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Effects of Fluorine on Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation through Regulating AMPK/p38 Signaling Pathway
Yanyan Song, Yue Zhang, Peijun Zhang, Peng Yu, Xinchi Shang, Yuting Lu, Yuehong Li, Hang Gao, Alin Ciobica
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2021; 2021: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Effects of sodium fluoride and Ocimum sanctum extract on the lifespan and climbing ability of Drosophila melanogaster
Sidra Perveen, Shalu Kumari, Himali Raj, Shahla Yasmin
The Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology. 2021; 82(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Modern aspects of inflammatory external ear diseases treatment
V.M. Svistushkin, G.N. Nikiforova, E.A. Shevchik, A.V. Zolotova
Vestnik otorinolaringologii. 2021; 86(3): 90
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 The Effects of Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Fluoride, and Lead on Bone Tissue
Zaneta Ciosek, Karolina Kot, Danuta Kosik-Bogacka, Natalia Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Iwona Rotter
Biomolecules. 2021; 11(4): 506
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 d-Lactones—A New Class of Compounds That Are Toxic to E. coli K12 and R2–R4 Strains
Pawel Kowalczyk, Barbara Gawdzik, Damian Trzepizur, Mateusz Szymczak, Grzegorz Skiba, Stanislawa Raj, Karol Kramkowski, Rafal Lizut, Ryszard Ostaszewski
Materials. 2021; 14(11): 2956
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Bioaccumulation of Fluoride in Plants and Its Microbially Assisted Remediation: A Review of Biological Processes and Technological Performance
Rakesh Kumar, Rama Sinha, Pushpa Kumari Sharma, Nishita Ivy, Pawan Kumar, Nishi Kant, Aprajita Jha, Prakash Kumar Jha, Pankaj Kumar Gupta, Prabhakar Sharma, Rakesh Kumar Singh, Rajeev Pratap Singh, Ashok Ghosh, P. V. Vara Prasad
Processes. 2021; 9(12): 2154
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 The use of hydroxyapatite toothpaste to prevent dental caries
Kelsey O’Hagan-Wong, Joachim Enax, Frederic Meyer, Bernhard Ganss
Odontology. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Selenium Exerts Protective Effects Against Fluoride-Induced Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress and Altered the Expression of Bcl-2/Caspase Family
Jiping Gao, Xiaolin Tian, Xiaoru Yan, Yu Wang, Jianing Wei, Xiaotang Wang, Xiaoyan Yan, Guohua Song
Biological Trace Element Research. 2021; 199(2): 682
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 miR-122-5p Mediates Fluoride-Induced Osteoblast Activation by Targeting CDK4
Chen Li, Yu Qin, Ting Ouyang, Maolin Yao, Aihua Zhang, Peng Luo, Xueli Pan
Biological Trace Element Research. 2021; 199(4): 1215
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Effects of Fluorine on Intestinal Structural Integrity and Microbiota Composition of Common Carp
Huiyuan Yu, Yue Zhang, Peijun Zhang, Xinchi Shang, Yuting Lu, Yunhe Fu, Yuehong Li
Biological Trace Element Research. 2021; 199(9): 3489
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Dental Fluorosis and Periodontium: an Original Research Report of In Vitro and In Vivo Institutional Studies
K. L. Vandana, B. Srishti Raj, Rajendra Desai
Biological Trace Element Research. 2021; 199(10): 3579
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Fluoride and Biological Mineralization II: Mechanism of Action of Fluoride to Influence the Collagen-Induced In Vitro Mineralization and Demineralization Reactions
Monica Kakkar, Vivek Kapoor, Surinder Kumar Singla, Raj Kumar Jethi
Biological Trace Element Research. 2021; 199(11): 4145
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Interleukin 17A deficiency alleviates fluoride-induced testicular injury by inhibiting the immune response and apoptosis
Yanyan Li, Yangfei Zhao, Jinming Wang, Min Cheng, Jundong Wang
Chemosphere. 2021; 263: 128178
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Fluoride concentration in bottled drinking water from a fluoride endemic area: A market-based survey
Mohamed Amine Kerdoun, Hocine Bouaziz, Oum El Kheir Adjaine, Sabah Mekhloufi, Zineb Bechki, Hakim Belkhalfa
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Fluoride exposure during pregnancy and lactation triggers oxidative stress and molecular changes in hippocampus of offspring rats
Maria Karolina Martins Ferreira, Walessa Alana Bragança Aragão, Leonardo Oliveira Bittencourt, Bruna Puty, Aline Dionizio, Michel Platini Caldas de Souza, Marilia Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Edivaldo Herculano de Oliveira, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez, Rafael Rodrigues Lima
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2021; 208: 111437
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Association between fluoride exposure and kidney function in adults: A cross-sectional study based on endemic fluorosis area in China
Liaowei Wu, Chenlu Fan, Zaihong Zhang, Xin Zhang, Qun Lou, Ning Guo, Wei Huang, Meichen Zhang, Fanshuo Yin, Zhizhong Guan, Yanmei Yang, Yanhui Gao
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2021; 225: 112735
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Fluoride exposure altered metabolomic profile in rat serum
Baijuan Yue, Xuhua Zhang, Wanpan Li, Jundong Wang, Zilong Sun, Ruiyan Niu
Chemosphere. 2020; 258: 127387
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 Prevents Memory Dysfunction Induced by Chronic High-Fluorine Intake through Modulating Intestinal Environment and Improving Gut Development
Ning Sun, Xueqin Ni, Hesong Wang, Jinge Xin, Ying Zhao, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing, Dong Zeng
Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins. 2020; 12(4): 1420
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Fluoride levels in supply water from a volcanic area in the Macaronesia region
Carmen Rubio, Inmaculada Rodríguez, Juan R. Jaudenes, Angel J. Gutiérrez, Soraya Paz, Antonio Burgos, Arturo Hardisson, Consuelo Revert
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2020; 27(11): 11587
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 ??????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????
?.?. ????
????????????? ??????????. 2020; (4): 87
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Ginkgo biloba ameliorates fluoride toxicity in rats by altering histopathology, serum enzymes of heme metabolism and oxidative stress without affecting brain mGluR5 gene
Sugavasi Raju, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Kanchanalatha Gudemalla
Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2020; 16(70): 320
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Effect of Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water on Dental Fluorosis in Southwest Saudi Arabia
Gotam Das, Vineet Tirth, Suraj Arora, Ali Algahtani, Mohammed Kafeel, Ayed Hassan G Alqarni, Priyanka Saluja, Hitesh Vij, Shashit Shetty Bavabeedu, Amit Tirth
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(11): 3914
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 The Protective Effect of Static Magnetic Fields with Different Magnetic Inductions against Fluoride Toxicity Is Related to the NRF2 Signaling Pathway
Magdalena Kimsa-Dudek, Agata Krawczyk, Agnieszka Synowiec-Wojtarowicz
Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(18): 6509
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Spectroscopic and TDDFT investigation of highly selective fluoride sensors by substituted acyl hydrazones
Athira M. John, Jemini Jose, Renjith Thomas, Karukappallil J. Thomas, Sreeja P. Balakrishnan
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2020; 236: 118329
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Transcriptome analysis reveals the mechanism of fluorine exposure on memory loss of common carp
Yue Zhang, Peijun Zhang, Peng Yu, Xinchi Shang, Yuting Lu, Yuehong Li
Environmental Pollution. 2020; 265: 114927
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Association between ALOX15 gene polymorphism and brick-tea type skeletal fluorosis in Tibetans, Kazaks and Han, China
Yanru Chu,Yang Liu,Ning Guo,Qun Lou,Limei Wang,Wei Huang,Liaowei Wu,Jian Wang,Meichen Zhang,Fanshuo Yin,Yanhui Gao,Yanmei Yang
International Journal of Environmental Health Research. 2019; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Association between ALOX15 gene polymorphism and brick-tea type skeletal fluorosis in Tibetans, Kazaks and Han, China
Yanru Chu,Yang Liu,Ning Guo,Qun Lou,Limei Wang,Wei Huang,Liaowei Wu,Jian Wang,Meichen Zhang,Fanshuo Yin,Yanhui Gao,Yanmei Yang
International Journal of Environmental Health Research. 2019; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Evaluation of Eruption Pattern and Caries Occurrence among Children Affected with Fluorosis
Garima Singh, Aparna Trivedi, Naveen R Banda, Nitu Mishra, Ekta Srivastava
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2019; 20(10): 1217
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Factors influencing the relationship between fluoride in drinking water and dental fluorosis: a ten-year systematic review and meta-analysis
M. H. Akuno,G. Nocella,E. P. Milia,L. Gutierrez
Journal of Water and Health. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Osseointegration of titanium dental implant under fluoride exposure in rabbits: Micro-CT and histomorphometry study
Ying-juan Yu,Wen-qing Zhu,Li-na Xu,Pan-pan Ming,Shui-yi Shao,Jing Qiu
Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2019; 30(10): 1038
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Osseointegration of titanium dental implant under fluoride exposure in rabbits: Micro-CT and histomorphometry study
Ying-juan Yu,Wen-qing Zhu,Li-na Xu,Pan-pan Ming,Shui-yi Shao,Jing Qiu
Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2019; 30(10): 1038
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Occurrence of fluorosis in a population living in a high-fluoride groundwater area: Nakuru area in the Central Kenyan Rift Valley
Patrick Gevera,Hassina Mouri,Godfrey Maronga
Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2019; 41(2): 829
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Occurrence of fluorosis in a population living in a high-fluoride groundwater area: Nakuru area in the Central Kenyan Rift Valley
Patrick Gevera,Hassina Mouri,Godfrey Maronga
Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2019; 41(2): 829
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Selenium attenuates apoptosis and p-AMPK expressions in fluoride-induced NRK-52E cells
Jiping Gao,Yu Wang,Guoqiang Xu,Jianing Wei,Kai Chang,Xiaolin Tian,Maolin Liu,Xiaoyan Yan,Meijun Huo,Guohua Song
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2019; 26(15): 15685
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Excessive fluoride in groundwater of Central Ganga Alluvial Plain: a case study of Fatehpur, North India
V. Dutta,N. Fatima,N. Kumar
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2019; 16(12): 7791
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Excessive fluoride in groundwater of Central Ganga Alluvial Plain: a case study of Fatehpur, North India
V. Dutta,N. Fatima,N. Kumar
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2019; 16(12): 7791
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Subchronic Administration of High-Dose Sodium Fluoride Causes Deficits in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells But Not Motor Coordination of Rats
Fitriani Agustina,Zaenal Muttaqien Sofro,Ginus Partadiredja
Biological Trace Element Research. 2019; 188(2): 424
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Isolation of Fluoride Tolerant Bacillus spp (KT201599, KT201600) from the Midgut of Drosophila melanogaster: Their Probable Role in Fluoride Removal
Moumita Dutta,Bappaditya Pan,Koushik Ghosh,Pradipta Saha,Sumedha Roy
Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Isolation of Fluoride Tolerant Bacillus spp (KT201599, KT201600) from the Midgut of Drosophila melanogaster: Their Probable Role in Fluoride Removal
Moumita Dutta,Bappaditya Pan,Koushik Ghosh,Pradipta Saha,Sumedha Roy
Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 Fluoride distribution and contamination in the water, soil and plants continuum and its remedial technologies, an Indian perspective– a review
Gayatri Singh,Babita Kumari,Geetgovind Sinam,Geetgovind Kriti,Navin Kumar,Shekhar Mallick
Environmental Pollution. 2018; 239: 95
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 Fluoride distribution and contamination in the water, soil and plants continuum and its remedial technologies, an Indian perspective– a review
Gayatri Singh,Babita Kumari,Geetgovind Sinam,Geetgovind Kriti,Navin Kumar,Shekhar Mallick
Environmental Pollution. 2018; 239: 95
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 Antidotal or protective effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and its active ingredient, curcumin, against natural and chemical toxicities: A review
Azar Hosseini,Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2018; 99: 411
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Antidotal or protective effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and its active ingredient, curcumin, against natural and chemical toxicities: A review
Azar Hosseini,Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2018; 99: 411
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 Potentiometric Determination of Fluoride Concentration in Beers
Juan Ramón Jaudenes,Arturo Hardisson,Soraya Paz,Carmen Rubio,Angel José Gutiérrez,Antonio Burgos,Consuelo Revert
Biological Trace Element Research. 2018; 181(1): 178
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 Potentiometric Determination of Fluoride Concentration in Beers
Juan Ramón Jaudenes,Arturo Hardisson,Soraya Paz,Carmen Rubio,Angel José Gutiérrez,Antonio Burgos,Consuelo Revert
Biological Trace Element Research. 2018; 181(1): 178
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 High Concentration of Fluoride Can Be Increased Risk of Abortion
Vahid Kazemi Moghaddam,Mahmood Yousefi,Ahmad Khosravi,Mehdi Yaseri,Amir Hossein Mahvi,Mostafa Hadei,Ali Akbar Mohammadi,Zahrasadat Robati,Adel Mokammel
Biological Trace Element Research. 2018; 185(2): 262
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 High Concentration of Fluoride Can Be Increased Risk of Abortion
Vahid Kazemi Moghaddam,Mahmood Yousefi,Ahmad Khosravi,Mehdi Yaseri,Amir Hossein Mahvi,Mostafa Hadei,Ali Akbar Mohammadi,Zahrasadat Robati,Adel Mokammel
Biological Trace Element Research. 2018; 185(2): 262
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 A mini review of fluoride-induced apoptotic pathways
Qin Wei,Huidan Deng,Hengmin Cui,Jing Fang,Zhicai Zuo,Junliang Deng,Yinglun Li,Xun Wang,Ling Zhao
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018; 25(34): 33926
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
59 A mini review of fluoride-induced apoptotic pathways
Qin Wei,Huidan Deng,Hengmin Cui,Jing Fang,Zhicai Zuo,Junliang Deng,Yinglun Li,Xun Wang,Ling Zhao
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018; 25(34): 33926
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 FRZB1 rs2242070 polymorphisms is associated with brick tea type skeletal fluorosis in Kazakhs, but not in Tibetans, China
Yanmei Yang,Qiaoshi Zhao,Yang Liu,Xiaona Liu,Yanru Chu,Huazhu Yan,Yumei Fan,Simeng Huo,Limei Wang,Qun Lou,Ning Guo,Dianjun Sun,Yanhui Gao
Archives of Toxicology. 2018; 92(7): 2217
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 FRZB1 rs2242070 polymorphisms is associated with brick tea type skeletal fluorosis in Kazakhs, but not in Tibetans, China
Yanmei Yang,Qiaoshi Zhao,Yang Liu,Xiaona Liu,Yanru Chu,Huazhu Yan,Yumei Fan,Simeng Huo,Limei Wang,Qun Lou,Ning Guo,Dianjun Sun,Yanhui Gao
Archives of Toxicology. 2018; 92(7): 2217
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 Impact of subchronic exposure to triclosan and/or fluoride on estrogenic activity in immature female rats: The expression pattern of calbindin-D9k and estrogen receptor a genes
Yasmina M. Abd-Elhakim,Amany T. Mohammed,Haytham A. Ali
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology. 2018; 32(2): e22027
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 Impact of subchronic exposure to triclosan and/or fluoride on estrogenic activity in immature female rats: The expression pattern of calbindin-D9k and estrogen receptor a genes
Yasmina M. Abd-Elhakim,Amany T. Mohammed,Haytham A. Ali
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology. 2018; 32(2): e22027
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
64 Role of Some Natural Antioxidants in the Modulation of Some Proteins Expressions against Sodium Fluoride-Induced Renal Injury
Ahlam M. Alhusaini,Laila M. Faddah,Naglaa F. El Orabi,Iman H. Hasan
BioMed Research International. 2018; 2018: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 Role of Some Natural Antioxidants in the Modulation of Some Proteins Expressions against Sodium Fluoride-Induced Renal Injury
Ahlam M. Alhusaini,Laila M. Faddah,Naglaa F. El Orabi,Iman H. Hasan
BioMed Research International. 2018; 2018: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
66 The mitochondrial pathway is involved in sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced renal apoptosis in mice
Qin Wei,Qin Luo,Huan Liu,Linlin Chen,Hengmin Cui,Jing Fang,Zhicai Zuo,Junliang Deng,Yinglun Li,Xun Wang,Ling Zhao
Toxicology Research. 2018; 7(5): 792
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
67 The mitochondrial pathway is involved in sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced renal apoptosis in mice
Qin Wei,Qin Luo,Huan Liu,Linlin Chen,Hengmin Cui,Jing Fang,Zhicai Zuo,Junliang Deng,Yinglun Li,Xun Wang,Ling Zhao
Toxicology Research. 2018; 7(5): 792
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
68 Comparative proteomic analysis of fluoride treated rat bone provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity
Yan Wei,Beibei Zeng,Hua Zhang,Cheng Chen,Yanli Wu,Nanlan Wang,Yanqiu Wu,Danqing Zhao,Yuxi Zhao,Javed Iqbal,Liming Shen
Toxicology Letters. 2018; 291: 39
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
69 Comparative proteomic analysis of fluoride treated rat bone provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity
Yan Wei,Beibei Zeng,Hua Zhang,Cheng Chen,Yanli Wu,Nanlan Wang,Yanqiu Wu,Danqing Zhao,Yuxi Zhao,Javed Iqbal,Liming Shen
Toxicology Letters. 2018; 291: 39
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
70 Recovery and recycling of lithium: A review
Basudev Swain
Separation and Purification Technology. 2017; 172: 388
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
71 Recovery and recycling of lithium: A review
Basudev Swain
Separation and Purification Technology. 2017; 172: 388
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
72 In utero exposure to fluoride and cognitive development delay in infants
L. Valdez Jiménez,O.D. López Guzmán,M. Cervantes Flores,R. Costilla-Salazar,J. Calderón Hernández,Y. Alcaraz Contreras,D.O. Rocha-Amador
NeuroToxicology. 2017; 59: 65
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
73 In utero exposure to fluoride and cognitive development delay in infants
L. Valdez Jiménez,O.D. López Guzmán,M. Cervantes Flores,R. Costilla-Salazar,J. Calderón Hernández,Y. Alcaraz Contreras,D.O. Rocha-Amador
NeuroToxicology. 2017; 59: 65
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
74 Optimization of Adhesive Pastes for Dental Caries Prevention
Patteera Sodata,Apa Juntavee,Niwut Juntavee,Jomjai Peerapattana
AAPS PharmSciTech. 2017; 18(8): 3087
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
75 Optimization of Adhesive Pastes for Dental Caries Prevention
Patteera Sodata,Apa Juntavee,Niwut Juntavee,Jomjai Peerapattana
AAPS PharmSciTech. 2017; 18(8): 3087
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
76 PREVALENCE OF DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH FLUORIDE CONTENT OF DRINKING WATER IN THE RURAL AREA OF DHARMAPURI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU
Snerghalatha Duraiswami,Vidya Albert Yen
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2017; 6(76): 5457
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
77 PREVALENCE OF DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH FLUORIDE CONTENT OF DRINKING WATER IN THE RURAL AREA OF DHARMAPURI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU
Snerghalatha Duraiswami,Vidya Albert Yen
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2017; 6(76): 5457
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
78 Neuroprotective influence of taurine on fluoride-induced biochemical and behavioral deficits in rats
Isaac A. Adedara,Amos O. Abolaji,Umar F. Idris,Bolanle F. Olabiyi,Esther M. Onibiyo,TeminiJesu D. Ojuade,Ebenezer O. Farombi
Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2017; 261: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
79 Neuroprotective influence of taurine on fluoride-induced biochemical and behavioral deficits in rats
Isaac A. Adedara,Amos O. Abolaji,Umar F. Idris,Bolanle F. Olabiyi,Esther M. Onibiyo,TeminiJesu D. Ojuade,Ebenezer O. Farombi
Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2017; 261: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
80 Risk assessment of fluoride exposure in drinking water of Tunisia
Wiem Guissouma,Othman Hakami,Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab,Jamila Tarhouni
Chemosphere. 2017; 177: 102
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
81 Waterborne fluoride exposure changed the structure and the expressions of steroidogenic-related genes in gonads of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)
MeiYan Li,Jinling Cao,Jianjie Chen,Jie Song,Bingrui Zhou,Cuiping Feng,Jundong Wang
Chemosphere. 2016; 145: 365
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
82 Waterborne fluoride exposure changed the structure and the expressions of steroidogenic-related genes in gonads of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)
MeiYan Li,Jinling Cao,Jianjie Chen,Jie Song,Bingrui Zhou,Cuiping Feng,Jundong Wang
Chemosphere. 2016; 145: 365
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
83 Antidotal effects of curcumin against neurotoxic agents: An updated review
Tahereh Farkhondeh,Saeed Samarghandian,Fariborz Samini
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2016; 9(10): 947
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
84 Antidotal effects of curcumin against neurotoxic agents: An updated review
Tahereh Farkhondeh,Saeed Samarghandian,Fariborz Samini
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2016; 9(10): 947
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
85 Grading and quantification of dental fluorosis in zebrafish larva
Yutao Zhang,Yanli Zhang,Xueni Zheng,Rongchen Xu,Huiming He,Xiaohong Duan
Archives of Oral Biology. 2016; 70: 16
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
86 Grading and quantification of dental fluorosis in zebrafish larva
Yutao Zhang,Yanli Zhang,Xueni Zheng,Rongchen Xu,Huiming He,Xiaohong Duan
Archives of Oral Biology. 2016; 70: 16
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
87 High-fluoride acitivates the FasL signalling pathway and leads to damage of ameloblast ultrastructure
Lin Wang,Yong Zhu,Danyang Wang
Archives of Oral Biology. 2016; 71: 31
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
88 High-fluoride acitivates the FasL signalling pathway and leads to damage of ameloblast ultrastructure
Lin Wang,Yong Zhu,Danyang Wang
Archives of Oral Biology. 2016; 71: 31
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
89 Levels of Trace Elements in Muscle and Kidney Tissues of Sheep with Fluorosis
Sedat Çetin,Fatmagül Yur
Biological Trace Element Research. 2016; 174(1): 82
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
90 Levels of Trace Elements in Muscle and Kidney Tissues of Sheep with Fluorosis
Sedat Çetin,Fatmagül Yur
Biological Trace Element Research. 2016; 174(1): 82
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
91 Knowledge-based barriers on cooperation of students’ mothers in oral health programs
A Jafari,M Naseri
Iranian Journal of Pediatric Dentistry. 2016; 12(1): 85
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
92 Knowledge-based barriers on cooperation of students’ mothers in oral health programs
A Jafari,M Naseri
Iranian Journal of Pediatric Dentistry. 2016; 12(1): 85
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
93 Effect of sodium fluoride on the oviductal mucosa of adult albino rats and the possible protective role of pomegranate peel extract
Shereen S. El-Abd,Marwa A.A. Ibrahim
The Egyptian Journal of Histology. 2016; 39(2): 191
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
94 Effect of sodium fluoride on the oviductal mucosa of adult albino rats and the possible protective role of pomegranate peel extract
Shereen S. El-Abd,Marwa A.A. Ibrahim
The Egyptian Journal of Histology. 2016; 39(2): 191
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
95 Evaluation of Remineralization Effects on Enamel Demineralization by Anti-cariogenic Agents using Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) in vitro
Kkotnim Lee,Miae Kim,Inkyung Hwang,Jihyun Park,Yonjoo Mah
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY. 2016; 43(4): 391
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
96 Evaluation of Remineralization Effects on Enamel Demineralization by Anti-cariogenic Agents using Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) in vitro
Kkotnim Lee,Miae Kim,Inkyung Hwang,Jihyun Park,Yonjoo Mah
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY. 2016; 43(4): 391
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
97 Effects of fluoride on development and growth of Rana chensinensis embryos and larvae
Lihong Chai,Suiming Dong,Hongfeng Zhao,Hongzhang Deng,Hongyuan Wang
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2016; 126: 129
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
98 Effects of fluoride on development and growth of Rana chensinensis embryos and larvae
Lihong Chai,Suiming Dong,Hongfeng Zhao,Hongzhang Deng,Hongyuan Wang
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2016; 126: 129
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
99 Investigating fluoride toxicity in a Middle Woodland population from west-central Illinois: A discussion of methods for evaluating the influence of environment and diet in paleopathological analyses
Elizabeth A. Nelson,Christine L. Halling,Jane E. Buikstra
Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 2016; 5: 664
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
100 Investigating fluoride toxicity in a Middle Woodland population from west-central Illinois: A discussion of methods for evaluating the influence of environment and diet in paleopathological analyses
Elizabeth A. Nelson,Christine L. Halling,Jane E. Buikstra
Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 2016; 5: 664
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
101 Fluoride in Tunisian Drinking Tap Water
Wiem Guissouma,Jamila Tarhouni
Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 2015; 07(11): 860
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
102 Fluoride in Tunisian Drinking Tap Water
Wiem Guissouma,Jamila Tarhouni
Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 2015; 07(11): 860
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
103 The impact of aluminum, fluoride, and aluminum–fluoride complexes in drinking water on chronic kidney disease
Hewa M. S. Wasana,Gamage D. R. K. Perera,Panduka S. De Gunawardena,Jayasundera Bandara
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2015;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
104 Protective properties of sesamin against fluoride-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in kidney of carp (Cyprinus carpio) via JNK signaling pathway
Jinling Cao,Jianjie Chen,Lingtian Xie,Jundong Wang,Cuiping Feng,Jing Song
Aquatic Toxicology. 2015; 167: 180
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
105 Protective properties of sesamin against fluoride-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in kidney of carp (Cyprinus carpio) via JNK signaling pathway
Jinling Cao,Jianjie Chen,Lingtian Xie,Jundong Wang,Cuiping Feng,Jing Song
Aquatic Toxicology. 2015; 167: 180
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
106 Soil fluoride spiking effects on olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali)
M. Zouari,C. Ben Ahmed,R. Fourati,D. Delmail,B. Ben Rouina,P. Labrousse,F. Ben Abdallah
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2014; 108: 78
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
107 Effects of sodium fluoride on MAPKs signaling pathway in the gills of a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio
Jinling Cao,Jianjie Chen,Jundong Wang,Paul Klerks,Lingtian Xie
Aquatic Toxicology. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
108 Expression of ERK and p-ERK proteins of ERK signaling pathway in the kidneys of fluoride-exposed carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Jianjie Chen,Jinling Cao,Yongju Luo,Lingtian Xie,Jing Song,Wenjuan Xue,Ruhui Jia,Jie Song
Acta Histochemica. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
109 Toxic effects of sodium fluoride on cell proliferation and apoptosis of Leydig cells from young mice
Guo hua Song,Rui Li Wang,Zhao Yang Chen,Bin Zhang,Hai Long Wang,Mao Lin Liu,Ji Ping Gao,Xiao Yan Yan
Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry. 2014; 70(3): 761
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
110 Toxic effects of sodium fluoride on cell proliferation and apoptosis of Leydig cells from young mice
Guo hua Song,Rui Li Wang,Zhao Yang Chen,Bin Zhang,Hai Long Wang,Mao Lin Liu,Ji Ping Gao,Xiao Yan Yan
Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry. 2014; 70(3): 761
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
111 Fluorosis Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis in Osteoblasts In Vivo
Lu Liu,Ying Zhang,Hefeng Gu,Kaiqiang Zhang,Lin Ma
Biological Trace Element Research. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
112 Fluoride-induced apoptosis and expressions of caspase proteins in the kidney of carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Jianjie Chen,Jinling Cao,Jundong Wang,Ruhui Jia,Wenjuan Xue,Lingtian Xie
Environmental Toxicology. 2014; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
113 Water Fluoridation: A Critical Review of the Physiological Effects of Ingested Fluoride as a Public Health Intervention
Stephen Peckham,Niyi Awofeso
The Scientific World Journal. 2014; 2014: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
114 Sodium fluoride activates ERK and JNK via induction of oxidative stress to promote apoptosis and impairs ovarian function in rats
Yanqing Geng,Yiwen Qiu,Xueqing Liu,Xuemei Chen,Yubin Ding,Shangjing Liu,Yi Zhao,Rufei Gao,Yingxiong Wang,Junlin He
Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2014; 272: 75
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
115 Efeitos dos estimulantes gustativos de secreção salivar e a sua libertação de flúor na saliva
Mariana Cruz,Duarte Marques,Rúben Trindade,Marta Lopes,Rúben Pereira,António Mata
Revista Portuguesa de Estomatologia, Medicina Dentária e Cirurgia Maxilofacial. 2014; 55(1): 29
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
116 Assessment of Fluoride in Three Selected Polluted Environments along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea: Effects on Local Populations
Manal M. El-Sadaawy,Ghada F. El-Said
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal. 2014; 20(6): 1643
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
117 Assessment of Fluoride in Three Selected Polluted Environments along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea: Effects on Local Populations
Manal M. El-Sadaawy,Ghada F. El-Said
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal. 2014; 20(6): 1643
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
118 Assessment of relationship on excess fluoride intake from drinking water and carotid atherosclerosis development in adults in fluoride endemic areas, China
Hui Liu,Yanhui Gao,Liyan Sun,Mang Li,Bingyun Li,Dianjun Sun
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 2013;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
119 Effects of sodium fluoride on reproductive function in female rats
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013; 56: 297
[VIEW] | [DOI]
120 The toxicity mechanism of sodium fluoride on fertility in female rats
Yongjiang Zhou,Yiwen Qiu,Junlin He,Xuemei Chen,Yubing Ding,Yingxiong Wang,Xueqing Liu
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013; 62: 566
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
121 Effect of sodium fluoride on neuroimmunological parameters, oxidative stress and antioxidative defenses
Y. P. Reddy,S. K. Tiwari,A. P. Shaik,A. Alsaeed,A. Sultana,P. K. Reddy
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods. 2013; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
122 Effects of fluoride on liver apoptosis and Bcl-2, Bax protein expression in freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio
Cao, J. and Chen, J. and Wang, J. and Jia, R. and Xue, W. and Luo, Y. and Gan, X.
Chemosphere. 2013; 91(8): 1203-1212
[Pubmed]
123 Effects of fluoride on growth, body composition, and serum biochemical profile in a freshwater teleost,Cyprinus carpio
Jianjie Chen,Jinling Cao,Jundong Wang,Ruhui Jia,Wenjuan Xue,Yundong Li,Yongju Luo,Lingtian Xie
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 2013; 32(10): 2315
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
124 Prevalence of dental fluorosis in eight cohorts of Mexicans born in the establishment of the national domestic salt fluoridation [Prevalencia de fluorosis dental en ocho cohorts de mexicanos nacidos durante la instauración del programa nacional de fluoruración de la sal doméstica]
Casanova-Rosado, A.J. and Medina-Soĺs, C.E. and Casanova-Rosado, J.F. and Vallejos-Sánchez, A.A. and de la Rosa-Santillana, R. and Mendoza-Rodríguez, M. and Villalobos-Rodelo, J.J. and Maupomé, G.
Gaceta Medica de Mexico. 2013; 149(1): 27-35
[Pubmed]
125 The effects of fluorine on antioxidant system and apoptosis of brain tissue in carp (cyprinus carpio L.)
Cao, J. and Chen, J. and Wang, J. and Luo, Y.
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae. 2013; 33(3): 861-866
[Pubmed]
126 Tissue distributions of fluoride and its toxicity in the gills of a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio
Jinling Cao, Jianjie Chen, Jundong Wang, Xiangtian Wu, Yundong Li, Lingtian Xie
Aquatic Toxicology. 2013; 130-131: 68
[VIEW] | [DOI]
127 Effects of fluoride on liver apoptosis and Bcl-2, Bax protein expression in freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio
Jinling Cao,Jianjie Chen,Jundong Wang,Ruhui Jia,Wenjuan Xue,Yongju Luo,Xi Gan
Chemosphere. 2013; 91(8): 1203
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
128 Excessi{dotless
Lütfioǧlu, M. and Sakallioǧlu, E.E. and Sakallioǧlu, U. and Gülbahar, M.Y. and Muǧlali, M. and Baş, B. and Aksoy, A.
Clinical Oral Investigations. 2012; 16(6): 1563-1570
[Pubmed]
129 Effect of fluoride on insulin level of rats and insulin receptor expression in the MC3T3-E1 cells
Hu, C.-Y. and Ren, L.-Q. and Li, X.-N. and Wu, N. and Li, G.-S. and Liu, Q.-Y. and Xu, H.
Biological Trace Element Research. 2012; 150(1-3): 297-305
[Pubmed]
130 The relationship of PTH Bst BI polymorphism, calciotropic hormone levels, and dental fluorosis of children in China
Wen, S. and Li, A. and Cui, L. and Huang, Q. and Chen, H. and Guo, X. and Luo, Y. and Hao, Q. and Hou, J. and Ba, Y.
Biological Trace Element Research. 2012; 147(1-3): 84-90
[Pubmed]
131 Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a district of Gujarat, India
Kotecha, P.V. and Patel, S.V. and Bhalani, K.D. and Shah, D. and Shah, V.S. and Mehta, K.G.
Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2012; 135(6): 873-877
[Pubmed]
132 The Relationship of PTH Bst BI Polymorphism, Calciotropic Hormone Levels, and Dental Fluorosis of Children in China
Shibao Wen,Anqi Li,Liuxin Cui,Qi Huang,Hongyang Chen,Xiaoyi Guo,Yixin Luo,Qianyun Hao,Jiaxiang Hou,Yue Ba
Biological Trace Element Research. 2012; 147(1-3): 84
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
133 Effect of Fluoride on Insulin Level of Rats and Insulin Receptor Expression in the MC3T3-E1 Cells
Chun-yan Hu,Li-qun Ren,Xi-ning Li,Nan Wu,Guang-sheng Li,Qin-yi Liu,Hui Xu
Biological Trace Element Research. 2012; 150(1-3): 297
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
134 Molecular Mechanisms of Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis Induced by Inorganic Fluoride
Natalia Ivanovna Agalakova, Gennadii Petrovich Gusev
ISRN Cell Biology. 2012; 2012: 1
[VIEW] | [DOI]
135 Effect of inorganic fluoride on living organisms of different phylogenetic level
N. I. Agalakova, G. P. Gusev
Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology. 2011; 47(5): 393
[VIEW] | [DOI]
136 Effects of fluoride on expression of bone-specific genes in developingXenopus laevislarvae
Manoj Nair,Zachery R. Belak,Nick Ovsenek
Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 2011; 89(4): 377
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
137 Efectos del flúor sobre el sistema nervioso central
L. Valdez-Jiménez,C. Soria Fregozo,M.L. Miranda Beltrán,O. Gutiérrez Coronado,M.I. Pérez Vega
Neurología. 2011; 26(5): 297
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
138 Effect of sodium fluoride with and without ginseng on the submandibular gland of adult male albino rat
Amany Mohamed Mousa
The Egyptian Journal of Histology. 2011; 34(2): 291
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
139 Fluoride-induced death of rat erythrocytes in vitro
Natalia I. Agalakova, Gennadii P. Gusev
Toxicology in Vitro. 2011;
[VIEW] | [DOI]
140 Effects of the fluoride on the central nervous system
L. Valdez-Jiménez,C. Soria Fregozo,M.L. Miranda Beltrán,O. Gutiérrez Coronado,M.I. Pérez Vega
Neurología (English Edition). 2011; 26(5): 297
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
141 Studies on the comparative effect of sodium fluoride on collagen content in various rat organs
Siddiqi, N.J.
African Journal of Biotechnology. 2011; 10(79): 18252-18255
[Pubmed]
142 Effects of fluoride on expression of bone-specific genes in developing Xenopus laevis larvae
Nair, M. and Belak, Z.R. and Ovsenek, N.
Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 2011; 89(4): 377-386
[Pubmed]
143 Effects of the fluoride on the central nervous system [Efectos del flúor sobre el sistema nervioso central]
Valdez-Jiménez, L. and Soria Fregozo, C. and Miranda Beltrán, M.L. and Gutiérrez Coronado, O. and Pérez Vega, M.I.
Neurologia. 2011; 26(5): 297-300
[Pubmed]
144 Perinatal exposure to sodium fluoride with emphasis on territorial aggression, sexual behaviour and fertility in male rats
Kamel, M.M., El-lethey, H.S., Shaheed, I.B.
Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(2): 686-694
[Pubmed]
145 Toxicity effects and action mechanism of fluoride
Chai, L., Jiang, L., Shi, Y., Wang, H.
ISWREP 2011 - Proceedings of 2011 International Symposium on Water Resource and Environmental Protection 4,. 2011; art(5893495): 2946-2950
[Pubmed]
146 Acute toxicity and DNA damage of fluoride to larval big toad Bufo gargarizans
Chai, L., Liu, X., Jiang, L., Dong, S., Wang, H.
ISWREP 2011 - Proceedings of 2011 International Symposium on Water Resource and Environmental Protection 1,. 2011; art(5893036): 430-433
[Pubmed]
147 Excessıve fluorıde ıntake alters the MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TGF-β levels of perıodontal soft tıssues: an experımental study ın rabbıts
Müge Lütfioğlu, Elif Eser Sakallıoğlu, Umur Sakallıoğlu, M. Yavuz Gülbahar, Mehtap Muğlalı, Burcu Baş, Abdurrahman Aksoy
Clinical Oral Investigations. 2011;
[VIEW] | [DOI]
148 Interactive effect of arsenic and fluoride on cardio-respiratory disorders in male rats: possible role of reactive oxygen species
S. J. S. Flora, Vidhu Pachauri, Megha Mittal, Deo Kumar
BioMetals. 2011;
[VIEW] | [DOI]
149 Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Stress in Three-Dimensional Culture of OS732 Cells and Rats
Hui Liu, Jing-chun Sun, Zhi-tao Zhao, Jin-ming Zhang, Hui Xu, Guang-sheng Li
Biological Trace Element Research. 2010;
[VIEW] | [DOI]
150 Cell death or survival: The double-edged sword of environmental and occupational toxicity
Rodrigo Franco, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis
Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2010; 188(2): 265
[VIEW] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
 
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


    Abstract
    Fluoride From th...
    Fluoride in Food
    Water Fluoridation
    Indian Scenario
    Metabolism of Fl...
    Fluoride in Hard...
    Fluoride Toxicity
    Genotoxicity of ...
    Others
    Conclusions
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed39309    
    Printed943    
    Emailed44    
    PDF Downloaded2215    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 150    

Recommend this journal