Indian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental Research
HOME | ABOUT US | EDITORIAL BOARD | AHEAD OF PRINT | CURRENT ISSUE | ARCHIVES | INSTRUCTIONS | SUBSCRIBE | ADVERTISE | CONTACT
Indian Journal of Dental Research   Login   |  Users online: 545

Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size         

 


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH Table of Contents   
Year : 2007  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 157-162
Estimation of trace elements in sound and carious enamel of primary and permanent teeth by atomic absorption spectrophotometry: An in vitro study


Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere - 577 004, Karnataka, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission16-May-2006
Date of Decision18-Aug-2006
Date of Acceptance26-Aug-2006
 

   Abstract 

The influence of trace elements on the prevalence of caries is a complex subject. However, the demonstration of an inverse relationship between caries prevalence and fluoride (F) intake indicates the potential effect of trace elements on caries.
Aims and Objectives: This in vitro study sought to estimate and compare the trace element concentrations in sound and carious enamel of primary and permanent teeth.
Materials and Methods: Forty sound and carious primary and permanent teeth, extracted from children and adolescents of Davangere city, were collected. The teeth were divided into four groups (of ten each) and enamel samples were prepared by mechanical grinding. The trace elements were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Results and Conclusions: The results of our study showed the presence of 18 trace elements (F, Sr, K, Al, Si, Ni, B, Fe, Cu, Mn, Co, Cr, Zn, Mg, Se, Pb, Mo, and V) in the enamel of sound and carious primary and permanent teeth. The mean, standard deviation, and range (at 95% confidence level) were calculated for each element. The concentrations of F, Sr, and K were significantly ( P <0.05) higher in sound enamel of permanent teeth than in sound enamel of primary teeth. The concentrations of F, Sr, K, Al, and Fe were significantly ( P <0.05) higher in sound enamel of permanent teeth than in carious enamel of permanent teeth. The concentrations of F, K, and Si were significantly ( P <0.05) higher in sound enamel of primary teeth than in carious enamel of primary teeth.

Keywords: Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, carious enamel, permanent teeth, primary teeth, sound enamel, trace elements

How to cite this article:
Shashikiran N D, Subba Reddy V V, Hiremath M C. Estimation of trace elements in sound and carious enamel of primary and permanent teeth by atomic absorption spectrophotometry: An in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2007;18:157-62

How to cite this URL:
Shashikiran N D, Subba Reddy V V, Hiremath M C. Estimation of trace elements in sound and carious enamel of primary and permanent teeth by atomic absorption spectrophotometry: An in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2007 [cited 2020 Oct 19];18:157-62. Available from: https://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2007/18/4/157/35824
Enamel is the hardest nonliving tissue in the human body. It provides shape and contour to the crown of teeth and covers the part of the tooth that is exposed to the oral environment. The human enamel is composed of 96% inorganic mineral and 4% organic matter and water. [1] The chief inorganic constituent of human enamel is a crystalline form of hydroxyapatite (HAP). The HAP crystals contain various inorganic elements in trace amounts. The elements which are present in less than 0.01% (i.e., in micrograms per gram) are the trace elements. The presence of these trace elements causes changes in the properties of enamel. [2]

The trace elements in the human dental enamel are derived from the environment during mineralization and during and after maturation of tooth. [3] Very little is known about the significance of trace elements in enamel. However some trace elements, e.g., fluoride, definitely play an important role in reducing the incidence of caries by altering the solubility of enamel and transforming the size and shape of the crystallites. [4]

Various investigators [5],[6] have studied the inorganic composition of enamel, and 35 trace elements have been estimated in sound enamel of permanent teeth. [7] They also found a wide range of variations in the concentrations of trace elements in enamel among different ethnic groups. The correlation between the amounts of aluminium, barium, copper, and zirconium in enamel caries was not significant. [8] A negative correlation was observed between strontium in enamel caries. [9] Another study concluded that some other trace elements besides fluoride play an important role in the caries process. [10]

The aim and objective of the present in vitro study was to estimate and compare the trace element concentrations in sound and carious enamel of primary and permanent teeth. The study was conducted on sound and carious, primary and permanent extracted teeth of a sample of the children and adolescents of Davangere city, Karnataka.


   Materials and Methods Top


This in vitro study was conducted in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere in association with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Basaveshwar Engineering College, Bagalkot, and Shiva Analyticals, Bangalore, Karnataka. Forty extracted sound and carious primary and permanent teeth were collected from children and adolescents of Davangere city; the selection criteria was as follows:

Inclusion criteria

a) Sound primary incisors that had been extracted for reasons of pre-shedding mobility or over-retention in children (in the age-group of 7-12 years)

b) Carious primary incisors that had been extracted for reasons of carious destruction and with pre-shedding mobility or over-retention in children (in the age-group of 7-12 years)

c) Sound premolars that had been extracted for orthodontic reasons in adolescents (in the age-group of 14-20 years)

d) Carious premolars that had been extracted for carious destruction and for orthodontic or prosthodontic reasons in adolescents (in the age-group of 14-20 years)

Exclusion criteria

a) Extracted teeth with developmental anomalies and fluorosis

b) Teeth extracted from patients suffering from systemic diseases

The extracted teeth were washed thoroughly under tap water to remove saliva, blood, and tissue debris. The teeth were cleaned and polished with silicon carbide slurry (pumice) using a rubber polishing cup. Soft caries from the carious teeth was removed using a sharp spoon excavator. The teeth were divided into 4 groups [Figure - 1]:

Group A: 10 sound primary incisors.

Group B: 10 carious primary incisors.

Group C: 10 sound permanent premolars.

Group D: 10 carious permanent premolars.

Enamel samples were prepared by mechanical grinding, leaving the dentinal portion intact, [11] by using a cylindrical alpine tooth grinding stone fitted to a straight hand piece (micro-motor unit Kavo, EWL K-11). To prevent the resulting enamel dust from becoming air-borne and lost, the whole grinding procedure was undertaken inside a transparent plastic bag [Figure - 2]. The grinding was done at a speed of about 10,000 rpm. [2],[12] The pooled enamel dust was collected on a plastic sheet at first and then transferred to clean plastic containers labeled A, B, C, and D [Figure - 3].

Wet ashing: This is a process of dissolving enamel powder in a suitable acid to produce a clear solution. For example, 1 gm of enamel dust from enamel sample A was taken in a volumetric flask and was wet-ashed in 2 ml of nitric acid to produce a clear solution. [13] The solution was further diluted using double-distilled deionized water to make the volume 100 ml. The final solution contained nitric acid at a concentration of 1 M. This prepared solution was labeled as solution A. Enamel samples B, C, and D were similarly processed to make solutions B, C, and D, respectively.

A chemist prepared the standard solutions, which contained about 1000 µgm/ml of the particular element. The working standard solutions were prepared by suitable dilution of the standard solutions for each element to be analyzed.

Equipment used: Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), Varian-240 model [Figure - 4].

Principle of AAS: When a solution containing a metallic salt (some other metallic compound) is aspirated into a flame (e.g., acetylene burning in air), a vapor which contains atoms of the metal is formed. However, a much larger number of the gaseous metal atoms will normally remain at the ground state. These ground state atoms are capable of absorbing radiant energy of their own specific resonance wavelength which, in general, is the wavelength of the radiation that the atoms would emit if excited from the ground state. Hence, if light of the resonance wavelength is passed through a flame containing the atoms in question, then part of the light will be absorbed, with the extent of absorption being proportional to the number of ground-state atoms present in the flame. [13],[14] The amount of absorption of light energy by the particular element is measured through AAS.

Trace element analysis

Standard solutions (with the known concentrations of the elements) were introduced into the AAS and absorbance-concentration curves were obtained. Then the experimental solution was introduced into the AAS and a calibration graph was obtained. The concentration of the elements in test solution was read from the calibration curve. The values recorded were in parts per million (ppm). The concentrations of the 18 trace elements, viz, F, Sr, K, Al, Si, Ni, B, Fe, Cu, Mn, Co, Cr, Zn, Mg, Se, Pb, Mo, and V were estimated in all four enamel samples. Three readings were recorded for each element (in the same sample synchronously), the mean, standard deviation (SD), and range (mean ± 2 SD) were calculated. The values obtained were tabulated and the differences between the means in the four groups were compared using the nonparametric 't' test.


   Results Top


The results of our study showed the presence of 18 trace elements (F, Sr, K, Al, Si, Ni, B, Fe, Cu, Mn, Co, Cr, Zn, Mg, Se, Pb, Mo, and V) in enamel of sound and carious primary and permanent teeth. The concentrations of Pb, Mo, Se, and V were below 0.1 ppm (detection limit of the equipment = 0.1 ppm).

[Table - 1],[Table - 2],[Table - 3],[Table - 4] show the mean, S.D, and range (mean ± 2 S.D, at 95% confidence level) for each element in the respective groups of enamel samples. [Table - 5] shows the variations in trace element concentrations (mean ± S.D) of sound and carious enamel of primary and permanent teeth.

The concentrations of F, K, and Si were significantly higher in sound enamel of primary teeth than in carious enamel of primary teeth. The concentrations of Sr and Al were significantly higher in carious enamel than in sound enamel of primary teeth. The concentrations of F, Sr, K, Al, and Fe were significantly higher in sound enamel of permanent teeth than in carious enamel of permanent teeth. The concentrations of Si was significantly higher in carious enamel than in sound enamel of permanent teeth.

The concentrations of F, Sr, and K were significantly higher in sound enamel of permanent teeth than in sound enamel of primary teeth. The concentrations of Al, Si, and Cu were significantly higher in sound enamel of primary teeth than in sound enamel of permanent teeth. The concentrations of F, Sr, and K were significantly higher in carious enamel of permanent teeth than in carious enamel of primary teeth. The concentrations of Al, Cu, and Fe were significantly higher in carious enamel of primary teeth than in carious enamel of permanent teeth.

The variations in the concentration of other trace elements in sound and carious enamel of primary and permanent teeth were not significant.


   Discussion Top


Enamel has evolved as an epithelially-derived protective covering for teeth. Fully-formed enamel is the most highly mineralized extracellular matrix known, consisting of approximately 96% minerals and 4% organic material and water. The inorganic content of enamel is a crystalline calcium phosphate (HAP) substituted with carbonate ions, which is also found in bone, calcified cartilage, dentin, and cementum. Various ions like strontium, magnesium, lead, and fluoride, if present during enamel formation, may be incorporated into the crystals. [15]

The influence of trace elements on the prevalence of caries is a complex subject. However, the conclusive demonstration of the inverse relationship between caries prevalence and fluoride intake indicates the potential effect a trace element can have on caries. [16] The aim and objective of the present in vitro study was to estimate and compare the trace element levels in sound and carious enamel of primary and permanent teeth. The results of our study showed the presence of 18 trace elements (F, Sr, K, Al, Si, Ni, B, Fe, Cu, Mn, Co, Cr, Zn, Mg, Se, Pb, Mo, and V) in the enamel of all the four groups of teeth. The concentrations of these elements are expressed in parts per million (ppm). The concentration of Pb, Mo, Se, and V were below 0.1 ppm (detection limit of the equipment = 0.1 ppm).

The concentrations (mean ± S.D) of F, Sr, and K were significantly (P<0.05) higher in sound enamel of permanent teeth than the concentrations (mean ± S.D) of F, Sr, and K in sound enamel of primary teeth. The concentrations (mean ± S.D) of Ni and Cr were nonsignificantly (P>0.05) higher in sound enamel of permanent teeth than the concentrations (mean ± S.D) of Ni and Cr in sound enamel of primary teeth. The study conducted by Bhattacharjee and Sarkar [2] has shown nonsignificantly (P>0.05) higher concentrations of F and Ni in sound enamel of permanent teeth than sound enamel of primary teeth. But the variations in the concentrations of Sr, K, and Cr in the sound enamel of primary and that in permanent teeth were not significant (P>0.05).

In the present study it was observed that the concentrations (mean ± S.D) of Al, Si, and Cu were significantly (P<0.05) higher in sound enamel of primary teeth than the concentrations (mean ± S.D) of Al, Si, and Cu in sound enamel of permanent teeth. The study conducted by Bhattacharjee and Sarkar [2] has shown nonsignificantly (P>0.05) higher concentration of Al in sound enamel of primary teeth than in sound enamel of permanent teeth. But the variations in the concentrations of Si and Cu were not significant (P>0.05) between the sound and carious enamel of primary and permanent teeth.

The concentrations (mean ± S.D) of F, K, and Si were significantly (P<0.05) higher in sound enamel of primary teeth than the concentrations (mean ± S.D) of F, K, and Si in carious enamel of primary teeth. So the higher concentrations of these elements could be one of the reasons for noncariousness in primary teeth.

The concentrations (mean ± S.D) of Sr and Al were significantly (P<0.05) higher in carious enamel of primary teeth than in sound enamel of primary teeth. So the higher concentrations of these elements could be one of the reasons for occurrence of caries in primary teeth.

The concentrations (mean ± S.D) of F, Sr, K, Al, and Fe were significantly (P<0.05) higher in sound enamel of permanent teeth than in carious enamel of permanent teeth. So the higher concentrations of these elements could be one of the reasons for noncariousness in permanent teeth.

The concentrations (mean ± S.D) of Si was significantly (P<0.05) higher in carious enamel of permanent teeth than in sound enamel of permanent teeth. So the higher concentration of Si could be one of the reasons for occurrence of caries in primary teeth.

Studies indicate that other as yet unknown elements, or combinations of elements, present in food or water protect the teeth. [17] On the basis of human and animal studies, Navia has probably best summarized the cariogenic effect of many of the minerals in a list compiled to indicate relative cariogenicity. [18]

  1. Cariostatic elements: F, P
  2. Mildly cariostatic: Mo, V, Cu, Sr, B, Li, Au
  3. Doubtful: Be, Co, Mn, Sn, Zn, Br, I
  4. Caries inert: Ba, Al, Ni, Fe, Pd, Ti
  5. Caries promoting: Se, Mg, Cd, Pt, Pb, Si


Curzon has noted that zinc and calcium show promise as antiplaque agents, whereas strontium and zinc may enhance remineralization of enamel. [17] There are indications that aluminum salts that do not form complexes can be considered cariostatic. In vitro studies have found aluminum salts equivalent to stannous fluoride in preventing acid dissolution. In combination with iron salts enamel resistance is increased more than with fluoride alone. [17]

It is recommended that further studies comparing trace element levels in sound and carious enamel of primary and permanent teeth be carried out, using large samples and covering different geographic areas.

In future research on the effect of trace minerals on dental caries, our efforts should be directed to developing mixtures of elements at optimal levels and ratios to maximize their possible combined inhibitory effects on caries. Also, it is equally important to identify those mixtures of micro-minerals in food or water supplies that exert a cariogenic effect.

 
   References Top

1.Avery JK, Steele PF. Oral development and histology. 3 rd ed. Thieme Stuttgart: New York; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Bhattacherjee B, Sarkar S. Trace elements in enamel of sound primary and permanent teeth. J Indian Soc Pedo Prev Dent 1999;17:113-7.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Nizel AE, Papas AE. Nutrition in preventive dentistry, science and practice. WB. Saunders Company: Philadelphia; 1981.  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Jalili VP, Tiwari A. Fluorides and dental caries, a compendium. A publication of IDA. 1 st ed. 1986.  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Soremark R, Samshal K. Gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of elements in normal human enamel. Arch Oral Biol 1961;6:275-83.   Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Little MF, Steadman LT. Chemical and physical properties of altered and sound enamel-IV. Arch Oral Biol 1966;11:273-8.   Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Losee FL, Cutress TW, Brown R. Natural elements of the periodic table in human dental enamel. Caries Res 1974;8:123-34.  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Curzon ME, Losee FL. Dental caries and trace element composition of whole human enamel: Western United States. J Am Dent Assoc 1978;96:819-22.  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Verbic V, Stuper J. Dental caries and the concentration of aluminium and strontium in enamel. Caries Res 1980;14:141-7.  Back to cited text no. 9      
10.Verbic V, Stupar J, Byrne AR. Trace element content of primary and permanent tooth enamel. Caries Res 1987;21:37-9.  Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Jenkins GN. The physiology and biochemistry of the mouth. 4 th ed. Black Well Scientific Publication: Oxford, London; 1978.   Back to cited text no. 11      
12.Sarkar S, Roychoudhary P. Leach out of inorganic and trace elements at the time of etching. J Indian Soc Pedo Prev Dent 2004;22:76-81.  Back to cited text no. 12      
13.Lakomaa E, Rytomaa I. Mineral composition of enamel and dentin of primary and permanent teeth in Finland. Scand J Dent Res 1977;85:89-95.  Back to cited text no. 13      
14.Vogel's text book of quantitative chemical analysis. 6 th ed. 2002.   Back to cited text no. 14      
15.Tencate AR. Oral histology: Development, structure and function. 6 th ed. Mosby-Year Book: 2004.   Back to cited text no. 15      
16.Losee FL, Ludwig TG. Trace elements and caries. J Dent Res 1970;49:1229-35.   Back to cited text no. 16      
17.Harris NO, Christen AG. Primary preventive dentistry. 4 th ed. Appleton and Longe: Connecticut; 1995.  Back to cited text no. 17      
18.Navia JM. Prevention of dental caries: Agents which increase tooth resistance to dental caries. Int Dent J 1972;22:427-40.  Back to cited text no. 18      

Top
Correspondence Address:
N D Shashikiran
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere - 577 004, Karnataka
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.35824

Rights and Permissions


    Figures

  [Figure - 1], [Figure - 2], [Figure - 3], [Figure - 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table - 1], [Table - 2], [Table - 3], [Table - 4], [Table - 5]

This article has been cited by
1 Human Enamel and Dentin: Effect of Gender, Geographic Location and Smoking Upon Metal Concentrations
Almir Olovcic,Emina Ramic,Mustafa Memic
Analytical Letters. 2019; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Human Enamel and Dentin: Effect of Gender, Geographic Location and Smoking Upon Metal Concentrations
Almir Olovcic,Emina Ramic,Mustafa Memic
Analytical Letters. 2019; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Application of Trace Elemental Profile of Known Teeth for Sex and Age Estimation of Ajnala Skeletal Remains: a Forensic Anthropological Cross-Validation Study
J.S. Sehrawat,Monika Singh
Biological Trace Element Research. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Application of Trace Elemental Profile of Known Teeth for Sex and Age Estimation of Ajnala Skeletal Remains: a Forensic Anthropological Cross-Validation Study
J.S. Sehrawat,Monika Singh
Biological Trace Element Research. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Dental Erosion by Beverages and Determination of Trace Elements in Teeth by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
Safaa Sabri Najim,Maiada Abdulla Adnan
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016; 07(07): 548
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Dental Erosion by Beverages and Determination of Trace Elements in Teeth by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
Safaa Sabri Najim,Maiada Abdulla Adnan
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016; 07(07): 548
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Effects of Er:YAG Laser on Mineral Content of Sound Dentin in Primary Teeth
Cigdem Guler,Meral Arslan Malkoc,Veli Alper Gorgen,Erhan Dilber,Mehmet Bulbul
The Scientific World Journal. 2014; 2014: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Effects of Er:YAG Laser on Mineral Content of Sound Dentin in Primary Teeth
Cigdem Guler,Meral Arslan Malkoc,Veli Alper Gorgen,Erhan Dilber,Mehmet Bulbul
The Scientific World Journal. 2014; 2014: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Comparison of Chemical Elements on Carious & Normal Premolar’s Enamel Layers Using Energy Dispersive X Ray Spectrometer (X Ray-EDS)
A. Adabache- Ortiz,M. Silva- Briano,M. R. Campos- Esparza,J. Ventura- Juárez
Microscopy Research. 2014; 02(04): 81
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Dietary boron does not affect tooth strength, micro-hardness, and density, but affects tooth mineral composition and alveolar bone mineral density in rabbits fed a high-energy diet
Sema S. Hakki,Siddik Malkoc,Niyazi Dundar,Seyit Ali Kayis,Erdogan E. Hakki,Mehmet Hamurcu,Nuri Baspinar,Abdullah Basoglu,Forrest H. Nielsen,Werner Götz
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Ion exchanges between glass-ionomer restorative material and primary teeth components-an in vivo study
Uri Zilberman
Oral Biology and Dentistry. 2014; 2(1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Strontium and caries: A long and complicated relationship
Lippert, F. and Hara, A.T.
Caries Research. 2013; 47(1): 34-49
[Pubmed]
13 Strontium and Caries: A Long and Complicated Relationship
F. Lippert,A.T. Hara
Caries Research. 2013; 47(1): 34
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 The primary and mixed dentition, post-eruptive enamel maturation and dental caries: a review
Richard J. M. Lynch
International Dental Journal. 2013; 63: 3
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Quantitative analysis of elements migration in human teeth with and without filling using LA-ICP-MS
Anetta Hanć, Aneta Olszewska, Danuta Barałkiewicz
Microchemical Journal. 2013; 110: 61
[VIEW] | [DOI]
16 Amounts of Sr and Ca Eluted from Deciduous Enamel to Artificial Saliva Related to Dental Caries
Ayaka Enomoto, Toshiko Tanaka, Shigenori Kawagishi, Hideaki Nakashima, Koji Watanabe, Kenshi Maki
Biological Trace Element Research. 2012;
[VIEW] | [DOI]
17 An investigation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for use as a control in the laser removal of rock from fossils found at the Malapa hominin site, South Africa
Roberts, D.E. and Du Plessis, A. and Steyn, J. and Botha, L.R. and Pityana, S. and Berger, L.R.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part B Atomic Spectroscopy. 2012; 73: 48-54
[Pubmed]
18 Can exposure to manganese and extremely low freIuency magnetic fields affect some important elements in the rat teeth?
Ince, B. and Akdag, Z. and Bahsi, E. and Erdogan, S. and Celik, S. and Akkus, Z. and Dalli, M. and Sahbaz, C. and Akdogan, M. and Kara, R. and Yavuz, Y. and Gullu, V. and Gunay, A. and Guven, K.
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 2012; 16(6): 763-769
[Pubmed]
19 An investigation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for use as a control in the laser removal of rock from fossils found at the Malapa hominin site, South Africa
D.E. Roberts,A. du Plessis,J. Steyn,L.R. Botha,S. Pityana,L.R. Berger
Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2012; 73: 48
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Al and Fe levels in mixed saliva of children related to elution behavior from teeth and restorations
Koji Watanabe,Toshiko Tanaka,Takahiro Shigemi,Katsura Saeki,Yuko Fujita,Kazumasa Morikawa,Hideaki Nakashima,Shoji Takahashi,Shigeru Watanabe,Kenshi Maki
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2011; 25(3): 143
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Spatial distribution of manganese in enamel and coronal dentine of human primary teeth
Manish Arora, Dominic Hare, Christine Austin, Donald R. Smith, Philip Doble
The Science of The Total Environment. 2011; 409(7): 1315
[VIEW] | [DOI]
22 Application of laser ablation (LA-ICP-SF-MS) for the elemental analysis of bone and teeth samples for discrimination purposes
Castro, W., Hoogewerff, J., Latkoczy, C., Almirall, J.R.
Forensic Science International. 2010; 195(1-3): 17-27
[Pubmed]
23 Evaluation of Heavy Metals of Temporary Teeth From Areas with Different Pollution Level
I. Demetrescu,R. Luca,D. Ionita,M. Prodana
Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals. 2010; 523(1): 73/[645]
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Application of laser ablation (LA-ICP-SF-MS) for the elemental analysis of bone and teeth samples for discrimination purposes
Waleska Castro,Jurian Hoogewerff,Christopher Latkoczy,José R. Almirall
Forensic Science International. 2010; 195(1-3): 17
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 The effect of tissue structure and soil chemistry on trace element uptake in fossils
Emily A. Hinz,Matthew J. Kohn
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2010; 74(11): 3213
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 The effect of tissue structure and soil chemistry on trace element uptake in fossils
Hinz, E.A. and Kohn, M.J.
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2010; 74(11): 3213-3231
[Pubmed]
27 Histomorphometric and microchemical characterization of maturing dental enamel in rats fed a boron-deficient diet
Haro Durand, L.A. and Mesones, R.V. and Nielsen, F.H. and Gorustovich, A.A.
Biological Trace Element Research. 2010; 135(1-3): 242-252
[Pubmed]
28 Histomorphometric and Microchemical Characterization of Maturing Dental Enamel in Rats Fed a Boron-Deficient Diet
Luis A. Haro Durand,Rosa Vera Mesones,Forrest H. Nielsen,Alejandro A. Gorustovich
Biological Trace Element Research. 2010; 135(1-3): 242
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 APPLICATION OF MICRO-PIXE ANALYSIS TO INVESTIGATE TRACE ELEMENTS IN DECIDUOUS TEETH ENAMEL
K. IGARI,A. TAKAHASHI,H. ANDO,K. ISHII,S. MATSUYAMA,Y. KAWAMURA,S. OHKURA,Y. HASHIMOTO,M. FUJIKAWA,Y. ITOU,K. FUJIKI,Y. HATORI,N. HAMADA,H. YAMAZAKI
International Journal of PIXE. 2010; 20(01n02): 51
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Evaluation of heavy metals of temporary teeth from areas with different pollution level
Demetrescu, I., Luca, R., Ionita, D., Prodana, M.
Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals. 2010; 523: 73-81
[Pubmed]
31 Mn and Cu concentrations in mixed saliva of elementary school children in relation to sex, age, and dental caries
Watanabe, K. and Tanaka, T. and Shigemi, T. and Hayashida, Y. and Maki, K.
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2009; 23(2): 93-99
[Pubmed]
32 Analysis of 35 Inorganic Elements in Teeth in Relation to Caries Formation
Riyat, M. and Sharma, D.C.
Biological Trace Element Research. 2009; 129(1-3): 126-129
[Pubmed]
33 ICP/MS in evaluation heavy metal influence on the behavior of natural temporary teeth
Demetrescu, I., Luca, R., Ionita, D., Bojin, D.
Key Engineering Materials. 2009; 396(398): 175-178
[Pubmed]
34 Mn and Cu concentrations in mixed saliva of elementary school children in relation to sex, age, and dental caries
Koji Watanabe,Toshiko Tanaka,Takahiro Shigemi,Yutaka Hayashida,Kenshi Maki
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2009; 23(2): 93
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Elemental comparison in sound and carious human teeth by instrumental neutron activation analysis
M. Saiki, L. K. Adachi, E. M. Adachi
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. 2009; 282(1): 29
[VIEW] | [DOI]
36 Analysis of 35 Inorganic Elements in Teeth in Relation to Caries Formation
Manminder Riyat,D. C. Sharma
Biological Trace Element Research. 2009; 129(1-3): 126
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Surface analysis and cell biology technique in understanding degradation of natural temporary teeth collected from an area with high pollution
Demetrescu, I., Iordachescu, D., Ionita, D., Manea, S.
Key Engineering Materials. 2009; 396(398): 35-38
[Pubmed]
38 ICP/MS in Evaluation Heavy Metal Influence on the Behavior of Natural Temporary Teeth
Ioana Demetrescu,R. Luca,D. Ionita,D. Bojin
Key Engineering Materials. 2008; 396-398: 175
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 ICP/MS in Evaluation Heavy Metal Influence on the Behavior of Natural Temporary Teeth
Ioana Demetrescu,R. Luca,D. Ionita,D. Bojin
Key Engineering Materials. 2008; 396-398: 175
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Surface Analysis and Cell Biology Technique in Understanding Degradation of Natural Temporary Teeth Collected from an Area with High Pollution
Ioana Demetrescu,D. Iordachescu,D. Ionita,Stef Manea
Key Engineering Materials. 2008; 396-398: 35
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Application of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to investigate the presence of trace metals in human tooth
Manea, S. and Luca, R. and Prodana, M.
European Cells and Materials. 2008; 16(SUPPL. 5): 10
[Pubmed]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
 
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


    Abstract
    Materials and Me...
    Results
    Discussion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed9842    
    Printed257    
    Emailed6    
    PDF Downloaded1164    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 41    

Recommend this journal