Indian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental Research
HOME | ABOUT US | EDITORIAL BOARD | AHEAD OF PRINT | CURRENT ISSUE | ARCHIVES | INSTRUCTIONS | SUBSCRIBE | ADVERTISE | CONTACT
Indian Journal of Dental Research   Login   |  Users online: 618

Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size         

 


 
LETTER TO EDITOR Table of Contents   
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 249
Open questions on carcinogenesis of oral cancer: Interaction between the environmental and genetic aspects


Department of Microbiology, Sector of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Federal University of Fluminense (UFF), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication23-Jun-2009
 

How to cite this article:
Ferreira D, Curvelo Jd, Passos ML. Open questions on carcinogenesis of oral cancer: Interaction between the environmental and genetic aspects. Indian J Dent Res 2009;20:249

How to cite this URL:
Ferreira D, Curvelo Jd, Passos ML. Open questions on carcinogenesis of oral cancer: Interaction between the environmental and genetic aspects. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2009 [cited 2021 Mar 5];20:249. Available from: https://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2009/20/2/249/52882
Sir,

Recently, an article was published in this journal entitled "Estimation of nicotine content in popular Indian brands of smoking andchewing tobacco products [1] ," measuring and comparing the nicotine present in this habit. Although the relationship between smoking habit and prevalence of oral cancer has already been established for many years, [2],[3] we would like to discuss the relevance of these kinds of measurements at this point in time, if we still do not reach experimental models studies that can answer questions such as: Is the expression of cytochrome p450 enzymes similar on different sites of the oral cavity? Is the inflammatory response similar on the different sites of the oral cavity? What is the expression and activity of the phase II enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolism involved? Have the genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes already been evaluated in India and Brazilian populations, which are known to have high oral cancer rates?

Carcinogenesis is a highly complex process involving both environmental and inherited risk factors. The inter-individual genetic differences and individual susceptibility to human cancer triggered by environmental exposures has already been studied and reported elsewhere. This carcinogenesis environment-gene interaction is well reflected by phase I and II enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of carcinogens. Therefore, the measure of nicotine levels inside objects of smoking habits may not be enough for the elucidation of these risks, mainly because the major carcinogens present in tobacco are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines and aromatic amines. [2],[3]

It is clear that more studies are required at the molecular and genetic basis in order to investigate susceptibility and therapeutics, such as the expression and the polymorphism of enzymes related to the oxidative metabolism (Cytochrome p450, GSTS, NATs); adducts formation, characterized by impressions on DNA originated from carcinogens; gene mutations associated with cell cycle control; viral infections (Epstein-Barr virus, human papilloma virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human T-cell leukemia virus); congenital features like congenital immunodeficiency and genodermatosis, which are knowingly associated to malignancy. These studies could formulate strategies that can determinate a new criteria for the approach of this situation and, therefore, avoid misdiagnosis and etiologies previously considered idiopathic among pre-malignant and malignant lesions. [2],[3],[4],[5]

The complexity around the diagnosis of this type of cancer probably begins under the professional graduation, which does not always provide a connection between basic science and clinical practice. Continuous professional education and a systematic approach considering genetics and biomolecular aspects must be considered for the evaluation of these patients. [2],[3]

 
   References Top

1.Reddy SS, Shaik Hyder Ali KH. Estimation of nicotine content in popular Indian brands of smoking and chewing tobacco products. Indian J Dent Res 2008;19:88-91.  Back to cited text no. 1  [PUBMED]  Medknow Journal
2.Ali S, El-Rayes BF, Heilbrun LK, Sarkar FH, Ensley JF, Kucuk O, et al . Cytochrome p450 and glutathione transferase expression in squamous cell cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2004;10:4412-6.  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
3.Llewellyn CD, Johnson NW, Warnakulasuriya KA. Risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in young people: A comprehensive literature review. Oral Oncol 2001;37:401-18.  Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
4.Sroussi HY, Villines D, Epstein J, Alves MC, Alves ME. Oral lesions in HIV-positive dental patients - one more argument for tobacco smoking cessation. Oral Dis 2007;13:324-8.  Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
5.Nemes JA, Deli L, Nemes Z, Mαrton IJ. Expression of p16(INK4A), p53, and Rb proteins are independent from the presence of human papillomavirus genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006;102:344-52.  Back to cited text no. 5    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Dennis de Carvalho Ferreira
Department of Microbiology, Sector of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Federal University of Fluminense (UFF), Rio de Janeiro
Brazil
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.52882

Rights and Permissions



This article has been cited by
1 Genital and oral human papillomavirus infection in a patient from the group of women who have sex with women
dos Reis, H.L.B., Ferreira, D.C., Forattini, A.G., Souza, P.G., Curvelo, J.A.R., Passos, M.R.L.
Clinics. 2010; 65(12): 1383-1385
[Pubmed]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
 
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


    References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2769    
    Printed92    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded297    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal