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   2016| March-April  | Volume 27 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 30, 2016

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Clinical effects of photodynamic and low-level laser therapies as an adjunct to scaling and root planing of chronic periodontitis: A split-mouth randomized controlled clinical trial
Suryakanth Malgikar, S Harinath Reddy, S Vidya Sagar, D Satyanarayana, G Vikram Reddy, J Juliet Josephin
March-April 2016, 27(2):121-126
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183130  PMID:27237200
Background: There are limited clinical experiments addressing the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct to conventional scaling and root planing (SRP) alone. Aim: The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical effects of adjunctive use of PDT, combination of PDT with LLLT as adjunct to conventional SRP alone in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: In a single-centered randomized and controlled clinical trial, 24 patients (15 males and 9 females) with untreated chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned in a split-mouth design into three treatment groups which included Group I: SRP only, Group II: SRP and PDT (1% methylene blue [MB] solution), and Group III: SRP, PDT, and LLLT. Clinical parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, modified sulcular bleeding index, probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months after therapy. Results: Within each group, significant improvements (P < 0.001) were found for all variables in 6-month follow-up compared with baseline. The improvement in clinical parameters was significantly greater in Group III compared to Group I and Group II. The mean PD (mm) reduction from baseline to 6 months in Group I was 2.50 ± 0.54, Group II was 2.57 ± 0.53, and Group III was 3.14 ± 0.50. The mean CAL (mm) gain from baseline to 6 months in Group I was 2.63 ± 0.47, Group II was 2.55 ± 0.44, and Group III was 3.07 ± 0.55. Conclusion: In patients with chronic periodontitis, a combination of a single application of PDT (using a 980 nm laser and MB) and LLLT provide additional benefit to SRP in terms of clinical parameters 6 months following the intervention.
  15 3,482 263
Orthodontic treatment reduces the impact on children and adolescents' oral health-related quality of life
Eluza Piassi, Leonardo Santos Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves Antunes
March-April 2016, 27(2):213-219
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183122  PMID:27237216
Context: Malocclusion is a chronic disability that is usually remedied by orthodontic treatment which can provide the patient with a satisfactory state of oral health. Aim: To assess the current evidence in the literature concerning the impact of malocclusion treatment on the oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children and adolescents. Settings and Design: Systematic review. Materials and Methods: Four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Virtual Health Library) were searched using specified indexing terms, including a manual search for of the references listed in the studies. The articles that met the inclusion criteria were classified regarding methodological quality and risk of bias in categories of high, moderate, or low. Results: The electronic search produced 426 titles and abstracts, and the manual search of their references detected another 1 article. After excluding duplicate abstracts and applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 3 studies were eligible for quality assessment. Among these, 1 was classified as high methodological quality/low risk of bias and 2 as moderate methodological quality/moderate risk of bias. These 3 articles were included in the final qualitative synthesis. Conclusions: Malocclusions treatment reduces the impact on children and adolescents' OHRQoL based on evidence assessed in the literature. The level of evidence was moderate to high to detect changes in the impact after orthodontic treatment.
  11 2,419 112
Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in association with different water fluoride levels in Mysore district, Karnataka
Shibu Thomas Sebastian, Rino Roopak Soman, S Sunitha
March-April 2016, 27(2):151-154
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183126  PMID:27237204
Background: Fluoride intake at optimal level decreases the incidence of dental caries. However, excessive intake, especially during developmental stages can cause adverse effects such as dental and skeletal fluorosis. Aim: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in primary school children born and raised in three villages of Mysore District. The three selected villages have different water fluoride concentrations. Materials and Methods: Three villages namely, Nerale (water fluoride 2.0 ppm), Belavadi (1.2 ppm) and Naganahally (0.4 ppm) were selected for the study. Then, a total of 405 children, 10–12-year-old (204 [50.4%] males and 201 [49.60%] females) were selected from three schools of the villages. Dean's fluorosis index recommended by World Health Organization was used to evaluate fluorosis among the study population. Results: The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 41.73%. An increase in the community fluorosis index (CFI) was higher among those living in high water fluoride area. Conclusion: A significantly positive correlation was found between CFI and water fluoride concentration in drinking water.
  7 2,653 205
Effect of increasing the vertical intrusive force to obtain torque control in lingual orthodontics: A three-dimensional finite element method study
Robin N Mathew, Aneesh Katyal, Ashutosh Shetty, US Krishna Nayak
March-April 2016, 27(2):163-167
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183120  PMID:27237207
Context: Biomechanical differences between lingual and labial orthodontics (LiO and LaO). Aims: To investigate the effects of intrusive forces in lingual technique during retraction treatment mechanics. Settings and Design: Intrusive forces act differently in both techniques because of the different location of force vectors in relation to the center of resistance. Increasing the vertical intrusive force is one of the methods routinely used to prevent the uncontrolled tipping and obtain bodily tooth movement in LaO. However, its effects in lingual technique need to be investigated to derive at an optimal treatment mechanics. Subjects and Methods: Finite element method which has been successfully used to simulate tooth movement and optimize orthodontic mechanics effectively was used in this study. An accurate model of the upper central and lateral incisors with the surrounding structures was developed, and the “ANSYS” version 7.0 software was used for analysis. Results: Intrusive forces as high as 3.6N was required to obtain translation in LiO that too in an undesirable direction. Efforts to obtain torque control by increasing the intrusive force only would not be successful. Conclusion: Forces that produce a translation in LaO tends to produce uncontrolled tipping in lingual technique. To obtain adequate torque control in lingual technique, a combination of the reduction in horizontal retraction forces, increased lingual root torque application, and increase in vertical intrusive forces is desirable.
  6 1,985 127
Extracellular matrix in oral squamous cell carcinoma: Friend or foe?
Sangeeta R Patankar, Divyesh P Wankhedkar, Nidhi S Tripathi, Sanya N Bhatia, Gokul Sridharan
March-April 2016, 27(2):184-189
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183125  PMID:27237211
Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) primarily spreads through direct invasion and/or lymphatic route. During the invasion, tumor cells break through the basement membrane, penetrate the connective tissue to interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM). An attempt was made to evaluate the connective tissue changes in different grades of OSCCs and their influence in predicting the biological behavior of these tumors. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 histologically proven cases comprising 5 normal mucosa, 10 well-differentiated OSCC's, 10 moderately differentiated OSCC's, and 5 poorly differentiated OSCC's were examined for the presence of any ECM changes by using special stains. Interpretation of staining intensity was carried out and statistically analyzed. Results: Van Gieson stain showed abundant thick collagen fibers, dispersed collagen fibers, thin few dispersed collagen fibers in well-, moderately- and poorly-differentiated OSCC's, respectively. Verhoeff's Van-Gieson showed negative staining for elastic fibers around tumor islands in different grades of OSCCs. PAS stain showed moderate staining for glycoprotein in well-differentiated OSCC and negative in moderately and poorly differentiated cases. Picrosirius red stain showed Type 1 collagen fibers in well and moderately differentiated OSCC cases and Type 3 collagen fibers in poorly differentiated cases. Conclusion: The observations of this study revealed altered staining reactions of the collagenous stroma and glycoproteins suggesting that tumor cells may release certain enzymes that play a role in the manipulation of ECM to enhance their own survival.
  3 1,921 214
Evaluation of serum uric acid levels in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma
Syeda Arshiya Ara, Sajna Ashraf, Bhagyashree M Patil
March-April 2016, 27(2):178-183
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183128  PMID:27237210
Background: Worldwide, oral carcinoma is one of the most prevalent cancers and is one of the most common causes of death. Toxicity by oxygen radicals has been suggested as an important cause of cancer. Several researchers have reported an association of plasma/serum uric acid with different cancers. Aim: The aim was to determine the serum uric acid level in patients with newly diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and then to compare and correlate it with those of normal subjects and also to determine the role of uric acid in the etiology of OSCC. Materials and Methods: The study group included 41 OSCC patients and 40 age- and sex- matched healthy subjects as a control group. Estimation of serum urate concentration was determined enzymatically with a commercially available reagent. The data were statistically evaluated with Student's t-test and Chi-square test using SPSS 11.5 software. Results: The mean serum uric acid levels were very low with the study group as compared to control group and were very highly significant (t = 4.14, P < 0.001). It was also found that risk of OSCC was more in a study group with low serum uric acid levels with tobacco intake. Conclusion: This study showed that serum uric acid was lower in oral cancer patients compared with healthy volunteers and low serum uric acid was associated with increased risk of oral cancer development.
  2 2,255 258
Curing efficiency of three light emitting diode units at different curing profiles
Priyanka Verma
March-April 2016, 27(2):168-173
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183134  PMID:27237208
Context: High-intensity light emitting diode lamps with reduced exposure time to bond orthodontic attachments have been introduced to save the valuable clinical time. Aims: To evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets cured using three different light emitting diode curing units having different intensities and curing times, to compare the effect of different exposure methods on bond strength, and to compare the amount of remnant adhesive on tooth after debonding. Settings and Design: Study conducted on 120 brackets bonded to extracted premolar teeth cured by using three light-emitting diode (LED) units. Methods: One hundred and twenty adhesive precoated metal brackets (Gemini series, 3M Unitek) were cured using three LED curing units (3M ESPE, ELIPAR, S10; Ortholux™ LED; Ortholux™ Luminous Curing Light). Universal testing machine was used to record shear bond strength. Residual adhesive remaining on the teeth was assessed by the modified adhesive remnant index. Statistical Analysis: After calculating mean and standard deviation for each group, post hoc Tukey and Kruskal–Wallis tests were employed to find the significant difference. Results: Comparison showed highest shear bond strength for Group 1A followed by 3A and lowest for Group 3B. Statistically significant difference was noticed in comparing shear bond strength recorded in Group 1A, Group 2A, and Group 3A with Group 1B, Group 2B, and Group 3B. Conclusions: Reduction of exposure time to 6 s with high-intensity curing light seemed to be clinically acceptable and should be recommended. Curing of metal brackets with single exposure from buccal side showed lower shear bond strength values.
  2 2,168 167
Evaluation of plasma reactive oxygen metabolites levels in obese subjects with periodontal disease
Snophia Suresh, Jaideep Mahendra, Uma Sudhakar, AR Pradeep, Gurdeep Singh
March-April 2016, 27(2):155-159
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183117  PMID:27237205
Background: Obesity represents the systemic condition capable of influencing the onset and progression of periodontal disease. Obesity is associated with oxidative stress. Plasma level of reactive oxidative metabolites (ROMs) is measured as an indicator of oxidative stress in the body. The aim of this study is to assess and compare the plasma ROM levels in obese subjects with healthy and inflammatory periodontal status. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects selected were grouped as 15 obese or overweight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis, 15 obese or overweight subjects with generalized chronic gingivitis, 15 obese or overweight subjects with healthy periodontium, and 15 nonobese and healthy periodontium. The clinical periodontal parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were measured. Blood samples were obtained to measure the plasma levels of ROM. Result and Conclusion: In this study, obese subjects with chronic periodontitis (Group I) had mean plasma ROM levels (442.3 ± 15.65 Carratelli unit [CARR U]) showing 100% subjects with high oxidative stress. Obese subjects with chronic gingivitis (Group II) had mean plasma ROM levels (358.7 ± 20.61 CARR U) indicating 86.7% subjects with oxidative stress. Obese subjects with healthy periodontium (Group III) had 46.7% subjects with slight oxidative stress, and the mean ROM level was 320.2 ± 17.57. Nonobese subjects with healthy periodontium (Group IV) had 80% of subjects with normal oxidative stress and the mean plasma ROM level was 296.9 ± 20.35 CARR U. The intra- and inter-group comparison showed significant difference (P < 0.001). From our study, we report that obese subjects with periodontitis have more oxidative stress compared to obese subjects with healthy periodontium.
  2 1,497 112
Aerosol, a health hazard during ultrasonic scaling: A clinico-microbiological study
Akanksha Singh, RG Shiva Manjunath, Deepak Singla, Hirak S Bhattacharya, Arijit Sarkar, Neeraj Chandra
March-April 2016, 27(2):160-162
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183131  PMID:27237206
Context: Ultrasonic scaling is a routinely used treatment to remove plaque and calculus from tooth surfaces. These scalers use water as a coolant which is splattered during the vibration of the tip. The splatter when mixed with saliva and plaque of the patients causes the aerosol highly infectious and acts as a major risk factor for transmission of the disease. In spite of necessary protection, sometimes, the operator might get infected because of the infectious nature of the splatter. Aim: To evaluate the aerosol contamination produced during ultrasonic scaling by the help of microbiological analysis. Materials and Methods: This clinico-microbiological study consisted of twenty patients. Two agar plates were used for each patient; the first was kept at the center of the operatory room 20 min before the treatment while the second agar plate was kept 40 cm away from the patient's chest during the treatment. Both the agar plates were sent for microbiological analysis. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis was done with the help of STATA 11.0 (StataCorp. 2013. Stata Statistical Software, Release 13. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP, 4905 Lakeway Drive College Station, Texas, USA). Statistical software was used for data analysis and the P < 0.001 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The results for bacterial count were highly significant when compared before and during the treatment. The Gram staining showed the presence of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species in high numbers. Conclusions: The aerosols and splatters produced during dental procedures have the potential to spread infection to dental personnel. Therefore, proper precautions should be taken to minimize the risk of infection to the operator.
  2 3,222 223
Oral health knowledge and practices of dentists practicing in a teaching hospital in Nigeria
Akinlolu Tolulope Jegede, Titus Ayodeji Oyedele, Babasola Olufemi Sodipo, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan
March-April 2016, 27(2):137-144
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183124  PMID:27237202
Aim: To assess the oral health practices and knowledge of practicing dentists at a tertiary health institution in Nigeria, and the possible association of age and sex with caries prevention practices. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted. All practicing dentists in the institution were eligible to participate in the study. A questionnaire that assessed oral health practices and knowledge was administered. Respondents were expected to select the most appropriate responses that reflected their knowledge of oral health practices and caries prevention practices. Questions included assessment of knowledge and practice of tooth brushing, flossing, refined carbohydrate intake, and dental service utilization. Participants' responses were scored and dichotomized to poor and good knowledge, and poor and good practices, using the median scores. Bivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with good and poor oral health practices, and good and poor knowledge. Results: Fifty-two eligible study participants were accessible at the time of questionnaire administration. Only 46 respondents returned the filled questionnaire giving a response rate of 88.5%. The age of respondents ranged between 25 and 48 years. The majority of respondents had good oral health practices (65.2%) and good oral health knowledge (85%). However, few respondents had good caries prevention practices: 39.2% brushed at least twice daily, 45.7% took refined carbohydrate less than once daily, 36.9% used dental floss at least once daily, and 60.9% undertook preventive dental care. The correlation between the dentists' oral health knowledge score and oral health practices score was insignificant (0.90; P = 0.55). Conclusion: A large number of dentists practicing in the tertiary hospital had good oral health practices and good oral health knowledge. However, the proportion of dentists with good caries prevention practices was low.
  2 3,037 97
Total reconstruction of mandible by transport distraction after complete resection for benign and malignant tumors
SM Balaji
March-April 2016, 27(2):205-212
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183121  PMID:27237215
Background: Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a recognized technique for the bone lengthening and correction of various mandibular deformities. It has an aided advantage of both osteogenesis and histiogenesis in achieving a bone supported mandibular ridge covered with attached gingiva, forming an appropriate vestibule. Aim: The aim of this study was to present our clinical experience in using transport DO technique (TDO) for treating mandibular bony defects following tumor ablation in both benign and malignant tumor cases. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent mandibular TDO for the correction of mandibular segmental defect at authors' center from 2000 to 2014 with the inclusion criteria of segmental bony defect in the mandible with moderate soft tissue defect. After the latency period of 10 days, the distraction was initiated at a rate of 0.25–1 mm/day. The distraction period continued until the segment with the transport disc reached the distal base. The total consolidation periods ranged from 6 to 14 weeks. Results: The study group consists of 9 cases of TDO for reconstruction of segmental defect following tumor resection, of which 5 cases of benign and 4 cases of malignant tumor resection. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) bony defect length was 48 mm (9.8). The mean (SD) distracted bone lengthening was 43 mm (9.7), with a mean (SD) consolidation period of 17.9 (3.4) weeks. The bony defect involved the hemimandibular angle in four patients, hemimandibular body in three patients, with greater involvement of the body, symphysis in two patients, and of the bilateral mandibular body in two patients. Except for two patients who required additional bone grafting to complete union with the residual bone, other seven patients in the distraction zone showed the complete ossification by radiological evaluation. The mean (SD) consolidation period of 13.56 (1.5) weeks ranging from 12-15 weeks with the mean (SD) follow-up years is about 8.7 years (2.95) for the cases. Out of the 9 cases, one case had recurrence in the follow-up period and underwent resection with reconstruction using reconstruction plate in the created bone. The overall success rate of TDO was 88.9% (8 out of 9) in spite of adequate case selection and TDO protocol. Conclusions: TDO potentially benefits patients with segmental bony defects following tumor ablation in mandible. It is an unswerving tool to achieve sufficient bone in mandible in patients who cannot undergo aggressive surgery or poor general health. Bone resorption remains a critical issue for this reconstruction technique, though blood supply is continuously maintained in TDO.
  2 2,797 188
Color stability of a resin composite: Effect of the immersion method and surface treatments
LL Miotti, GF Nicoloso, LB Durand, AH Susin, RO Rocha
March-April 2016, 27(2):195-199
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183137  PMID:27237213
Background: In vitro staining methods expose the entire specimen to staining solutions. In a real clinical situation, this is not observed, since one should consider that the bonded surface is not exposed to the oral environment. Theoretically, the clinical condition would be the best simulated if the specimens were exposed to staining solutions by partial immersion. Aims: To evaluate if different immersion methods and surface treatments influence the color stability of resin-based specimens. Methodology: A stainless steel matrix was used to prepare 30 disc-shaped specimens that were randomly allocated in three groups: Without polishing, polishing with abrasive discs, and surface sealant. Half of the specimens were isolated to maintain only the upper surface exposed to staining (partial immersion) and the other half was totally immersed in coffee solution for 48 h (total immersion). The coordinates ΔE*, ΔL*, Δa*, Δb* were assessed by spectrophotometer. Statistical Analysis: Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α =0.05). Results: Specimens submitted to partial immersion showed lower values of ΔE*, ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*, in comparison to total immersion (P = 0.000). Specimens covered by a surface sealant presented lower ΔE* values regardless of the immersion method. Conclusions: Specimens totally immersed in staining solutions could in somehow overestimate the color change, once that in most clinical conditions not all of the restoration surfaces are exposed to the oral environment. Moreover, as the surface sealant application produces color change values that are clinically acceptable, it might be used in esthetic restorations as an adjunct treatment.
  1 2,329 111
Central granular cell odontogenic tumor: Report of an unusual case
Mani Madan, Shaleen Chandra, Vineet Raj, Rohit Madan
March-April 2016, 27(2):220-222
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183119  PMID:27237217
Central granular cell odontogenic tumor (CGCOT) is an unusual benign odontogenic neoplasm characterized by the presence of granular cells associated with apparently inactive odontogenic epithelium. These tumors tend to occur in the posterior mandible and usually present as well-defined unilocular or multilocular radiolucent lesions. So far, only <40 cases of CGCOT have been described in the literature under various terminologies. Though these tumors were not considered as distinct entity in the recent WHO classification of odontogenic tumors, long-term follow-up is recommended as malignant counterpart of CGCOT has already been reported. The main aim of this article is to report an additional case of CGCOT to the literature, occurring in a 73-year-old male.
  - 1,568 143
A rare nonsyndromic presentation of bilateral doughnut shaped lip pits in an Indian child
Senthil Balasubramani, Sudhakar Sankaran, Abhishek Madhavan, Selvakumar Jayaraman
March-April 2016, 27(2):223-225
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183127  PMID:27237218
Lip pits are a rare congenital anomaly that presents on the upper or lower lip or the commissure of the lips. Lip pits are an autosomal dominant trait occurring almost always in association with cleft lip or palate. They most commonly occur in association with developmental disturbances such as Van der Woude's syndrome, popliteal pterygium syndrome, oro-facial-digital syndrome, Marres-Cremers syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease. Its occurrence in nonsyndromic individuals is extremely rare with only a handful of cases reported. The identification of lip pits with other associated anomalies is crucial for genetic counseling; we report a case of nonsyndromic presentation of bilateral lip pits.
  - 1,638 100
Burden of oral diseases
SM Balaji
March-April 2016, 27(2):115-115
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183123  PMID:27237198
  - 1,730 179
Dental stem cells: Hope or hype?
Ashwin Dalal
March-April 2016, 27(2):113-114
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183118  PMID:27237197
  - 1,698 150
Comparison of three diagnostic techniques for detecting occlusal dental caries in primary molars: An in vivo study
Farhin Katge, Mayur Wakpanjar, Bhavesh Rusawat, Ashveeta Shetty
March-April 2016, 27(2):174-177
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183133  PMID:27237209
Aim: To compare the accuracy and repeatability of three diagnostic systems; visual inspection, bitewing radiography, and CarieScan PRO for occlusal caries diagnosis in primary molars. Materials and Methods: 216 occlusal surfaces of primary molars examined in turn by two examiners using each of three diagnostic systems (visual inspection, bitewing radiography, and CarieScan PRO). Examiners indicated operative intervention (validation method) for 104 teeth which were used for statistical analysis. The validation method was cavity preparation when the two examiners agreed about the presence of dentinal caries. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each diagnostic technique. Inter- and intra-examiner repeatability was calculated for each diagnostic system using the Cohen's kappa statistics. Results: Visual inspection showed the highest sensitivity (0.93). The highest sensitivity and NPVs were provided by CarieScan PRO (0.97 and 0.95, respectively) however this was offset by a lower specificity (0.82) compared to other techniques. The CarieScan PRO gave the highest values of Cohen's kappa statistics. Conclusion: This study showed low sensitivity but substantial specificity with visual inspection. Bitewing radiography performed poorly overall when compared with the other two systems. The CarieScan PRO technique gave the highest overall combination of sensitivity and specificity for detection of occlusal caries.
  - 3,959 220
Quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials in ten academic Indian dental journals
Sudhakar Vundavalli, Guntipalli M Naidu, A.S.K. Bhargav, BH Praveen, B Pavani, Suresh Babburi
March-April 2016, 27(2):116-120
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183132  PMID:27237199
Background: Biased results from poorly reported trials can mislead decision-making in health care at all levels, from treatment decisions for the individual patient to formulation of national public health policies. Objective: To evaluate the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in ten Indian dental journals over the period 2011–2012. Materials and Methods: This study included all RCTs published as full-text articles reported in ten Indian dental journals over the period from 2011 to 2012. The relevant trials were identified by searching Medline. Hand searching of the journals was also carried out by three of the authors to check if any potential trial was missing. Each article was assessed against the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials criteria tool, as described by Schulz et al. (2010). Results: The mean number of criteria present per article was 12.2 (standard deviation [SD] =2.2) and only 5 of 106 articles got total possible score. Most of the articles (69%) did not mention about justification for sample size calculation, 89% of the articles did not mention about allocation concealment, 86% of the articles did not mention about funding and 63% of the articles did not mention about limitations of the study. Conclusion: The quality of reporting of Randomized clinical trials in ten Indian academic journals was poor.
  - 1,887 169
Association of edentulousness and removable prosthesis rehabilitation with severity of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders
Preeti Agarwal Katyayan, Manish Khan Katyayan, Ghanshyam C Patel
March-April 2016, 27(2):127-136
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183129  PMID:27237201
Context: There are very few studies concerning the role of denture status in temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and those show conflicting results. Aim: To evaluate the association of edentulousness and removable prosthesis rehabilitation with severity of TMD signs and symptoms. Settings and Design: Data were collected from 2000 subjects reporting for dental treatment, above 30 years of age. Subjects and Methods: The subjects were interviewed with a questionnaire and clinically examined for TMD on basis of Helkimo's index. The number of existing teeth, wearing of removable dentures, need for denture repair, and age of dentures was recorded. Statistical Analysis: The association between the TMD findings and recorded variable outcomes was analyzed by means of Chi-square test. Results: Completely edentulous individuals associated more with TMD related findings in incidence and intensity than partially/fully dentate subjects. Complete denture wearers were more associated with TMD symptoms, limited mandibular mobility, muscle tenderness, and pain on mandibular movement. Partial denture wearers were more associated with severely impaired temporomandibular joint function and joint pain. Signs and symptoms of TMD were more prevalent and severe in patients who needed to get their dentures repaired, those wearing dentures more than 5-year-old, and in patients who had not got their dentures repaired during the past 5 years. Conclusions: Edentulousness, complete/partial denture wearing and poor condition of the dentures associate with greater incidence and intensity of TMD associated signs and symptoms.
  - 3,555 145
Effect of electron-beam irradiation on antimicrobial, antibiofilm activity, and cytotoxicity of mouth rinses
A Geethashri, B Mohana Kumar, KJ Palaksha, KR Sridhar, Ganesh Sanjeev, A Veena Shetty
March-April 2016, 27(2):145-150
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183116  PMID:27237203
Background: Oral health diseases are common in all regions of the world. Mouth rinses are widely used generally by population as a port of daily oral care regimen. In addition to antimicrobial activity, mouth rinses possess certain cytotoxic effects. Electron-beam (E-beam) radiation is a form of ionizing energy known to induce structural, physical, and chemical changes in irradiated products. In this study, the modulatory effects of E-beam in irradiated mouth rinses were evaluated for its biological activities. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activities of nonirradiated and irradiated mouth rinses were evaluated for its antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities against oral pathogens, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion method and antibiofilm activity was evaluated by O'Toole method. The cytotoxicity was evaluated against human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells by 3-(4, 5 Dimethythiazol-yl)-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Results: Colgate Plax (CP) exhibited the antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens, and a significant (P< 0.05) increase was observed against S. aureus at 750 Gy irradiation. Further, CP significantly (P< 0.05) suppressed S. mutans, S. aureus, and C. albicans biofilm. Listerine (LS) inhibited S. mutans and C. albicans biofilm. Whereas irradiated CP and LS significantly (P< 0.05) suppressed the biofilm formed by oral pathogens. The suppression of biofilm by irradiated mouth rinses was dose- and species-dependent. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in the cytotoxicity of irradiated and nonirradiated mouth rinses on HGF cells. However, an increased percentage viability of HGF cells was observed by mouth rinses irradiated at 750 Gy.xs Conclusion: The E-beam irradiation enhanced the antibiofilm activity of mouth rinses without modifying the cytotoxicity.
  - 1,286 104
Antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major on inhibiting primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study
Hunny Sharma, GY Yunus, Ashok Kumar Mohapatra, Reena Kulshrestha, Rohit Agrawal, Monika Kalra
March-April 2016, 27(2):200-204
Introduction: From ancient times, plants with medicinal values are being tested and used in treatment of various infectious disease. Aims and Objectives: The presentin vitro study was designed to assess the antimicrobial activity of three commonly available medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major on inhibiting Primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens. Materials and Methods: Bark of G. glabra, Stem of F. religiosa, and husk of P. major were collected, crushed into fine powder, and dissolved in 67% ethanol. Extracts were then subjected to test antimicrobial efficacy against primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Mean zone of inhibition (ZOI) was measured by HI antibiotic zone scale. One-way ANOVA using Tukey's post hoc and t-test were applied for statistical analysis. Results: G. glabra was found to have potential antibacterial activity against primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens with highest mean ZOI measuring 9.2 ± 1.09 mm and 10.6 ± 0.54 mm at 24 h, respectively. F. religiosa showed antibacterial activity against primary plaque colonizers only at 48 h with mean ZOI of 2.6 ± 0.54 mm. P. major showed no antibacterial activity against any of the microorganism in this study. Tukey's post hoc test showed statistically nonsignificant difference between G. glabra and standard antibiotic (vancomycin 10 mcg) for periodontal pathogens. Conclusion:G. glabra and F. religiosa showed antibacterial activity against primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens. However, further studies should be undertaken to affirm the same and test their efficacy in different concentration and clinical utility.
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Evaluation of effect of recasting of nickel-chromium alloy on its castability using different investment materials: An in vitro study
Abhinav Sharma, Shobha J Rodrigues, Thilak B Shetty, Vidya K Shenoy, Mahesh Mundathaje, Sharon Saldanha
March-April 2016, 27(2):190-194
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.183136  PMID:27237212
Context: Castability has been found to be affected by many aspects of the entire casting system. Very few references in dental literature are available regarding recasting of the base metal alloys. Aims: To evaluate and compare the castability of fresh and reused nickel-chromium alloy and to evaluate the effect of two brands of investment materials on castability of nickel-chromium alloy. Subjects and Methods: For the experimental purpose of evaluation of the effect of recasting of nickel-chromium alloy on its castability, different percentages of new and casted alloy (Nickel-chromium alloy-(Wirolloy NB, Type 4 (Ni-67%; Cr-25%; Mo-5%; Si-1.5%; Mn, Nb, B, C each <1%) and two commercial brands of investment materials namely, Deguvest Impact (Degudent; Dentsply Germany) and Bellavest SH (Degudent; Dentsply Germany) was used to obtain 30 samples. Castability value was obtained using Whitlock's formula. Student t-test and one way ANOVA using SPSS 20.0 software was done. Results: The results of this study confirm earlier works that demonstrate that there is no significant difference in castability values of new and recast alloys. In addition, it also demonstrated, there was no difference in castability using Deguvest Impact and Bellavest SH investment materials. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that there was no significant difference found in castability of different percentage combinations of new and once casted alloy using two investment materials. The addition of new alloy during recasting to maintain the castability of nickel-chromium alloy may therefore not be required.
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