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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2013| May-June  | Volume 24 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 12, 2013

 
 
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
A comparative study of various decalcification techniques
Prathibha Prasad, Mandana Donoghue
May-June 2013, 24(3):302-308
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.117991  PMID:24025875
Background : Study of fibrilar, cellular and sub cellular structures of mineralized tissues is only possible after the removal of the calcium apatite of these tissues by the process of demineralization. Aims: The present study aims to evaluate six commonly used demineralizing agents to identify the best decalcifying agent. Materials and Methods: The present study included six different decalcifying solutions: 10% formal nitric acid, 8% formal nitric acid, 10% formic acid, 8% formic acid, Perenyi's fluid and Ethylene Di-Amine Tetra Acetic Acid. eight samples of posterior mandible of rat were decalcified in each of the decalcifying solutions and subjected to chemical end-point test. Ehrlich's Hematoxylin stain was used. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons and Chi-square test was used for analyzing categorical data. P value of 0.05/less was set for statistical significance. Results: Samples treated with EDTA showed the best overall histological impression and the tissue integrity were well preserved. Formal nitric of both the percentages 10 and 8% gave fairly good cellular detail and were rapid in their action. Conclusion: The final impression led to the proposition that EDTA was indeed the best decalcifying agent available. However, with time constraint, the use of formal nitric acid is advocated.
  31 10,739 544
A new technique to determine vertical dimension of occlusion from anthropometric measurements of fingers
Ruchi Ladda, Aruna J Bhandari, Vikrant O Kasat, Gangadhar S Angadi
May-June 2013, 24(3):316-320
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.117993  PMID:24025877
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) and length of fingers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 dentate subjects comprising of 200 males and 200 females. Anthropometric measurements of VDO, length of index finger, length of little finger, and distance from tip of thumb to tip of index finger of right hand were recorded clinically using modified digital vernier caliper. Correlation between VDO and length of fingers was studied using Spearman's coefficient. For the execution of regression command and preparation of prediction equations to estimate VDO, Statistical Package for Social Sciences Software Version 11.5 was used. Results: VDO was significantly and positively correlated with all the parameters studied. In males, correlation of VDO was strongest for length of index finger (r-0.406) whereas in females, it was strongest for length of little finger (r-0.385). VDO estimation using regression equation had a standard error of ± 3.76 in males and ± 2.86 in females for length of index finger, ±3.81 and ± 2.74 in males and females respectively for length of little finger, ±3.99 and ± 2.89 in males and females respectively for distance from tip of thumb to tip of index finger. Conclusions: Since the variations between VDO and finger lengths are within the range of 2-4 mm, VDO prediction through this method is reliable, and reproducible. Also the method is simple, economic, and non-invasive; hence, it could be recommended for everyday practice.
  14 9,388 450
Efficacy of spirulina as an antioxidant adjuvant to corticosteroid injection in management of oral submucous fibrosis
Prathima Shetty, Prashanth Shenai, Laxmikanth Chatra, Prasanna Kumar Rao
May-June 2013, 24(3):347-350
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118001  PMID:24025883
Background and Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic condition of the oral cavity which results in permanent disability. A number of studies have proven that the management of premalignant diseases should include antioxidants. Therefore, a study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of spirulina as an antioxidant adjuvant to corticosteroid injections in the management of 40 oral submucous fibrosis subjects of south Karnataka and north Kerala. Materials and Methods: An intervention study was conducted on 40 oral submucous fibrosis cases, 40 patients were divided into two groups, group A (spirulina group) and group B (placebo group). Group A received spirulina 500 mg twice daily and biweekly intralesional steroid injection of Betamethasone 4 mg/ml for 3 months and group B was given placebo capsules twice daily and biweekly intralesional steroid injection of Betamethasone 4 mg/ml for 3 months. The results were analyzed with the paired " t" test and the unpaired " t" test. Results: Clinical improvements in mouth opening was significant in the posttreatment period in both Spirulina and placebo groups. Both the groups showed statistically significant reduction in burning sensation. However, when both groups were compared, mouth opening and burning sensation was found to be statistically very highly significant in favor of the spirulina group. Conclusion: Spirulina can bring about clinical improvements in OSF patients. The observed effects suggest that spirulina can be used as an adjuvant therapy in the initial management of OSF patients. However, studies involving larger samples and longer period of treatment follow up are suggested in the future.
  12 3,061 421
Are more nickel ions accumulated in the hair of fixed orthodontic patients?
Mostafa Abtahi, Arezoo Jahanbin, Masoud Yaghoubi, Habibollah Esmaily, Hanieh Zare
May-June 2013, 24(3):298-301
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.117990  PMID:24025874
Background and Objectives : All elements existing in orthodontic alloys can be released to the oral cavity as corrosion products; therefore, they can accumulate in body tissues after systemic absorption. Among body tissues that can be evaluated for systemic absorption of nickel, in this study we used hair strands, because if nickel is absorbed systematically, it would accumulate in these strands over time. Furthermore, hair sampling is a non-invasive method, so the main aim of this study was the evaluation of nickel ions release into the hair strands of fixed orthodontic patients compared with the control group in a 4-month duration. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, the test group included 24 female patients between 12-20 years of age that were going to begin fixed orthodontic treatment. The control group consisted of their sisters in the same age range, who volunteered to participate in this study. Initial hair samples were taken from both groups at the beginning the study and immediately before setting up the fixed appliances in test group. The samples were taken from three different scalp sites including; frontal, vertex, and occipital areas. After 16 weeks, hair samples were taken from approximately the same scalp areas in both the groups. The samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and data analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. Results: This study showed that there were significant differences in nickel levels before and after study for case (P = 0.004) and control groups (P = 0.012). The mean nickel concentration after four months was 0.382 ± 0.36 μg/g for controls and 0.673 ± 0.38 μg/g for the case group, which was significantly different (P = 0.002). Conclusion: The hair nickel concentrations significantly increased after insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances as compared with the control group.
  8 2,021 82
Detection of putative periodontopathic bacteria in type 1 diabetic and healthy children: A comparative study
Ponnudurai Arangannal, Santoshkumari , Padma Krishnan, Mamta Harilal Nichani, Mahalakshmi Krishnan, Vishnurekha Chamarthi
May-June 2013, 24(3):342-346
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118000  PMID:24025882
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare and assess the risk of periodontitis due to the presence of four putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) in type 1 diabetic and healthy children. Materials and Methods: Fifty type 1 diabetic and 50 healthy children in the age group of 7-14 years were recruited for the study. Subgingival plaque samples collected from permanent first molars were subjected to polymerase chain reaction assay to detect 16S rRNA gene of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The data were analyzed using Fisher exact test. The P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of subgingival periodontal pathogens in diabetic and healthy children was 2% and 4% for P. gingivalis, 34% and 34% for T. denticola, 20% and 18% for A. actinomycetemcomitans and for T. forsythia, 4% and 34%, respectively. Significant statistical difference was not observed with regard to the prevalence of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and A. actinomycetemcomitans among type 1 diabetic and healthy children (P = 1.00). Conversely, T. forsythia was less prevalent in diabetic children compared to healthy children. Conclusion: Statistical significance was not observed for the prevalence of periodontopathic bacteria in type 1 diabetic subjects. The results of the present study thus reveal the absence of risk of periodontitis by these bacterial species in type 1 diabetic subjects.
  8 1,623 104
CASE REPORT
Herpes zoster of trigeminal nerve after dental extraction
Nagappa Guttiganur, Archana Devanoorkar, Shivanand Aspalli, Sudhir Shetty
May-June 2013, 24(3):396-396
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118011  PMID:24025898
Herpes zoster is an uncommon acute viral infection caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus. During the prodromal stage, the only presenting symptom may be odontalgia, which may prove to be a diagnostic challenge for the dentist. Practicing dentist may carry out emergency treatment that might result in irreversible damage or may delay the appropriate treatment. With an ever-increasing number of elderly and immunocompromised patients reporting to the dentist, the dental profession can expect to encounter an increased number of herpes zoster patients. Dentist must be familiar with the presenting signs and symptoms of patients experiencing the prodromal manifestations of herpes zoster of the trigeminal nerve. This article focuses on the difficulties in management of such cases, and one such case is reported here.
  7 9,988 186
CASE REPORTS
B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma: Report of a case in the oral cavity
Jumana M Jaradat, Anitha Potluri, Elizabeth A Bilodeau
May-June 2013, 24(3):384-386
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118016  PMID:24025890
B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma (DLBCL/BL) is a new category of B-cell lymphoma according to the 4 th edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues (2008). The following report presents a case of this rare, newly described entity on the palate of a 59 year-old male.
  6 2,238 96
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Assessment of gingival contours for esthetic diagnosis and treatment: A clinical study
Veena A Patil, Manthan H Desai
May-June 2013, 24(3):394-395
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118005  PMID:24025895
Background: The purposes of this study were to quantify some clinical parameters that are useful as esthetic guidelines when the gingival contour is modified and to compare the left and right sides of the six maxillary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty interdental papilla sites in 20 healthy patients were evaluated. Interdental papilla heights of maxillary anterior teeth were measured from the gingival zenith, along with clinical crown lengths. Percentages of papilla height to crown length were computed and defined as papilla proportion, mesial papilla proportion (MPP) and distal papilla proportion (DPP). Results: Mean interdental papilla heights of maxillary teeth was 3.83 mm mesially and 3.8 mm distally. Mean MPP was 43.69% ( n = 120) and DPP was 44.57% ( n = 120). No significant differences were found between MPP and DPP for maxillary incisors ( P ≥ 0.5). Conclusion: Papilla proportions were approximately 44% for all tooth groups. Canines demonstrated a trend toward increased distal papilla heights. In the present study the average MPP and DPP of the central incisor (CI), lateral incisor (LI) and canine (CA) measured were 43%, 41%, 46%, 40%, and 42% 51% respectively.
  6 3,601 195
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Intraluminal plexiform hemangioameloblastomatous proliferation in unicystic ameloblastoma: An unusual case report
Gargi S Sarode, Sachin C Sarode, Kedar Vaidya
May-June 2013, 24(3):390-392
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118014  PMID:24025892
The authors report a case of unicystic ameloblastoma with intraluminal plexiform hemangiomatous proliferation in the right mandible of an 18-year-old Indian male who suffered from painful swelling for 2 months. A radiograph showed a well-circumscribed multilocular radiolucent lesion associated with the angle and ramus of the mandible. Microscopic examination revealed the cystic lesion lined with ameloblastic epithelium with intraluminal plexiform hemangioameloblastomatous proliferation. The possible pathogenic mechanism for hemangiomatous appearance of this case reflects the previous history of extraction. The prognosis is perhaps the same as expected for conventional unicystic ameloblastoma.
  6 2,301 167
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Effect of dental treatments on salivary immunoglobulin A of children with and without dental caries: A comparative study
PR Geetha Priya, Sharath Asokan, K Karthick, N Venugopal Reddy, V Arun Prasad Rao
May-June 2013, 24(3):394-394
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118004  PMID:24025894
Aim: To evaluate and compare the effect of dental treatment on the salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels of children with and without dental caries. Materials and Methods: The study involved 30 children, among which 15 had caries and the other 15 were without caries. Salivary sample collection was done for all the children before dental treatment, and for the children with caries, the sampling was repeated 3-4 weeks after the dental treatment. The salivary IgA quantitation was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using Human IgA ELISA Quantitation kit, and the results were statistically analyzed by independent sample "t" test. Results:The salivary IgA level was significantly more in children with caries (13.07 ± 1.55 mg/100 ml) than in caries-free children (11.90 ± 1.58 mg/100 ml) in the pre-treatment phase. The salivary IgA level in children with caries was 13.52 ± 1.68 mg/100 ml in the post-treatment phase and it was not statistically different from the pre-treatment value. Conclusion: Mere quantitation of salivary IgA levels might have no reflection on the functional antibodies involved in caries process, and successful dental treatment alone does not alter the salivary IgA levels, suggesting a multifaceted approach to combat the cariogenic challenge.
  4 2,626 162
Immunohistochemical expression of protein 53, murine double minute 2, B-cell lymphoma 2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in odontogenic cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumor
Hébel Cavalcanti Galvão, Manuel Antonio Gordón-Núñez, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista de Amorim, Roseana de Almeida Freitas, Lélia Batista de Souza
May-June 2013, 24(3):369-374
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118019  PMID:24025887
Introduction: Even though odontogenic cysts share a similar histogenesis, they show different growth and differentiation profile due to differences in the proliferative cellular activity. Aims: We perform an immunohistochemical assessment of protein 53 (p53), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2), and murine double minute 2 (MDM2) expression in odontogenic cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumor analyzing their correlation with the biological behavior of these lesions. Materials and Methods: By the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method with antibodies against p53, PCNA, bcl-2, and MDM2 proteins, 11 radicular cysts, 11 dentigerous cysts, and 11 keratocystic odontogenic tumor were analyzed. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskall-Wallis test (P ≤ 0.05) were used to analyze the data. Results: Immunopositivity for PCNA was observed in all cases appraised, predominantly in the suprabasal layer of keratocystic odontogenic tumor epithelial lining (SD ± 19.44), but no significant differences were found among the groups of lesions. Bcl-2 immunoexpression was observed especially in the basal layer of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PCNA LI was significantly higher than bcl-2 LI in keratocystic odontogenic tumor. MDM2 and p53 immunoexpression were not detected in the lesions studied. Among the evaluated lesions, the keratocystic odontogenic tumor showed different immunoexpression of the proliferation and apoptosis markers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the keratocystic odontogenic tumor presents distinct biological behavior of the odontogenic cysts, as for the processes of proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation, reinforcing the information in favor of the neoplastic nature of this lesion.
  4 1,487 107
Prevalence of archaea in chronic periodontitis patients in an Indian population
Nipun Ashok, Shivaraj Warad, VP Prabath Singh, Harshal Chaudhari, Arun Narayanan, Jean Rodrigues
May-June 2013, 24(3):289-293
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.117988  PMID:24025872
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of archaea in the subgingival crevices of patients with chronic periodontitis in an Indian population. Materials and Methods: Thirty four chronic periodontitis patients and 16 healthy subjects were included in the study. Thirty four subgingival plaque samples were collected from chronic periodontitis patients, of which 17 samples were from deep pockets and 17 were from shallow pockets. Sixteen subgingival plaque samples were collected from healthy subjects. The presence of archaea in plaque samples was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Prevalence of archaea in chronic periodontitis patients was 29.4% and in healthy subjects was 11.8%, which was not a statistically significant difference. However, prevalence of archaea, in deep periodontal pockets was 47.1%, in shallow periodontal pockets was 11.8% and in healthy sulcus was 12.5%, respectively. Thus, showing a statistically significant difference between prevalence of archaea in deep periodontal pockets (47.1%) and healthy sulcus (12.5%) and also between deep periodontal pockets (47.1%) and shallow pockets (11.8%), respectively. Conclusion: Archaea were detected commonly in severe periodontitis suggesting that these microorganisms might be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases.
  3 2,166 140
Sarjeev's supernumerary tooth notation system: A universally compatible add-on to the Two-Digit system
Sarjeev Singh Yadav, Sapna Sonkurla
May-June 2013, 24(3):395-396
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118009  PMID:24025897
Aim: To give notation for quadrants, tooth position, and the type of supernumerary teeth for both permanent and deciduous dentition. Tooth numbering provides dentists with an essential shortcut in clinical record keeping. Materials and Methods: Three systems are favored worldwide: the Zsigmondy/Palmer system, the Universal system, and the Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI) Two-Digit system. Histories of all tooth-numbering methods were traced and the strengths and deficiencies of each system were reviewed. The FDI Two-Digit system is widely used throughout the world, except USA, and is the only method that makes the visual sense, cognitive sense, and computer sense. Conclusion: On review it was noticed that all tooth notation systems in vogue have a drawback as they do not provide any information or notations for supernumerary teeth such as paramolar, distomolar, mesiodens, and fused teeth.
  3 27,324 469
Influence of finishing/polishing on color stability and surface roughness of composites submitted to accelerated artificial aging
Gustavo Da Col dos Santos Pinto, Kleber Campioni Dias, Diogo Rodrigues Cruvinel, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti Garcia, Simonides Consani, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri Pires-De-Souza
May-June 2013, 24(3):363-368
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118010  PMID:24025886
Aim: To assess the influence of finishing/polishing procedure on color stability (ΔE ) and surface roughness (Ra ) of composites (Heliomolar and Tetric - color A2) submitted to accelerated artificial aging (AAA). Materials and Methods : Sixty test specimens were made of each composite (12 mm × 2 mm) and separated into six groups (n = 10), according to the type of finishing/polishing to which they were submitted: C, control; F, tip 3195 F; FF, tip 3195 FF; FP, tip 3195 F + diamond paste; FFP, tip 3195 FF + diamond paste; SF, Sof-Lex discs. After polishing, controlled by an electromechanical system, initial color (spectrophotometer PCB 6807 BYK GARDNER) and Ra (roughness meter Surfcorder SE 1700, cut-off 0.25 mm) readings were taken. Next, the test specimens were submitted to the AAA procedure (C-UV Comexim) for 384 hours, and at the end of this period, new color readings and R a were taken. Results: Statistical analysis [2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Bonferroni, P < 0.05] showed that all composites demonstrated ΔE alteration above the clinically acceptable limits, with the exception of Heliomolar composite in FP. The greatest ΔE alteration occurred for Tetric composite in SF (13.38 ± 2.10) statistically different from F and FF (P < 0.05). For Ra , Group F showed rougher samples than FF with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In spite of the surface differences, the different finishing/polishing procedures were not capable of providing color stability within the clinically acceptable limits.
  3 2,813 123
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Van der Woude syndrome: Report of two cases with supplementary findings
Chandramani B More, Saurabh Varma, Mansi Tailor, Khushbu Bhavsar
May-June 2013, 24(3):387-389
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118015  PMID:24025891
Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is a rare developmental disorder with an autosomal dominant inheritance and variable expressivity, occurring in about 1 of every 1,00,000-2,00,000 people. This syndrome is remarkably variable. It is characterized by orofacial manifestations like lower lip pits, cleft lip and/or cleft palate, hypodontia, cleft or bifid uvula, syngnathia, narrow high arched palate, ankyloglossia and hyper nasal voice. We report two interesting cases of VWS with characteristic orofacial features and an unusual additional finding of bilateral commissural pits. The purpose of this article is to facilitate understanding of etio-pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, role of genetic counseling and with special emphasis on commissural pits as an additional feature in VWS.
  3 3,071 204
CASE REPORTS
Submandibular swelling: Tooth or salivary stone?
Pasquale Capaccio, Giulia Anna Marciante, Michele Gaffuri, Francesco Spadari
May-June 2013, 24(3):381-383
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118017  PMID:24025889
Submandibular swelling is a common clinical disorder of the maxillo-facial region that may be one of the manifestation of several pathologic disorders including sialolithiasis. A 38-year-old woman experienced a recurrent painful swelling in the right submandibular region for seven years. The symptoms, not always meal-related, gradually became chronic and associated with dysphagia, odynophagia and fever. Ultrasonography of the salivary glands revealed a retained glandular structure and no ductal obstruction or dilatation, and orthopantomography showed the presence of a structure compatible with tooth, but these findings did not correlate with clinical scenario. Only CT dental scan identified the radiological image as a salivary stone. Sialolithiasis should always be considered in the diagnostic iter of painful submandibular swelling. A careful evaluation of recurrence and characteristics of signs and symptoms associated to the swelling can help in making the correct diagnosis and planning a proper therapeutic strategy.
  2 9,929 155
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Etiogenic study on oral lichenoid reactions among Tamil Nadu population: A prospective cohort study
Eswar Nagaraj, Priya Eswar, Roopam Pal Kaur
May-June 2013, 24(3):309-315
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.117992  PMID:24025876
Background: Most of the clinical, epidemiological, and etiogenic studies on oral lichenoid reactions (OLRs) have been undertaken in the United States, UK, Scandinavia, and other European countries. So far, very few cohort studies on a small population have been documented from South Asian region to implicate the role of various causative agents in the precipitation of OLR. Objectives: To implicate the role of various allopathic, alternate medicinal drugs, dental materials, etc., in the precipitation OLRs; to evaluate the pattern of remission; and to estimate the time period for the remission of lesions following the discontinuance of the suspected agents in the population of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 patients were included, of whom 51 (mean age 43.3 years, SD 14.59) formed the study group, who possessed a positive drug history to the intake of either potential allopathic or alternate drugs or had recent dental metallic fillings/restorations, and 51 were (mean age 47.86 years, SD14.67) in the control group possessing oral lichen planus (OLP). The patients were followed up at a monthly interval period for a period of 18 months. Results: Complete remission of signs and symptoms was noticed in 41 patients, partial remission in 6, no change in 2, newer lesions in 1, and flaredup lesions were observed in 1 participant in the study group. The mean onset time for lichenoid eruptions was found to be 2.5 months (SD 58.82) and the mean remission time after discontinuing the drug was 9.1 months (SD 4.7). Conclusion: OLR could be implicated to documented lichenoid agents like calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, atarvastatin, metformin, glibenclamide, dapsone, carbimazole, silver amalgam fillings, etc.in southSouth Indian population. Furthermore, the drugs like oflaxacin, arsenical album, and yellow orpimentumwere also found to have strong implication in the precipitation of OLR. Discontinuance of the suspected agents resulted in healing in the majority of cases.
  2 2,570 192
Effect of different evaporation periods on microtensile bond strength of an acetone-based adhesive to dentin
Abdolrahim Davari, Majid Mousvinasab, Alireza Danesh Kazemi, Reza Rouzbeh
May-June 2013, 24(3):331-335
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.117997  PMID:24025880
Objective: Solvent content of a contemporary dental adhesive affect the bonding process, especially in the case of acetone based adhesives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different air-drying periods on microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of a total-etch adhesive to dentin. Materials and Methods: Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply-USA) was used with different air-drying periods (0, 2, 5, 10, 30sec) for bonding a composite resin to prepared dentin. The specimens were then subjected to a tensile force until fracture and the MTBSs of the samples were recorded. Failure modes of the fractured samples were also determined using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni tests (P = 0.05). Results: With increasing the air-drying periods, the MTBSs were increased until the 5 second air-blowing; after that, with increasing the air-drying periods, the MTBSs decreased. Both, the most complicated failure and the strongest bond were seen in the 5 sec air-drying group. Conclusion: There is an optimum air-drying time for acetone based adhesives which results in the strongest bond to dentin.
  2 2,575 61
A comparison between various radiological techniques in the localization and analysis of impacted and supernumerary teeth
Christoph M Ziegler, Thomas R Klimowicz
May-June 2013, 24(3):336-341
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.117998  PMID:24025881
Background and Objectives: An increasing number of different types of commercial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) devices are available for three-dimensional (3D) imaging in the field of dental and maxillofacial radiology. When removing impacted or supernumerary teeth, surgical teams often operate adjacent significant anatomical structures such as nerves, vessels, adjacent teeth roots, and paranasal sinuses. It is therefore important to choose the appropriate surgical approach to avoid iatrogenic damage to the essential anatomical neighbouring structures. CBCT, also called digital volume tomography (DVT), can visualize impacted and supernumerary teeth in all standard planes, as well as multisectional 3D views. These devices have shown to be highly beneficial in the assessment of small bony lesions and maxillofacial injuries. However, it is still necessary to determine the effectiveness of such devices in the assessment of impacted and supernumerary teeth, in comparison to the conventional radiological methods of intraoral X-rays and panoramic X-rays. Materials and Methods: During a period of 2 years, a total of 61 patients of whom majority had impacted teeth or supernumerary elements in the frontal maxillary region were studied with CBCT and treated at the St. Olavs University Hospital. Patients were referred to our Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with both conventional and digital intraoral X-rays and/or panoramic X-rays. None had any acute infections or odontogenic abscesses, and most presented with asymptomatic impacted tooth. A comparison between the preoperative conventional and the CBCT images, the resulting diagnoses, and the intraoperative findings as "gold standard" were made and recorded in a compiled scoring sheet. The objects of interest were researched with the magnification method. Each patient was identified only with a patient number. Results: In contrast to the conventional X-rays, the pre-surgical evaluation with the CBCT revealed detailed imaging of significant anatomical structures and objects of interest, with highly accurate anatomical and morphologic imaging, when compared to the intraoperative findings. Furthermore, no diagnostic problems, in relation to the anatomical localization, occurred preoperatively. Conclusion: The CBCT provides true and precise anatomical information with high surgical predictability without distortion or artefacts, and is superior to conventional radiography. It enables more time-efficient surgeries and reduces costs and surgical complications.
  1 5,162 277
Prosthodontic status and needs of elderly institutionalized residents in Mangalore: A prospective study
Prashanti Eachempati, Vidya K Shenoy, Neha Jain, Sukhdip Singh
May-June 2013, 24(3):284-288
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.117987  PMID:24025871
Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of Kennedy's classification, status of existing prosthodontic appliances if any, awareness of the subjects regarding various treatment options, and treatment needs in a group of elderly institutionalized residents. Materials and Methods: The subjects were selected from various old age homes present in Mangalore city, with ages ranging from 60 to 80 years. The subjects were interviewed and examined by a single trained examiner and findings were recorded on a clinical case history report sheet. Results: Kennedy's class I was most prevalent and class IV the least. Among the subjects examined, only 12.4% were wearing prosthesis. Based on the Nevalainen's index and Karslon's index, most of the prosthodontic appliances were found to be in poor condition. 86% of the subjects were in need of prosthodontic treatment. 75% of the subjects interviewed were unaware of the treatment options available. Conclusion: The elderly patients living in institutions do not achieve a deserving and satisfactory oral health care. The oral care assistance in institutionalized elderly patients has been an unfulfilled service.
  1 2,575 210
CASE REPORTS
Survival and complications of unconventional fixed dental prosthesis for maintaining diastema and splint pathologically migrated teeth: A case series up to 8 years follow-up
Sudhir Bhandari, Sonika Bakshi
May-June 2013, 24(3):375-380
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118018  PMID:24025888
Spacing in dentition negatively interferes with harmony of the smile. A lot of literature has been devoted to prosthetic closure of such space(s) in the dentition; however, the only option for maintaining space(s) in tooth-supported fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) is with the aid of loop connectors. Eleven patients (seven males and four females) with mean age of 45.18 years (range 22-70 years), previously treated with porcelain fused to metal full coverage restorations joined with loop connectors, were evaluated clinically to assess the clinical status and longevity of treatment provided. All the patients were asked to fill a simple close-ended questionnaire to provide their perspective on the limitations and outcome of the treatment and rate their satisfaction level on the scale of 1-10. The cumulative survival of the FDPs with the aid of loop connectors was 90.9%. There was no reported esthetic failure and, at the time of responding to the questionnaire, none of the patients had active complaint with respect to the prosthesis and all but one of the patients were satisfied with the treatment provided. Clinical survivability and the patient feedback suggests that customized designing of loop connectors for each patient is an excellent treatment modality to successfully maintain excessive (single/generalized) spacing between teeth and effectively splint pathologically migrated and mobile teeth. The reported problems with this treatment option are all transient in nature.
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LETTER TO EDITOR
Nanobacteria in dental pulp stones
Neeta Sharma
May-June 2013, 24(3):393-393
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118012  PMID:24025893
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate as a root end filling material: An ex vivo evaluation
Sreegowri , K Harish Kumar Shetty, MS Prathap, KJ Prithviraj
May-June 2013, 24(3):395-395
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118007  PMID:24025896
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate when used as a root-end filling material using the dye-penetration technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 single-rooted human teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The apical 3 mm of each root was resected, and 3-mm deep root-end cavity preparations were made. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups, each containing 8 teeth, and 2 negative and positive control groups, each containing 8 teeth. Root-end cavities in the experimental groups were filled with the experimental materials. After application of nail polish, the teeth were exposed to India ink for 72 h and longitudinally sectioned, and the extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope. Results : No statistically significant differences were observed in the sealing ability of gray and white MTA mixed with distilled water and 0.12% CHX. Conclusion : CHX appears to be a good alternative to replace distilled water, as a solution to be mixed with MTA.
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Changes of the upper lip in orthodontic and orthopedic treatment of angle's class II malocclusion
Luiz Renato Paranhos, Eduardo de Novaes Benedicto, Adilson Luiz Ramos
May-June 2013, 24(3):351-355
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118002  PMID:24025884
Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the changes in upper lips due to incisors retraction in Class II Division 1 patients treated with mandibular protraction, fixed appliances, and without extraction. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 64 pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric X-rays of 32 patients with 9-12 years old (16 men and 16 women), who presented ANB > 4 o , overjet ≥ 4 mm, treated with Balter's Bionator and fixed appliances. The average period between initial and final radiographies was 5 years (maximum of 5.5 years and minimum of 4.5 years). Statistical Analysis Used: A Student's t-test (P < 0.01) evaluated the statistical significance of differences between the mean values obtained for pre- and post-treatment in each variable, for males and females. Linear regression analysis for hard-tissue variables in relation to soft-tissue variables were also made for correlation. Results: The male group presented cervical point with r = 0.40 and incisal point with r = 0.42. Female subjects showed incisor cervical point with r = 0.86 and incisal point r = 0.74. The average Ls retraction was 0.55 mm in 2.43 mm of incisal point movement and 0.34 mm of cervical point. The nasolabial angle showed increase average of 2° for men and 3.9° for women. Conclusion: There is a difference between genders regarding the lip-incisor relation at this age. Males presented thickening of soft tissue and week correlation between the movement of the incisor and soft tissue both cervical and incisal point. In females' subjects, a strong correlation between the retraction movement and soft tissue, both cervical and incisal point.
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An in vitro study to compare the transverse strength of thermopressed and conventional compression-molded polymethylmethacrylate polymers
Anjana Raut, Polsani Laxman Rao, BVJ Vikas, T Ravindranath, Archana Paradkar, G Malakondaiah
May-June 2013, 24(3):356-362
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.118006  PMID:24025885
Statement of Problem: Acrylic resins have been in the center stage of Prosthodontics for more than half a century. The flexural fatigue failure of denture base materials is the primary mode of clinical failure. Hence there is a need for superior physical and mechanical properties. Purpose: This in vitro study compared the transverse strength of specimens of thermopressed injection-molded and conventional compression-molded polymethylmethacrylate polymers and examined the morphology and microstructure of fractured acrylic specimens. Materials and Methods: The following denture base resins were examined: Brecrystal (Thermopressed injection-molded, modified polymethylmethacrylate) and Pyrax (compression molded, control group). Specimens of each material were tested according to the American Society for Testing and Materials standard D790-03 for flexural strength testing of reinforced plastics and subsequently examined under SEM. The data was analyzed with Student unpaired t test. Results: Flexural strength of Brecrystal (82.08 ± 1.27 MPa) was significantly higher than Pyrax (72.76 ± 0.97 MPa). The tested denture base materials fulfilled the requirements regarding flexural strength (>65 MPa). The scanning electron microscopy image of Brecrystal revealed a ductile fracture with crazing. The fracture pattern of control group specimens exhibited poorly defined crystallographic planes with a high degree of disorganization. Conclusion: Flexural strength of Brecrystal was significantly higher than the control group. Brecrystal showed a higher mean transverse strength value of 82.08 ± 1.27 MPa and a more homogenous pattern at microscopic level. Based on flexural strength properties and handling characteristics, Brecrystal may prove to be an useful alternative to conventional denture base resins.
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Knowledge about prevention of oral cancer and gum disease among school teachers in Dharwad, India
Shodan Mangalore, Prasad Kakarla Veera Venkata, Javali Shivalingappa Basavantappa, Shetty Preetha
May-June 2013, 24(3):279-283
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.117986  PMID:24025870
Objective: To assess the knowledge of primary school teachers in Dharwad, India, regarding the prevention of oral cancer and gum disease. Materials and Methods : In this cross sectional study a self administered questionnaire was used for data collection. A total of 184 school teachers were selected for the study. A response rate of 96.7% (n = 178) was obtained. Results : Of the respondents, 36.5% (n = 65) had poor knowledge, while 27.5% had good knowledge regarding the prevention of oral cancer and gum disease. School teachers with postgraduate qualification were better informed with regard to the prevention of oral diseases as compared to those with only a bachelor degree. Factors such as education, sex, and type of institutional funding (public/private) were significantly correlated with the level of knowledge (R2 = 0.1128; P < 0.05). Conclusion : School teachers need to be motivated to improve their awareness and knowledge about the prevention of oral cancer and gum diseases, particularly the younger teachers and those with only bachelor degrees. Establishment of school-based oral-health promotion programs in India is urgently required.
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Evaluation of horizontal magnification on panoramic images
Maryam Raoof, Jahangir Haghani, Mohammad Ebrahimi
May-June 2013, 24(3):294-297
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.117989  PMID:24025873
Aims: This study evaluated the horizontal magnification of images taken from adults and pediatrics with PM 2002 CC Planmeca analogue machine. Materials and Methods: A series of 120 panoramic radiographs were obtained of 60 adults and 60 pediatrics. For all patients, negative impressions were used to make positive casts of the teeth. A caliper was used to measure the maximum mesiodistal length of the buccal surface of all teeth except canines on both casts and radiographs. The horizontal magnification factor was calculated for incisor, premolar, and molar regions by dividing the values obtained from the casts by the values obtained from the radiographs. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Results: The results indicated that with regard to adults, maxillary and mandibular incisor regions, unlike the other two sessions, didn't show significant difference of the mean magnification of horizontal dimension (P = 0.5). In pediatrics, the comparison between mean magnification factors of all subgroups showed significant difference (P < 0.0001). Despite the adults' radiographs, the results of pediatrics' radiographs showed significantly higher magnification than the index listed by the manufacturer of the radiographic machine used. Conclusion: The present study results point to the fact that PM 2002 CC Proline panoramic machine makes possible precise measurements on radiographs of adults' jaws in the horizontal dimension.
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Evaluation of shear bond strength of three different types of artificial teeth to heat cure denture base resin: An in vitro study
B Chittaranjan, M Taruna, N Sudheer, Nagesh S Patil
May-June 2013, 24(3):321-325
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.117994  PMID:24025878
Context: Bonding of artificial teeth and denture base material remained a significant problem for successful prosthetic treatment. Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate shear bond strength of three different artificial teeth with heat cure denture base material after various surface conditioning methods and thermocycling. Materials and Methods: Ninety mandibular first molar denture teeth were selected. They were divided into three groups, Group I: Nanocomposite resin (Veracia), Group II: Composite teeth (Endura), and Group III: Cross-linked acrylic denture teeth (Acry rock). All groups were further subdivided into subgroups based on surface conditioning methods. Subgroup A: No surface conditioning (control group), Subgroup B: Surface conditioning with methyl methacrylate-based bonding agent (Vitacoll), and Subgroup C: Air abrasion with 50 μm aluminum oxide powder particles plus silane-coupling agent (Monobond-S) and Vitacoll bonding agent. Evaluation of shear bond strength of all the specimens was done using universal testing machine. Results: Mean shear bond strength of Group I, Subgroup B (6.87 ± 0.934) showed higher value when compared with Group II, Subgroup B (6.76 ± 1.84) and Group III, Subgroup B (5.66 ± 2.18). The control group (untreated surface) of all three types of artificial teeth used in this study showed significantly lower shear bond strength values than experimental groups (surface conditioning methods; P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that there were significant differences in shear bond strength among control group and surface treatment groups of denture teeth bonded to heat cure denture base resin.
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The use of anatomical models for learning anesthesia techniques in oral surgery
JVS Canellas, MM Araujo, JPA Arce
May-June 2013, 24(3):326-330
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.117995  PMID:24025879
Aim: The objective of this work is to present a new collaborative method for teaching administration of anesthetic block in dentistry, with three-dimensional anatomical models used to improve learning and thereby increase safety, reduce anxiety, and improve the performance of students during the administration of anesthesia in the patients. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional (3D) models of skulls were made that reproduced all innervations of the V th cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve), as well as some blood vessels, glands, and muscles of mastication. For teaching the local anesthetic techniques we prepared pictures and videos of the administration of anesthesia in the models , which were presented to 130 students in two universities in Brazil. With the help of the models the students could follow the path of the nerves to be anesthetized and identify the anatomical points of reference for the correct positioning of the needle in the tissues. After the presentation the students answered a questionnaire aiming to assess the effect of the 3D models on learning. Results: Eighty-eight percent of students rated the material as excellent, 12% as good, 0% as regular, and 0% as bad (unnecessary materials). After the presentation, 70% of the students felt confident about being able to achieve the nerve block in patients. Conclusion: When exposed to an appropriate method, students recognized the importance of knowledge of anatomy for learning local anesthetic techniques. This method improved the quality of education and increased patient safety during the first injection.
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