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   2012| July-August  | Volume 23 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 20, 2012

 
 
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Evaluation of the effect of newer antioxidant lycopene in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis
Tapasya Vaibhav Karemore, Mukta Motwani
July-August 2012, 23(4):524-528
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104964  PMID:23257490
Background and Objective: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a well-known premalignant condition encountered in Indian population. Although the disease is advancing rapidly, its reliable treatment modality for its various stages has not yet evolved. The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of newer antioxidant lycopene with a placebo in conjunction with the cessation of causative habit in the treatment of OSMF. Materials and Methods: The study group included 92 patients with OSMF. The OSMF diagnosis was established through a composite of accepted clinical and histopathological characteristics. Out of 92, 46 patients were given lycopene and remaining 46 were on placebo drug. Lycopene group patients received 8 mg Lycored TM per day in two divided doses of 4 mg each, while placebo group patients received placebo tablet twice a day. Patients were examined for changes in mouth opening and other clinical symptoms of OSMF during three months and were followed up for next two months. Results: Lycopene was found to be significantly efficacious in the amelioration of signs and symptoms of OSMF. It was effective in reducing the objective signs of OSMF as demonstrated by the improved maximal mouth opening, percentage of which was 69.56%(P<0.05). Interpretation and Conclusion: Reactive oxygen compounds or free radicals have been implicated as one of the major harmful factors for premalignant and malignant conditions. Present study concludes that lycopene, a newer antioxidant, appears to be a very promising drug in the management of OSMF.
  10,368 1,068 4
REVIEW ARTICLE
Stem cells of the dental pulp
K Ranganathan, Vidya Lakshminarayanan
July-August 2012, 23(4):558-558
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104977  PMID:23257502
Stem cells of the dental pulp are a population of postnatal stem cells with multilineage differentiation potential. These cells are derived from the neural ectomesenchyme, similar to most craniofacial tissues, and specific niches in the pulp have been identified. Since the isolation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and stem cells from exfoliating deciduous teeth (SHED), numerous studies have attempted to define and characterize these cells, and embryonic stem cell features have been reported in both DPSC and SHED. These cells have a vast repertoire of differentiation - osteogenic, odontogenic, myogenic, adipogenic, neurogenic, and melanocytic, and have even demonstrated transdifferentiation to corneal cells and islet cells of pancreas. The combined advantages of multipotency/pluripotency and the relative ease of access of pulp tissue for autologous use render DPSC/ SHED attractive options in regenerative dentistry and medicine. This review gives a bird's eye view of current knowledge with respect to stem cells from the dental pulp.
  9,582 679 -
CASE REPORTS
Furcal-perforation repair with mineral trioxide aggregate: Two years follow-up
Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal da Silva, Carlos Vieira Andrade, Lidia Yileng Tay, Daniel Rodrigo Herrera
July-August 2012, 23(4):542-545
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104967  PMID:23257493
Furcal perforations are significant iatrogenic complications of endodontic treatment and could lead to endodontic failure. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been regarded as an ideal material for perforation repair, retrograde filling, pulp capping, and apexification. This case report describes a furcal perforation in a maxillary first molar, which was repaired using MTA. The tooth was endodontically treated and coronally restored with resin composite. After 2 years, the absence of periradicular radiolucent lesions, pain, and swelling along with functional tooth stability indicated a successful outcome of sealing the perforation using MTA.
  7,747 247 2
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Comparative study of Candida by conventional and CHROMagar method in non-denture and denture wearers by oral rinse technique
Shruti Nayak, B Kavitha, G Sriram, TR Saraswathi, B Sivapathasundharam, AL Dorothy
July-August 2012, 23(4):490-497
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104956  PMID:23257483
Introduction: Candidal species colonizes the oral cavities of healthy individuals without dentures and also of denture wearers. Soft liners and tissue conditioning materials have been found to support the growth of Candida albicans which may predispose to lesions. The most important and common candidal species are C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata. C albicans is usually isolated from both the fitting surface of the denture and the denture-bearing mucosa of the affected patients. The aim of this study was to isolate, quantify, and speciate candidal species in non-denture wearers (controls) and denture wearers (study group) by the oral rinse technique. Isolation was done using Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). Speciation was done using conventional methods like the germ tube test, carbohydrate fermentation test, urease test, as well as the CHROMagar method. Aims and Objective: 1) To assess the prevalence of Candida in non-denture wearers and in denture wearers by oral rinse technique, with isolation on SDA; 2) to speciate and quantify Candida in non-denture wearers and denture wearers by using conventional methods (germ tube test, carbohydrate fermentation test, urease test) and the CHROMagar method; 3) to assess the influence of smoking and diabetes on candidal species among the denture wearers; and 4) to assess the sensitivity and specificity of SDA and CHRO Magar Materials and Methods: Salivary samples for Candida evaluation were collected from the subjects in sterile sample containers, using the oral rinse technique. Results: C glabrata was the most commonly found species among denture wearers and non-denture wearers both by conventional and CHROMagar methods. In males, C. albicans was the predominant species, whereas C. glabrata was the predominant species in females. Candidal colonization was higher in denture wearers compared to non-denture wearers, especially among females. The CHROMagar method was more rapid compared to conventional methods. In the present study, CHROMagar Candida showed 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity when compared to SDA and conventional methods.
  6,657 307 1
Accuracy of two face-bow/semi-adjustable articulator systems in transferring the maxillary occlusal cant
Nazia Nazir, M Sujesh, Ravi Kumar, P Sreenivas
July-August 2012, 23(4):437-442
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104945  PMID:23257473
Context: The precision of an arbitrary face-bow in accurately transferring the orientation of the maxillary cast to the articulator has been questioned because the maxillary cast is mounted in relation to arbitrary measurements and anatomic landmarks that vary among individuals. Aim: This study was intended to evaluate the sagittal inclination of mounted maxillary casts on two semi-adjustable articulator/face-bow systems in comparison to the occlusal cant on lateral cephalograms. Materials and Methods: Maxillary casts were mounted on the Hanau and Girrbach semi-adjustable articulators following face-bow transfer with their respective face-bows. The sagittal inclination of these casts was measured in relation to the fixed horizontal reference plane using physical measurements. Occlusal cant was measured on lateral cephalograms. SPSS software (version 11.0, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey's tests were used to evaluate the results (P < 0.05). Results: Comparison of the occlusal cant on the articulators and cephalogram revealed statistically significant differences. Occlusal plane was steeper on Girrbach Artex articulator in comparison to the Hanau articulator. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was found that the sagittal inclination of the mounted maxillary cast achieved with Hanau articulator was closer to the cephalometric occlusal cant as compared to that of the Girrbach articulator. Among the two articulators and face-bow systems, the steepness of sagittal inclination was greater on Girrbach semi-adjustable articulator. Different face-bow/articulator systems could result in different orientation of the maxillary cast, resulting in variation in stability, cuspal inclines and cuspal heights.
  6,414 446 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Temporomandibular disorders and functional somatic syndromes: Deliberations for the dentist
S Suma, B Veerendra Kumar
July-August 2012, 23(4):529-536
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104965  PMID:23257491
Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is an umbrella term for a collection of disorders affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated tissues. TMD is not a rare pathology for the dentist. The most common presenting symptom is pain, which causes the patient seek immediate treatment. Management is dictated by the cause. The most 'famed' causes include trauma, inflammation, aging, parafunctional habits, infections, neoplasms, and stress; and these are always considered in the differential diagnosis of TMJ pain. There are some less 'famed' causes of TMD, which are characterized by increased pain sensitivity due to psychosocial factors; these include myofascial pain syndrome and functional somatic syndromes (FSS) such as fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. They present with chronic pain, fatigue, disability, and impairment in ability to perform daily activities. A non-systematic search in the English literature revealed numerous studies describing the occurrence of TMD in these conditions, along with few other oral manifestations. TMD has been even considered to be a part of the FSS by some. In these patients, TMD remains a recurring problem, and adequate management cannot be achieved by traditional treatment protocols. Awareness of these conditions, with correct diagnosis and modification of management protocols accordingly, may resolve this problem.
  6,615 235 2
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Radicular cyst associated with deciduous molar: A report of a case with an unusual radiographic presentation
Sulabha A Narsapur, Sangamesh N Chinnanavar, Sameer A Choudhari
July-August 2012, 23(4):550-553
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104970  PMID:23257495
Radicular cysts arising from deciduous teeth are rare. This article presents a case report of a radicular cyst associated with a mandibular deciduous second molar and with unusual radiographic findings. The second premolar was displaced to the lower border of the mandible, below the first premolar. The management comprised enucleation of the cystic sac under local anesthesia.
  5,797 374 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Analysis of two different surgical approaches for fractures of the mandibular condyle
S Kumaran, LJ Thambiah
July-August 2012, 23(4):463-468
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104950  PMID:23257478
Background: Fractures of the condyle account for one third of all the mandibular fractures. Different surgical approaches to the condyle described hitherto testify to the advantages and disadvantages of the different surgical techniques used for approaching the condyle in such cases of fractures. We have described and compared two of such surgical techniques in this study. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the outcome of dealing with condylar fractures by two different surgical techniques: the mini retromandibular approach, and the preauricular approach. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 31 patients who had suffered with mandibular condylar fractures was carried out. Of these, 26 patients had unilateral condylar fractures, and 5 patients had a bilateral fracture. Further, 19 of these patients were treated by the mini retromandibular approach and 12 by the preauricular approach. The treated patients were followed up and evaluated for a minimum period of 1 year and assessed for parameters such as the maximum mouth opening, lateral movement on the fractured side, mandibular movements such as protrusion, dental occlusion, scar formation, facial nerve weakness, salivary fistula formation and time taken for the completion of the surgical procedure. Statistical Analysis: t- test was used for statistical analysis of the data obtained in the study. Results: Dental occlusion was restored in all the cases, and good anatomical reduction was achieved. The mean operating time was higher 63.53 (mean) ± 18.12 minutes standard deviation (SD) in the preauricular approach compared to 45.22 (mean) ± 18.86 minutes SD in the mini retromandibular approach. Scar formation was satisfactory in almost all the cases.
  5,452 387 1
CASE REPORTS
Sialolithiasis in a 10 year old child
Mohita Marwaha, Kanwar Deep Singh Nanda
July-August 2012, 23(4):546-549
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104968  PMID:23257494
Sialolithiasis is often observed in the oral region, and is caused by the development of a calculus in the salivary gland or duct. This disease is mostly seen in adults or young adults, and seldom develops in children. Of all the cases of sialolithiasis, only 3% are seen in the pediatric population. The clinical presentation typically consists of a painful swelling of the involved salivary gland at meal times, as the obstruction is most acute at this time. The clinical signs often lead to an easy diagnosis. The salivary gland most commonly affected is the submandibular gland. In this paper, we have reported the case of a 10 year old female with sialolithiasis of the left submandibular duct. The treatment consisted of the use of lemon and orange drop candies, which stimulated the salivary flow and in turn resulted in the expulsion of stone.
  5,475 188 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Digital radiograph of the middle phalanx of the third finger (MP3) region as a tool for skeletal maturity assessment
Deepa Y Hegde, Sudhindra Baliga, Ramakrishna Yeluri, AK Munshi
July-August 2012, 23(4):447-453
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104947  PMID:23257475
Objective: To evaluate the reliability of the digital radiograph of the middle phalanx of the third finger (MP3) in skeletal maturity assessment Study Design: Fifty children (24 girls and 26 boys) belonging to the circumpubertal age-group were selected for the study. Two radiographs - lateral cephalogram and digital radiograph of the MP3 region - were taken in each child. Age assessment was based on the changes in shape of the cervical vertebrae and the epiphysis of the middle phalanx of the third finger of the left hand. The radiographs were assessed by three examiners. The inter- and intraexaminer variability were determined by the Wilcoxon rank sign test and the Kruskal-Wallis test and were found to be nonsignificant. Examiner 3 showed the best intraexaminer agreement and was selected to evaluate the radiographs for the entire study. Results: The correlation determined between the MP3 stages and cervical vertebrae maturity index (CVMI) stages, the peak-wise distribution of the MP3 stages, and the correlation between the MP3 stages and the chronological age were found to be highly significant. Conclusions: Digital radiograph of the MP3 region is definitely a simple, reliable, cost-effective, and time-saving technique for the assessment of skeletal maturity.
  5,036 370 -
Evaluation of reliability and reproducibility of linear measurements of cone-beam-computed tomography
Thiago de Santana Santos, Ana Cláudia Amorim Gomes, Daniela Guimarães de Melo, Auremir Rocha Melo, Josuel Raimundo Cavalcante, Lorena Cássia Gueiros de Araújo, Rosana Maria Coelho Travassos, Paulo Ricardo Saquete Martins-Filho, Marta Rabelo Piva, Heitor Fontes Silva
July-August 2012, 23(4):473-478
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104952  PMID:23257480
Objective: it was to evaluate intra- and interexaminer reliability and reproducibility of linear measurements in cone-beam tomography (CBCT) images. Materials and Methods: CBCT scans were obtained from 50 patients of a private clinic. Two examiners located the landmarks twice in two-dimensional and three-dimensional images on different days, with images performed 1 week apart. Intra- and interexaminer reproducibility and reliability were analyzed. Results: the measurement error (ME) did not show significant differences between intra- and interexaminers. The intraclass correlations (ICC) between the intra- and interexaminer readings obtained with the different methods showed almost perfect matches. The results demonstrated high examiner reproducibility for linear and volumetric parameters with high intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV). The ICC showed that the methodology was highly reliable and reproducible (ICC- >0.99 and CV <1.5%). Conclusion: the measurements demonstrated strong agreement between examiners and significant reliability and reproducibility. Therefore, this methodology can serve as a standard for linear measurement analysis of the topography of mandibular canal and osseous adjacent structures.
  4,543 173 1
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Oropharyngeal styloids: An unusual presentation
Lathadevi Hassan Thotappa, Bharati R Doni
July-August 2012, 23(4):559-559
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104980  PMID:23257504
The close proximity of the styloid process to many of the vital neurovascular structures in the neck makes it clinically significant. The styloid process is said to be elongated if it is longer than 3.0 cm in length. Anatomical variations are very common and clinical symptoms arising from such variations have to be recognized. Elongated styloid processes may cause chronic throat pain along with foreign body sensation, dysphagia, vague facial pain, and otalgia. Surgical excision of an elongated styloid is considered as a satisfactory treatment for such cases. Here, we present a unique case of bilaterally elongated styloids that could be visualized just by depressing the tongue, when they appeared like the tusks of an elephant in the oropharyngeal region.
  4,421 128 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Diagnostic accuracy of color doppler ultrasonography in evaluation of cervical lymph nodes in oral cancer patients
Sadaksharam Jayachandran, Suresh K Sachdeva
July-August 2012, 23(4):557-558
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104976  PMID:23257501
Aims: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of color doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) in differentiating metastatic from reactive lymph nodes in oral cancer patients. Material And Methods: Study comprised 80 adult subjects with oral cancer, divided in two groups based on clinical criteria. Group I included 40 patients with clinically suspected metastatic cervical lymph nodes, Group II included 40 patients with clinically suspected reactive cervical lymph nodes. Study population was evaluated with CDUS for color flow signals and intranodal vascular resistance (Pulsatility Index and Resistivity Index), followed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, used as a standard, to confirm the etiology of the lymph node enlargement. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-Square Test (SPSS 15.0 version) was used to evaluate the significance of the parameters used between the two study groups. Results: Sensitivity of CDUS by vascular flow pattern was 94.1%, specificity of 100%, with accuracy of 95.4% and by vascular indices the sensitivity was 81.4%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 85.5%, with statistically significant correlation.(P < 0.05) Conclusion: CDUS plays a definitive role as an adjunct to clinical evaluation of differentiating metastatic from reactive cervical lymph involvement in patients with oral cancer as it aid in grading and staging of oral cancer and can determine the treatment plan prognosis and morbidity by diminishing the possibility nodal dissection.
  3,182 219 -
Comparative analysis of presence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epsteinbarr virus -1 (EBV-1) in cases of chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis with controls
Rupali Sharma, Ogoti Padmalatha, Gurumoorthy Kaarthikeyan, ND Jayakumar, Sheeja Varghese, Khalefathullah Sherif
July-August 2012, 23(4):454-458
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104948  PMID:23257476
Aim : The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epsteinbarr virus -1 (EBV-1)viruses in sub gingival plaque of chronic periodontitis (groupA), aggressive periodontitis patients (group B), periodontally healthy controls (group C) and to compare the clinical parameters between virus negative and positive sites in each of these groups. Materials and Methods : Sixty subjects were included in the study and equally divided into the 3 groups (group A - 20, group B - 20, group C - 20). Sub gingival plaque samples were obtained from the 3 deepest periodontal pocket sites in case of subjects suffering from periodontitis, and from one random bleeding site per quadrant in healthy groups. Clinical parameters like plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), pocket depth (PD) and clinical loss of attachment (CAL) were recorded. Viral Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted using Proteinase-K DNA Extraction method, and the presence of CMV and EBV-1 was detected by polymerase chain reaction and 2% agarose gel. Results: Results of our study showed a 45% prevalence of CMV and EBV-1 in Aggressive periodontitis cases. Prevalence of CMV in chronic periodontitis and healthy subjects was 20% and 10%, respectively; while for EBV-1 it was 25% and 0%, respectively. In terms of comparison of the clinical parameters with virus presence, both CMV and EBV-1 positive sites showed a significantly higher mean pocket depth compared to virus negative sites. Conclusion: Our studyshowed that the prevalence of EBV1 was higher in chronic and aggressive periodontitis subjects compared to controls and the prevalence of CMV was higher in aggressive periodontitis patients. The virus positive sites showed higher pocket depth compared to virus negative sites.
  3,143 201 -
Prehospital emergency management of avulsed permanent teeth: Knowledge and attitude of schoolteachers
Harkiran Kaur, Supreet Kaur, Hargundeep Kaur
July-August 2012, 23(4):556-556
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104974  PMID:23257499
Context: Tooth avulsion is one of the most serious dental emergencies in children. Often these injuries occur in school and, therefore, the knowledge of schoolteachers regarding the appropriate measures to be taken immediately after tooth avulsion is crucial to good prognosis. Aims: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate schoolteachers' knowledge and attitudes regarding immediate management of avulsed teeth in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 177 teachers from seven schools of Garhshankar town, Hoshiarpur District, Punjab, India, formed the sample of the study. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 16 questions was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes of schoolteachers about tooth avulsion and its management. Statistical Analysis: The chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for analysis. Pair-wise comparison was done using Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) test. P≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Markedly low knowledge levels were noted among the schoolteachers. The mean knowledge score was 5 (of a maximum possible score of 10). Only 0.6% of the teachers answered correctly that they would use milk as a transport medium. The number of correct responses was not affected by previous experience with tooth avulsion, sex, educational level, teaching experience, or teacher training. Overall, 85.9% of teachers showed a positive attitude towards this campaign. Conclusions: Knowledge regarding emergency management of dental trauma is poor amongst schoolteachers. Therefore, we suggest that orientation to management of avulsed tooth be part of the teacher training education.
  2,940 168 1
Deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A Brazilian survey
Marcelo S Monnazzi, Luis A Passeri, Mario FR Gabrielli, Eduardo Hochuli-Vieira, Marisa AC Gabrielli, VA Pereira Filho
July-August 2012, 23(4):519-523
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104963  PMID:23257489
Background : Deep venous thrombosis (DVP) is a frequent disease. Prophylaxis is the best means to reduce its incidence, for lowering morbidity and mortality rates and treatment costs caused by its complications. Objective : To evaluate the knowledge and use of any kind of DVT prophylaxis by Brazilian Oral and Maxillofacial surgeons. Materials and Methods : A questionnaire was sent to all Oral and Maxillofacial surgeons associated to the Brazilian College of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons that have a valid e-mail address. The data retrieved was evaluated and tabulated. Results : Of the 1100 questionnaires sent, only 4% were retrieved. The 42 retrieved were included in the study. Twenty six of the surgeons do not use any kind of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis, 11 use mechanical means as elastic compressive stockings or pneumatic compressive devices for prophylaxis, and 5 uses low-molecular weight heparins (LMWH) as the choice for prophylaxis. Conclusion : The data collected, despite the low rate of participation (4%) by the surgeons, shows that this subject still does not receive proper attention. Whereas other medical specialties make routine use of prophylactic means maybe the maxillofacial surgeons lack concern on that matter.
  2,864 79 -
In vitro antimicrobial activity of AH Plus, EndoREZ and Epiphany against microorganisms
Lilian Eiko Maekawa, Maria Renata Giazzi Nassri, Camila Kaori Ishikawa, Carolina Martins, Adriana Chung, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito
July-August 2012, 23(4):469-472
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104951  PMID:23257479
Objective : The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of endodontic sealers against microorganisms. Materials and Methods : The agar diffusion method was used. A double base layer of Mueller Hinton agar was done. The microorganisms used were: Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The wells were obtained by removing a standardized portion of the agar. After the distribution of the sealers, Petri plates were incubated for 24 h. Inhibition halos formed around the wells were measured. Results : Epiphany did not show any antimicrobial activity on the tested microorganisms (without inhibition halo). The AH Plus showed the greatest inhibition halo on C. albicans followed by EndoREZ on S. aureus. EndoREZ also showed greater inhibition halo in comparison to AH Plus on E. faecalis and E. coli. Conclusion : It could be concluded that AH Plus and EndoREZ showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms. No antimicrobial activity was observed for Epiphany.
  2,701 153 2
The effect of thermal and mechanical cycling on bond strength of a ceramic to nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys
M Vojdani, S Shaghaghian, A Khaledi, S Adibi
July-August 2012, 23(4):509-513
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104960  PMID:23257487
Purpose: This study evaluates the effect of thermo-mechanical cycling (TMC) on the bond strength of a ceramic to three cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) and two nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloys. Materials and Methods: One hundred metal-ceramic specimens were prepared. While half of the specimens from each metal-ceramic combination (n = 10) were tested after storage in water at 37°C for 24 hours, the other half were subjected to TMC before testing. The bond strength was evaluated by the flexural strength test according to ISO 9693:1999 (E) recommendations. Results: TMC decreased the bond strength of the tested metal-ceramic systems as compared to the water storage (control groups) (P=0.04). Although metal alloys were significantly different from each other in their bond strength with porcelain (P<0.001), the effect of TMC on the various metal-ceramic systems was not significantly different (P=0.99). Conclusion: It may be concluded that base metal-ceramic bond strength is affected by aging and the effect is relatively the same for all the tested porcelain-metal systems.
  2,652 125 2
The influence of healing type on marginal bone levels of implants supporting mandibular overdentures: A randomized clinical study
E Mumcu, H Bilhan, O Geckili
July-August 2012, 23(4):514-518
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104961  PMID:23257488
Aim: The aim of this study was to document the influence of healing type on the marginal bone loss around dental implants placed in the anterior mandible. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 edentulous patients rehabilitated with 96 Astra Tech dental implants left to either submerged or nonsubmerged healing were included in the study group. The patients were examined in consecutive routine recall sessions six, 12, and 24 months after loading. The actual bone level measurements were performed by two independent examiners on panoramic X-rays, and the average of both examiners' calculations was used as the marginal bone level value. Results: The marginal bone loss (MBL) of the implants at 6 months was found to be significantly higher in the submerged healing group (P< 0.05). No statistically significant relation was found between the MBL of implants left to submerged healing and that of implants left to non-submerged healing in the other follow-up periods. Conclusion: In situations where the dental implant has good primary stability, non-submerged healing can be recommended to avoid a second surgery for healing abutment connection.
  2,527 107 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Women and tobacco: A total misfit or mis-unfit
Ipseeta Menon, Hari Parkash
July-August 2012, 23(4):537-541
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104966  PMID:23257492
Women smokers are likely to increase as a percentage of the total. If the percentage of women who smoke in developing countries rise to the levels of men smokers, there will be more than 500 million women smokers in the next generation. Because women who smoke die from the same tobacco-caused diseases as men, such an increase will have dramatic effects on women's health and on the health and incomes of their families. In addition, women smokers are also at risk for developing cancer of the reproductive organs and osteoporosis. A gender perspective contributes to a better understanding of the epidemiological trends, social marketing strategies, economic policies, and international actions relating to women and the tobacco epidemic.
  2,467 142 -
CASE REPORT
Multiple gingival metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the lung
SM Ravi Prakash, Sankalp Verma, Navneet Gill, Vibha Malik
July-August 2012, 23(4):558-559
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104978  PMID:23257503
Metastasis to the gingival soft tissues is an extremely rare phenomenon, and metastasis of multiple lesions (i.e. more than 2 lesions), is even more hard to find. In this study, we have reported a rare case of lung adenocarcinoma, which metastasized to the maxillary (2 lesions) and mandibular gingivae (1 lesion) in a 57 year old male patient. Metastasis was also seen to the vertebrae. The differential diagnosis consisted of acute myelomonocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, haemangioma, pyogenic granuloma, giant cell granuloma, peripheral fibroma, primary gingival carcinoma and secondary metastasis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the lung showed a well-defined mass situated below the right hilum with lower lobe consolidation and pleural effusion on the right side with dorsal spinal metastasis. Excisional biopsy of the lesions was consistent with the diagnosis, and the immunohistochemical analysis was positive for cytokeratin 7, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), thyroid transforming factor 1 (TTF1), and negative for vimentin and cytokeratin 20 (CK20).
  2,402 117 2
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Distraction-like phenomena in maxillary bone due to application of orthodontic forces in ovariectomized rats
Apostolos I Tsolakis, Lubna Khaldi, Ilias Bitsanis, Margarita Makou, Ismene A Dontas
July-August 2012, 23(4):501-505
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104958  PMID:23257485
Background: Orthodontic forces may not only influence the dentoalveolar system, but also the adjacent and surrounding cortical bone. Aim: Since there is very limited information on this issue, we aimed to study the possible changes in maxillary cortical bone following the application of heavy orthodontic forces in mature normal and osteoporotic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four 6-month-old female rats were selected and divided into an ovariectomized group and a normal group. In both groups, the rats were subjected to a 60 gr* orthodontic force on the upper right first molar for 14 days. Results: In both groups, histological sections showed that the application of this force caused hypertrophy and fatigue failure of the cortical maxillary bone. The osteogenic reaction to distraction is expressed by the formation of subperiosteal callus on the outer bony side, resembling that seen in distracted bones. Conclusion: From this study we concluded that heavy experimental orthodontic forces in rats affect the maxillary cortical bone. The osteogenic reaction to these forces, expressed histologically by subperiosteal callus formation, is similar to that seen in distraction osteogenesis models.
  2,375 66 -
Corrosion behavior of titanium wires: An in vitro study
Thakur Prasad Chaturvedi, Ram Sagar Dubey
July-August 2012, 23(4):479-483
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104953  PMID:23257481
Context: Teeth and restorations are subjected continuously to degradation in hostile physical and chemical environments, resulting in corrosion. Component of liquid or solid is an important factor influencing the corrosion of metallic appliances placed in the oral cavity. Aims: To study in vitro corrosion of titanium wires immersed in solutions of toothpaste and chocolate in artificial saliva. Materials and Methods: Immersion test and electrochemical studies using different parameters, including corrosion potential (E corr ), cathodic Tafel constant (βc), anodic Tafel constant (βa), corrosion current (I corr ), polarization resistance (R p ), and corrosion rate of titanium wires, were done in solutions of artificial saliva containing Colgate™ toothpaste and Amul™ chocolate. Photomicrographs were also taken. Results: The results showed degradation of titanium wires by electrochemical attack when they were placed in the hostile electrolytic environments provided in the experiments. Surface analysis of titanium wires showed pitting and localized attacks on the surface. Pitting corrosion was found in the titanium wires.
  2,287 116 -
An investigation of social judgments made by young adults toward appearance of dental fluorosis
SR Nagashree, MR Shankar Aradhya, M Arunadevi
July-August 2012, 23(4):443-446
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104946  PMID:23257474
Background : Smile is a crucial factor in creating a good first impression. However conditions like dental fluorosis hamper the esthetics of teeth. This study was conducted to find out whether young adults attribute socially relevant characteristics to people with dental fluorosis. Materials and Methods : A total of 150 young adults were presented with images of individuals with different severity levels of dental fluorosis along with images of normal tooth appearance on a computer screen. They had to attribute various socially relevant characteristics to these images. Images were digitally manipulated to simulate dental fluorosis. Images were displayed on a computer screen and Visual Basic Software was used to record the participants' responses as well as the time taken to respond. The time taken to respond or response latency indicates the response strength. Statistical analysis : A chi-square test was used to test the association between the dental appearances and the socially relevant characteristics. A Mann--Whitney test was used to compare the time taken to respond. Results : As the severity of fluorosis increases, participants attribute less and less of positive characteristics. Attribution of negative characteristics also increases with the severity of dental fluorosis. For images with moderate and severe fluorosis, respondents took more time to accept positive characteristics and less time to reject positive characteristic. This means that the participants felt strongly when rejecting positive characteristics in these images. Conclusion : Social judgments are made by young adults when viewing digitally manipulated images of different levels of fluorosis.
  2,054 144 -
Comparative evaluation of the regional micro-push-out bond strength of custom-made resin post system with a prefabricated resin post: An in vitro study
S Ranjithkumar, N Velmurugan, Anna Roy, S Hemamalathi
July-August 2012, 23(4):484-489
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104954  PMID:23257482
Aim : The purpose of the study is to compare the regional micro-push-out bond strength of custom-made resin post and a prefabricated resin post luted using self-etch adhesive and/or etch and rinse adhesive system at various regions. Materials and Methods : Forty freshly extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected for this study; 1.5-2-mm coronal to the cemento-enamel junction was removed with a diamond disk using a slow speed handpiece under cooling water. Working lengths were established, root canals were sequentially enlarged upto the apex until ISO size 50-K-file and obturated using gutta-percha and AH plus sealer by cold lateral compaction. Post spaces were prepared to a depth of 10 mm using paeso-reamer upto size #3. After preparation, each specimen was embedded in chemically cured acrylic resin. The roots were randomly assigned to four groups: Group I: Custom-made resin post+Self-etch adhesive, Group II: Glass FRC post+Self-etch adhesive, Group III: Custom-made resin post+Etch and Rinse adhesive, Group IV: Glass FRC post+Etch and Rinse adhesive. Fabrication of custom-made resin post was done. All the posts were cemented using a dual cure resin luting cement. Each root was sectioned perpendicular to the long axis using a microtome and subjected to micro-push-out bond strength. Results: The micro-push-out bond strength in the coronal region, in Group I 13.5±1.66 MPa, Group II 12.08±0.8 MPa, Group III 11.15±1.06 MPa, Group IV 11.81±1.11 MPa. In the middle third region: Group I 11.43±0.740 MPa, Group II 10.584±0.504 MPa, Group III 10.0582±0.830 MPa, Group IV 10.35±0772 MPa. In the apical third: Group I 10.38±0.878 MPa, Group II 9.59±1.06 MPa, Group III 9.34±0.73o MPa, Group IV 8.77±1.02 MPa. Conclusion : Within the limitations of the study, amongst all the four groups tested, custom-made resin post luted with self-etch system (CMPR-SE) showed higher micro-push-out bond strength values in all regions when compared to the other groups
  2,079 112 -
An investigation on the influence of tin foil substitute contamination on bond strength between resin denture teeth and the denture base: An in vitro study
Sapna Bhaskaran, RB Hallikerimath
July-August 2012, 23(4):556-556
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104975  PMID:23257500
Statement of Problem: The problem of acrylic resin denture teeth separating from their denture base remains a major problem in prosthodontic practice and is frustrating to the patients as well as the dentists. Purpose: This study investigated the influence of tin foil substitute contamination on bond strength between acrylic resin denture teeth and their denture base. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 modified acrylic resin maxillary left central incisors were processed to their denture base material. The 80 specimens were divided into two groups of 40 specimens each: the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group had the denture tooth ridge lap area contaminated with tin foil substitute.The 40 specimens in the control group were not contaminated. After 7 days of storage at room temperature, the bond strengths of the two groups were tested with a universal testing machine.The nature of failure was noted as adhesive (interface) or cohesive (in tooth or denture base material). The Welch test and z-test were performed to identify significant differences. Results: The uncontaminated specimens (group I) showed superior bond strength as compared to the contaminated specimens (group II); the difference in bond strength between the groups was highly significant (P<0.0001). Also the contaminated specimens exhibited predominantly adhesive failure (89.74%), whereas the uncontaminated specimens exhibited 55% adhesive failure and 45% cohesive failure. Conclusion: Tin foil substitute contamination of the ridge laps of acrylic resin denture teeth greatly reduced the bond strength.
  1,886 86 -
Dentistry students' perceptions about an extramural experience with a Brazilian indigenous community
Alexandre Favero Bulgarelli, Renato Cassio Roperto, Soraya Fernandes Mestriner, Wilson Mestriner
July-August 2012, 23(4):498-500
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104957  PMID:23257484
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate dentistry students' perceptions about an extramural activity designed to deliver dental care to an indigenous community. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative investigation involving 4 students of dentistry who had just had the experience of delivering treatment to indigenous Brazilian people. These students answered questions about the relevance of the experience to their personal and professional lives. We performed Content Analysis to data treatment and it was analysed by Social Representation Theory. Results: Two social representations were reached: a) Being capable to promote oral health; b) Facing human feeling and respect each other. Conclusion: We concluded that participation in an extramural project improves the students' understanding of primary health care in dentistry. Such experiences help students develop a sense of cultural respect, comprehensive care, and to understand patients in their totality as social beings with their own values, beliefs, and attitudes regarding oral health care.
  1,794 68 1
Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: The case of Isfahan, Iran
Ahmad Mottaghi, Abolfath Hoseinzade, Elham Zamani, Habib Allah Araghizade
July-August 2012, 23(4):506-508
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104959  PMID:23257486
Background: Little evidence is available regarding the dental health of victims of chemical warfare in Iran. Therefore, in this study, we examined the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT), community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN), and saliva secretion rate of chemical warfare victims living in the province of Isfahan in Iran. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted with 300 chemical warfare victims as the treatment group and 300 age-matched individuals without exposure to chemical warfare as the control group. DMFT and CPITN indices and saliva secretion rate were measured and compared between the two groups. Results: Chemical warfare victims had significantly higher scores than the control group for decayed teeth (4.25±3.88 vs 3.52±2.81; P=0.009), missing teeth (8.79±9.3 vs 6.15±8.43; P<0.001), total DMFT index (17.00±6.72 vs 13.20±6.89; P<0.001), and CPTIN (2.81±0.81 vs 1.71±1.04; P<0.001). However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in filled teeth (4.00±4.2 vs 3.59±2.48; P=0.148). The level of saliva secretion in warfare victims was significantly lower than that in the control group (1.71±0.05 vs 3.85±1.95 cc/5 min; P<0.001). Conclusion: Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.
  1,704 61 -
Determination of the comfort zone for intergingival height and its practical application to treatment planning: A survey
Shefali Pareek, MS Rani
July-August 2012, 23(4):459-462
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104949  PMID:23257477
Background: The concept of the 'comfort zone' for intergingival height is a simple guideline to help establish the correct vertical dimension necessary for occlusal harmony in any individual. It can be used as a guide for identifying individuals at relatively greater risk of developing temporomandibular dysfunction and also when rebuilding the occlusion in the treatment of patients with temporomandibular dysfunction. The intergingival height varies according to the patient's age and stage of development, as well as with the height of the incisor crowns. In orthodontics this parameter can be used to track the progress of a patient being treated with functional appliances. This parameter has not been studied in detail and hence this survey was designed and conducted to gain information regarding its significance. Objectives: The objectives of this survey were to estimate the value of 'comfort zone' for intergingival height in the region of the central incisor and to establish the norm for the comfort zone in males and females. Materials and Methods: The intergingival height was measured in the region of the right central incisor using a vernier caliper. The intergingival height was measured as the vertical distance from the midpoint of the free gingival margin of the right maxillary central incisor to a similar point on the right mandibular central incisor, with the teeth in occlusion. Results: According to the results of this, the range for the comfort zone for intergingival height in all subjects was 15.96-16.55 mm. The range for female subjects was 14.86-15.32 mm and the range for male subjects was 17.12-17.67 mm. Conclusion: The comfort zone of intergingival height should become a part of our vocabulary and should be routinely utilized as a guideline for consistently achieving the correct vertical dimension at the end of treatment. The areas of utilization of this measurement are many and it should be used to assist in achieving better and more stable clinical results.
  1,658 94 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Dental implantation and anaerobic bacteria
Ali M Tavana
July-August 2012, 23(4):554-554
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104972  PMID:23257497
  1,376 76 -
Recurrent parotitis: Sialoendoscopy and botulinum toxin as alternatives
LI González-Granado, G Guillen-Fiel
July-August 2012, 23(4):554-555
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.104973  PMID:23257498
  1,079 61 -
ERRATUM
Erratum

July-August 2012, 23(4):553-553
PMID:23257496
  1,059 62 -
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