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   2011| July-August  | Volume 22 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 26, 2011

 
 
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Treatment of human periodontal infrabony defects with hydroxyapatite+ β tricalcium phosphate bone graft alone and in combination with platelet rich plasma: A randomized clinical trial
Bharadwaj T Kaushick, ND Jayakumar, O Padmalatha, Sheeja Varghese
July-August 2011, 22(4):505-510
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90278  PMID:22124042
Background: The present study was aimed at comparing the clinical effectiveness of two regenerative techniques - platelet rich plasma (PRP) + bone graft (HA + β TCP) versus bone graft (HA + β TCP) + normal saline in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects. Materials and Methods: Ten patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were enrolled in a randomized split mouth clinical trial. Following phase I therapy the sites were randomly assigned to the test group - PRP + bone graft (HA + β TCP) and control group - saline + bone graft (HA + β TCP). Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and 6 months included plaque index, probing pocket depth, relative attachment levels, and relative gingival margin levels. Hard tissue evaluation was done using digital radiography to evaluate the image intensity and therefore the radioopacity of a desired region of interest in the intrabony defect. Pre- and postoperative comparisons were made between the treatment groups at 6 months. Results: Test group sites showed a significantly higher reduction in pocket depth compared to control group sites. Test group sites showed a significantly higher amount of radioopacity in the regions of interest, indicative of better graft remodeling, compared to control group sites. Conclusion: (HA + β TCP) bone graft appears to be a beneficial material in the treatment of human periodontal intrabony defects. When combined with platelet-rich plasma there is a significantly higher reduction in probing pocket depth, higher gain in attachment levels and higher amount of radio-density seen in the intrabony defects.
  29 7,206 494
Morphometrical and morphological study of mental foramen in dry dentulous mandibles of South Andhra population of India
Devi K Sankar, Sharmila P Bhanu, PJ Susan
July-August 2011, 22(4):542-546
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90290  PMID:22124049
Background: Mental foramen (MF) is an anatomical structure of particular importance in local anesthesia and surgical procedures in terms of achieving effective mandibular nerve blocks and avoiding injuries to the neurovascular bundles. Aim: To determine the morphometry and morphology of MF in south Andhra population of India, hitherto unreported. Materials and Methods: Ninety dry dentulous mandibles of both sexes were examined for position, size, shape and number of MF. Results: Various parameters investigated are, the horizontal distance between (1) symphysis menti and MF was 27.2 mm on right and 27.7 mm on the left, (2) MF and posterior border of ramus was 70.7 mm on both sides, vertical distance between (3) MF and inferior border of mandible was16.5 mm on right and 14.3 mm on left, (4) alveolar crest and MF was 13.7 mm on right and 16.4 on left, (5) distance between the MF and below the apex of premolar socket was +2.8 mm on right and +3.5 mm on left and above the socket was -2.8 mm on right and -2.7 mm on left. Occurrence of MF below the second premolar tooth was found to be highest (73.2%). Average size of MF was larger on left and its way of exit was in postero-superior direction. Shape of MF was round in 79% and oval in 21% and double MF was found in 8.9% of mandibles. Conclusions: In the present study, most common position of MF was found below the apex of second premolar in 73.2% and between the second premolar and first molar in 19% of mandibles. The other morphometrical findings of this study may be implicated by dental practitioners and maxillofacial surgeons
  21 4,446 238
Correlation between leptin and the health of the gingiva: A predictor of medical risk
Vidhya Gangadhar, Amitha Ramesh, Biju Thomas
July-August 2011, 22(4):537-541
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90292  PMID:22124048
Context: Over the past decade, a growing body of scientific evidence has suggested an exquisite association between oral infection and systemic diseases (e.g. atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, premature or low birth weight babies, pulmonary diseases, etc.) and also between systemic diseases (e.g. arthritis, diabetes, HIV infection and osteoporosis) and oral and craniofacial diseases and disorders. Leptin is a hormone secreted by the adipocytes in varying quantities and regulates the body weight. The present study was undertaken in the context of knowing the role of leptin in the inflammatory process occurring in the gingiva as the disease progressed from gingivitis to periodontitis. Aims: The present study was done to correlate the concentrations of leptin and interleukin (IL)-6 within the gingiva in healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis groups of patients and to correlate gingival leptin and IL-6 concentrations with plasma leptin and IL-6 concentrations in the healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis groups of patients. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study and was carried out on the patients from the out-patient department of Periodontics in A B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences. Patients and Methods: Seventy-five patients in the age group of 18-60 years were selected and grouped based on the gingival index (Loe and Sillness) and their clinical attachment levels into healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis groups. Leptin and IL-6 levels were estimated within gingiva and the plasma of each subject using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The results of this study were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Mean and the standard deviation were calculated using analysis of variance Fisher's F-test and then the results were subjected to Tukey's Honest significance difference method for multiple comparison among the three groups. Correlation among the three groups was estimated using Pearson's correlation analysis. Results: Results showed a statistically significant decrease in the concentration of gingival leptin and a statistically significant increase in the concentration of plasma leptin as the gingival disease progressed. Conclusion: It was concluded that as the gingival disease progressed, the gingival leptin concentration decreased, whereas the plasma leptin concentration increased, indicating a possible correlation between leptin concentration in the gingiva and the risk of developing systemic disease like the cardiovascular disease.
  18 3,434 236
Allele, genotype, and composite genotype effects of IL-1A +4845 and IL-1B +3954 polymorphisms for chronic periodontitis in an Indian population
R Gayathri, Abdul Vahab Saadi, K Mahalinga Bhat, Subraya G Bhat, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
July-August 2011, 22(4):612-612
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90323  PMID:22124068
Introduction: The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key modulator of host responses to microbial infection and a major modulator of extracellular matrix catabolism and bone resorption, and polymorphisms in the IL-1 gene cluster have been associated with an increased risk of developing severe adult periodontitis. A case control study was performed to determine the role of IL-1A+4845 and IL-1B+3954 polymorphisms in the predisposition to chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with 103 unrelated participants recruited from Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, which included 51 chronic periodontitis patients and 52 normal periodontally healthy individuals. Extensive clinical data were collected, bone loss was the major outcome variable and smokers and diabetics were excluded from the study to eliminate the influence of these risk factors. Genomic DNA was isolated from the blood samples of participants for genotyping IL-1A+4845 and IL-1B+3954 polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the data statistically analyzed. Results: Allele 2 of the IL-1A+4845 polymorphism was carried by 38% of all participants; of these only 6 were homozygous for the allele. Allele 2 of the IL-1B+3954 was carried by 21% of the subjects; only 1 was homozygous for allele 2. The composite genotype was carried by 31% of the cases and by 38% of the controls. Overall, 35% participants carried the composite IL-1 genotype. No statistically significant association was found for the distributions. Conclusions: The distribution of the IL-1 positive composite genotype is in concordance with the frequencies reported in the Caucasians. Association was not found for the effect of allele, genotype, composite genotype, and haplotypes of IL-1A+4845 and IL-1B+3954 polymorphisms with periodontitis. Its utility as a risk marker in this population was not borne out by the study.
  18 3,249 174
Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 16 and 17 year-old school-going children in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh
VK Bhardwaj, KL Veeresha, KR Sharma
July-August 2011, 22(4):556-560
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90296  PMID:22124052
Background: Many studies have been conducted in India to know the prevalence of malocclusion and the orthodontic treatment needs using dental aesthetic index (DAI), but no study so far has been conducted in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh. Objective: To know the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 16- and 17 year-old school-going children in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 622 (365 boys and 257 girls) school children, aged 16 and 17 years, from February 2009 to May 2009. Type III examination was conducted and the assessment of malocclusion was done according to the DAI. Results: 20.28% of the male and 24.52% of the female students in the sample were affected with malocclusion. The mean DAI scores of the male and female children were 22.26 and 21.79, respectively. Distribution of the four DAI grades was as follows: DAI-I (no abnormality or minor malocclusion) 79.58%, DAI-II (definite malocclusion) 16.39%, DAI-III (severe malocclusion) 3.69%, DAI-IV (very severe/handicapping malocclusion) 0.34%. Conclusion: The present study shows that 20.42% of the children examined had malocclusion which required treatment.
  15 4,416 300
REVIEW ARTICLES
Resonance frequency analysis
Rajiv K Gupta, Thallam V Padmanabhan
July-August 2011, 22(4):567-573
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90300  PMID:22124054
Initial stability at the placement and development of osseointegration are two major issues for implant survival. Implant stability is a mechanical phenomenon which is related to the local bone quality and quantity, type of implant, and placement technique used. The application of a simple, clinically applicable, non-invasive test to assess implant stability and osseointegration is considered highly desirable. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is one of such techniques which is most frequently used now days. The aim of this paper was to review and analyze critically the current available literature in the field of RFA, and to also discuss based on scientific evidence, the prognostic value of RFA to detect implants at risk of failure. A search was made using the PubMed database to find all the literature published on "Resonance frequency analysis for implant stability" till date. Articles discussed in vivo or in vitro studies comparing RFA with other methods of implant stability measurement and articles discussing its reliability were thoroughly reviewed and discussed. A limited number of clinical reports were found. Various studies have demonstrated the feasibility and predictability of the technique. However, most of these articles are based on retrospective data or uncontrolled cases. Randomized, prospective, parallel-armed longitudinal human trials are based on short-term results and long-term follow up are still scarce in this field. Nonetheless, from available literature, it may be concluded that RFA technique evaluates implant stability as a function of stiffness of the implant bone interface and is influenced by factors such as bone type, exposed implant height above the alveolar crest. Resonance frequency analysis could serve as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting the implant stability of dental implants during the healing stages and in subsequent routine follow up care after treatment. Future studies, preferably randomized, prospective longitudinal studies are certainly needed to establish threshold ranges for implant stability and for implants at risk for losing stability for different implant system.
  14 7,296 462
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Evaluation of oral submucous fibrosis using ultrasonographic technique: A new diagnostic tool
K Manjunath, PC Rajaram, TR Saraswathi, B Sivapathasundharam, B Sabarinath, D Koteeswaran, C Krithika
July-August 2011, 22(4):530-536
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90287  PMID:22124047
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) by clinical and histopathological examination, and compare the results with those from ultrasonographic technique. Materials and Methods: 30 clinically diagnosed OSMF patients were subjected to both ultrasonographic and histopathological evaluation before treatment. Later, only ultrasonographical examination was done during 4 th and 8 th week of treatment. Prognosis of the lesion for the treatment was evaluated. Peak systolic velocity (PSV) of blood in the lesional area was statistically analyzed. 10 normal individuals without any mucosal lesions were considered as the control group. Results: In normal individuals, ultrasonography delineates normal mucosa with uniform fine mottled appearance with interspersed hypoechoic areas. Color Doppler and spectral Doppler depicts uniform distribution of blood vessels and normal peak systolic velocity of blood respectively. All OSMF patients were diagnosed upon clinical and histopathological examination. Clinical examination revealed 14 individuals with unilateral palpable fibrotic bands and 16 individuals with bilateral fibrotic bands whereas, ultrasonographic evaluation revealed 6 individuals with unilateral fibrotic bands and 24 individuals were with bilateral fibrotic bands, which was statistically significant. Ultrasonography demonstrated number, length and thickness of the fibrotic bands. Color Doppler and spectral Doppler showed decreased vascularity and PSV in lesional area. Prognosis evaluation revealed 25 cases of good prognosis and 5 cases were showed poor prognosis. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test revealed no significant difference of PSV was seen in poor prognosis patients. Conclusion: Ultrasonography is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for OSMF. It could be a better diagnostic tool compared to clinical and histopathological examination.
  13 6,432 1,091
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Cysticercosis of masseter
B Dilip Kumar, Bindi Dave, SM Meghana
July-August 2011, 22(4):617-617
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90334  PMID:22124076
Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, a cestodic paratise. It is a common disease in developing countries where it is also endemic. The most commonly infested body organs include subcutaneous tissues, brain and skeletal muscles. It is interesting to note that oral lesion of cysticercosis is a rare event. Here we report an isolated lesion of cysticercosis in the masseter muscle.
  12 4,745 271
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
The effectiveness of magnesium oxide combined with tissue conditioners in inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans: An in vitro study
Hema Kanathila, Aruna M Bhat, Prasad D Krishna
July-August 2011, 22(4):613-613
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90324  PMID:22124069
Context : The presence of Candida albicans on the fitting surface of the denture is a major causative factor in denture stomatits. A treatment method is by combining tissue conditioner and antifungal agents. Aims : The main objective of this study is to test the efficacy of magnesium oxide combined with two tissue conditioners (Viscogel and GC Soft), in inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans. Settings and Design : Microbiological study was done in the Department of Microbiology, K S Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte University, Mangalore. Materials and Methods : A total of 154 plates were prepared using Muller Hilton with Glucose and Methylene Blue dye medium and inoculated with 24-hr old standard Candida culture. Plates were divided into control and combination. Test discs with different concentrations of MgO were equidistantly placed in MgO Control, while sterile discs embedded with respective tissue conditioner were equidistantly placed in Viscogel and GC Soft controls. For combination groups, the tissue conditioners were mixed and the discs with MgO (1%, 3%, 5%, and 7%) were embedded in the mix. After 24 h of incubation, inhibition diameters were noted. Statistical Analysis Used : The data was analysed using Mann Whitney U Test, ANOVA, Tukey HSD test. Results : The inhibition effect of magnesium oxide 1% combined with tissue conditioners (VGC and GCC) is not significant in both the groups. The inhibition effect of MgO 5% and 7% combined with tissue conditioners (VGC and GCC) is very highly significant ( P < 0.001). Conclusions : Magnesium oxide in combination with tissue conditioners are effective against Candida albicans; GC soft with magnesium oxide showed a better result than Viscogel with magnesium oxide; Increasing the concentration of magnesium oxide increases the zone of inhibition of Candida albicans.
  11 3,440 172
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Definitive magnetic nasal prosthesis for partial nasal defect
E Nagaraj, Manoj Shetty, Prasad D Krishna
July-August 2011, 22(4):597-599
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90309  PMID:22124061
Maxillofacial trauma refers to any injury to the face or jaw caused by physical force, trauma, the presence of foreign objects, animal or human bites, and burns. Facial defects can be devastating in their impact on physical structure and function of the affected individual, leading to potential compromises in quality of life. Restoration of facial defects, especially nasal defects, is a difficult challenge for both the surgeon and the prosthodontist. Here is a case report of partial nasal defect caused by trauma, rehabilitated with a magnetic nasal prosthesis made with silicone elastomers using mechanical and anatomical retentive aids.
  11 3,992 331
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Impact of chikungunya virus infection on oral health status: An observational study
Roopa Katti, PR Shahapur, KL Udapudi
July-August 2011, 22(4):613-613
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90325  PMID:22124070
Background and Objective: Chikungunya fever outbreak started in December 2005 in India when the country experienced more than 13 lakhs of Chikungunya infected cases. We undertook this study to describe the impact of Chikungunya virus infection on oral health. Materials and Methods: The confirmed seropositive patients were included for the study (N = 97). Oral hygiene index simplified, gingival index, plaque index were recorded. Results: Of the 181 tested, 97 were confirmed seropositive for chikungunya infection. Pain and bleeding gums were seen in 55% of the subjects. Of them, 29.1% had poor oral hygiene, 42.27% had severe gingivitis, and 27.84% had severe plaque deposits. Severe gingivitis was observed in patients with chronic disease, this association was statistically significant (χ2 = 6.417, P = 0.040). Conclusion: Our findings showed that about more than half of the tested patients suffered severe pain and bleeding in the oral cavity thereby causing discomfort in chewing. About 1/3 patients had severe gingivitis and foul breath which caused discomfort in carrying out their day-to-day activities.
  9 6,203 177
CASE REPORTS
Flies blown disease - Oral myiasis
Rahul Srivastava, Parvathi Devi, VB Thimmarasa, S Jayadev
July-August 2011, 22(4):615-615
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90328  PMID:22124072
Myiasis, a term first introduced by Hope (1840), refers to the invasion of tissues and organs of animals and human wounds and certain body cavities by the dipteran larvae which manifests as subcutaneous furunculoid or boillike lesions. Oral myiasis is a rare pathology and a risk to the patient's life. Higher incidence is seen in rural areas affecting the tropical and sub-tropical zones of Africa and America. Myiasis affecting the oro-dental complex is rare. Here is a case report of oral myiasis in an 18-year-old male patient who is mentally challenged with anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and periodontal disease. The lesion was treated with turpentine oil, which forced larvae out and irrigated with normal saline solution. Follow-up examination revealed complete remission and healing of the lesion.
  7 8,470 191
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
The use of silane-coated industrial glass fibers in splinting periodontally mobile teeth
Amit A Agrawal, Shrikant S Chitko
July-August 2011, 22(4):594-596
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90307  PMID:22124060
In the past, direct stabilization and splinting of teeth using an adhesive technique required the use of wires, pins, or mesh grids. Problems with the current fiber reinforcement materials are their inherent thickness when embedded within composite resin, their availability in fixed widths and their high cost. This paper discusses the use of silane-coated industrial grade glass fibers, which can be bundled in the form of ribbon according to the required thickness and length. Of the three patients discussed in this paper, none has exhibited debonding or recurrent caries over 1-year period. By reinforcing composite splints with these industrial grade glass fibers, dentists can provide patients with restorations and splints that are economical, fracture resistant, and more durable than most alternative splinting materials of the past.
  7 4,946 206
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Use of periosteal membrane as a barrier membrane for the treatment of buccal Grade II furcation defects in lower molars: A novel technique
Vikas Verma, CS Saimbi, MA Khan, Amit Goel
July-August 2011, 22(4):511-516
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90280  PMID:22124043
Objective : To use the periosteum as a barrier in treatment of buccal Grade II furcation defects of lower molars. Materials and Methods : This technique was performed on 12 patients with bilateral buccal Grade II furcation defects of lower molars. On a random basis, one furcation defect of each pair was selected for the control group and other for the experimental group. Debridement was done in the defect area in both groups. In the control group, after debridement, mucoperiosteal flap was sutured back. In the experimental group, after reflection of the mucoperiosteal flap, a portion of the periosteum along with a layer of connective tissue (periosteal membrane) was incised and mobilized in the defect area for defect coverage as a barrier, and then the periosteal membrane and mucoperiosteal flap were fixed with suture, respectively. Horizontal dimension of the furcation defect was the primary outcome measure. Gingival index, probing attachment level (PAL), and vertical dimension of furcation defect were the secondary outcome measures. Clinical parameters were registered at baseline and at 6 months. Results : Every clinical parameter was improved by surgery. Significant gain in PAL as well as horizontal and vertical dimensions of the furcation defects was found. Conclusion: This periosteum displacement technique is effective for the treatment of buccal Grade II furcation defects of lower molars.
  6 7,796 497
Feeding and oral hygiene habits of children attending daycare centres in Bangalore and their caretakers oral health knowledge, attitude and practices
S Vinay, N Naveen, N Naganandini
July-August 2011, 22(4):561-566
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90298  PMID:22124053
Aim: Caretakers in day-care centers play a significant role in imparting good oral hygiene practices and also extend a working relationship with parents with regard to their children's oral health. As a result of this, caregiver's dental knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices affect the child's oral condition. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study involved caretakers working in day-care centers of Bangalore. Fifty-two day-care centers were randomly selected from the different zones of Bangalore city, from which 246 caretakers provided consent for participation. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive, closed-ended, self-administered questionnaire was employed which was designed to collect the sociodemographic details and to evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitudes, practice of caretakers. The institutional review committee approved the study. Data were entered using SPSS 13.01. Results: Seventy-nine percent of the subjects had good knowledge of child's tooth eruption time, clinical presentation of dental caries and the role of fluoride in caries prevention. Yet, half of the subjects found routine dental examination after all the milk teeth have erupted in the oral cavity insignificant and 41% strongly agreed that dentist should be consulted only when the child has a toothache. In spite of the good knowledge, 77% preferred to use pacifier dipped in honey/sugar if the children acted troublesome. Analogous to this, 45% gave milk/juice with sugar before the child's nap time. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that caretaker's attitude toward oral health care needs is far from acceptable standards to mirror any positive impact on the children.
  5 5,151 281
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Use of training dentures in management of gagging
Shweta Yadav, Anil K Sheorain, Puneet , Vibha Shetty
July-August 2011, 22(4):600-602
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90311  PMID:22124062
Gagging is a frequent impediment to the performance of dental procedures. This stimulation of the gagging reflex, or more accurately, the vomiting reflex, is a special problem in prosthodontic service. A hypersensitive gagging reflex often prevents the dentist from carrying out critical procedures or causes them to performat a less than satisfactory level. In addition, once having suffered an unpleasant gagging experience in a dentist's office, the patients develop a fear of further visits to dentists. The purpose of this paper is to describe methods of managing the gagging patient that has a sound rationale based on modified treatment approaches starting from impression making to design of the prosthesis aided by training dentures to help the patient to tolerate prosthesis in mouth before fabrication of definite prosthesis.
  5 6,748 293
Osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle
Ashish Kumar, Sanjay Rastogi, Mancy Modi, Sushil Nijhawan
July-August 2011, 22(4):616-616
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90330  PMID:22124074
Osteochondroma (OC) of the mandibular condyle is a relatively rare condition that causes a progressive enlargement of the condyle, usually resulting in facial asymmetry, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction, and malocclusion. Radiographically, there is a unilaterally enlarged condyle usually with an exophytic outgrowth of the tumor from the condylar head. We present a case of a left mandibular condylar OC that created a major facial asymmetry, malocclusion, and TMJ dysfunction. Discussion includes the rationale for treatment and the method used in this case. In actively growing OCs, surgical intervention is indicated to remove the tumor stopping the benign growth process and improve facial symmetry, occlusion, and jaw function.
  5 7,680 248
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs amongst the school children of three educational zones of urban Delhi, India
Harpreet Grewal, Mahesh Verma, Ashok Kumar
July-August 2011, 22(4):517-519
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90283  PMID:22124044
Context : D0 ental caries is the most common oral disease that affects significant number of Indian population. The prevalence of caries in India is reported 31.5% to 89%. Aims : T0 his study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in school going children of Delhi. Materials and Methods : A0 school based cross-sectional study was conducted in various educational zones of Delhi. A total of 520 school children in age range of 9-12 years were examined using WHO (1997) criteria. Statistical Analysis Used : C0 hi-square test. Results : T0 he prevalence of dental caries was found to be 52.3% with mean deft and DMFT of 0.5038 ± 1.0859 and 0.8250 ± 1.3437, respectively. Besides various treatment needs 49.7% required restorative treatment. Conclusion : T0 he prevalence of dental caries in Delhi school children is high with D+d components comprising of more than 95%. This indicates lack of awareness and affordability to the dental facilities available. Therefore, there is a need to develop preventive and promotional oral health strategies to combat this infectious disease.
  4 6,768 877
In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity of denture adhesives
Samarth Kumar Agarwal, G Praveen, Saurabh Gupta, Renu Tandon, Sameer Gupta
July-August 2011, 22(4):526-529
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90285  PMID:22124046
Aim: The aim of the study is to assess and compare the cytotoxicity of commercially available four denture adhesives ex-vivo. Materials and Methods: Four commercially available denture adhesives namely Metrodent powder, Fixon powder, Dentiro powder and Fixon cream were selected. Normal saline was used in control group. To evaluate the cytotoxicity of denture adhesives, macrophages were isolated from peritoneal cavity of Swiss albino mice and cell integrity/cell viability method was done by using trypan blue dye. Results: Viable cells were counted and subjected to statistical analysis. ANOVA, F and 't' test were performed, which showed statistically significant values (P < 0.001). The mean percentage of viable cells was highest in the control group (95%) and lowest in Fixon powder (55.66%), with Dentiro powder the mean percentage of viable cells was 63.66%, with Metrodent powder 67.6% while with Fixon cream it was 69.33%. Conclusion: All tested denture adhesives showed varied degree of cytotoxicity that is statistically significant. The degree of toxicity was more in Fixon powder followed by Dentiro powder and Metrodent powder with least in Fixon cream.
  3 3,534 162
Quality of life among dentists in teaching hospitals in South Canara, India
Dolar Doshi, Animesh Jain, K Vinaya, Shashidhar Kotian
July-August 2011, 22(4):552-555
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90297  PMID:22124051
Objectives : This paper reports on the quality of life among dentists using World Health Organization Abbreviated Instrument for Quality of Life Assessment, comprising 26 items which measure the following broad domains: Physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Materials and Methods : The instrument was self-administered among dentists in four teaching dental institutions. A total of 191 questionnaires were given out. Of those, 187 were consented and answered, making up a response rate of 97.9%. The internal consistency of the questionnaire, measured by Cronbach's alpha was estimated at 0.75. Results : Highest mean score was seen for Domain 3 (Social relationships) (16.15 + 2.38) and the least score was for Domain 4 (Environment) (14.72 + 2.12). Higher proportions of respondents rated their quality of life as good (65.1 percent), and also majority of dentists (63.5 percent) were satisfied with their health. Conclusion : Quality of life recognizes the value of an individual's health in the broader psychologic and social aspects of his/her life. In this study, the overall rating of quality of life among dentists in teaching hospitals is good.
  3 2,610 147
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma masquerading as odontoma
Kanwar Deep Singh Nanda, Mohita Marwaha
July-August 2011, 22(4):616-616
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90332  PMID:22124075
Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is a rare, benign epithelial mixed odontogenic tumor. It occurs as an intraosseous lesion, generally asymptomatic and more prevalent in children and adolescent. AFO is found on radiographic evaluation of patients with unerupted or impacted teeth in many cases. Histological examination reveals a fibrous soft tissue, islands of odontogenic epithelium and a disordered mixture of dental tissues. The treatment modality in most cases involves conservative surgery with enucleation. We present a case of 13-year-old boy with a missing right central incisor, mimicking-like odontoma on radiograph but proved to be AFO and treated with enucleation with preservation of impacted tooth. There was no recurrence after one year of follow-up. This report discusses the clinical, radiographical, histological features and surgical assessment to preserve the impacted tooth associated with AFO.
  3 3,696 174
CASE REPORT
Esthetic correction in open bite
Swapnil Parlani, Seema Patel
July-August 2011, 22(4):580-582
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90303  PMID:22124056
Deleterious oral habits, which are persistent, can lead to poor esthetics of a beautiful face. Conventional treatment modalities for an open bite usually include orthodontic treatment and/or skeletal surgery. This article focuses on a different treatment modality for an anterior open bite.
  2 6,090 201
CASE REPORTS
Verrucous carcinoma in association with oral submucous fibrosis
C Pravda, H Srinivasan, D Koteeswaran, L Arathy Manohar
July-August 2011, 22(4):615-615
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90329  PMID:22124073
Oral verrucous carcinoma is a form of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma characterized by exophytic over growth. It is slow growing and locally invasive tumor occurring in 6 th and 7 th decade of life. Smoking and chewing tobacco is found to be the most common etiological factor of verrucous carcinoma although oral leukoplakia may act as a predisposing factor. This is a rare case of oral varrucous Carcinoma seen in association with oral submucous fibrosis in a younger patient with long standing history of chewing tobacco.
  2 8,196 378
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
In in-vitro evaluation of effect of different finish lines on marginal adaptation in metal-ceramic restorations under thermo-mechanical loading
Ridhima Gupta
July-August 2011, 22(4):608-610
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90315  PMID:22124065
The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal gap in terms of cement film thickness associated with shoulder, shoulder with 45° bevel, shoulder with 30° bevel and chamfer, under thermo-mechanical loading. Forty human mandibular molars were prepared and restored with ceramo-metal crowns. Teeth were thermo-mechanically loaded and vertically sectioned to evaluate the cement film thickness. Shoulder with 45° bevel provided the least marginal gap as compared with all the tested finish lines.
  2 4,801 231
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Dental pain as a determinant of expressed need for dental care among 12-year-old school children in India
Kiran Kumar Dandi, Epari Venkat Rao, Shanti Margabandhu
July-August 2011, 22(4):611-611
PMID:22124066
Objective: We have undertaken a cross-sectional study to assess factors associated with dental pain that determine the expressed needs for dental care among 12-year-old school children in India. Materials and Methods: A total of 2 250 school children were surveyed after being drawn through stratified cluster random sampling. The simultaneous effects of sociodemographic characteristics, pain characteristics, and the impact of pain on the quality of life were studied in association with the expressed needs for dental treatment. Results: Among the studied school children, 71.4% suffered from dental pain, only 27.7% expressed need for dental healthcare. Socioeconomic status (SES) was a statistically significant determinant. Pain characteristics like the severity of pain and pain on eating hot and cold foods were significantly associated with expressed needs. Impact characteristics associated with expressed needs were embarrassment in showing teeth, brushing teeth, and difficulty in eating and drinking. Logistic regression analysis yielded a Nagelkerke R 2 value of 0.106. Conclusion: Important determinants of expressed needs for dental care among the studied population were SES, pain intensity, pain on thermal stimuli, impact characteristics like eating/drinking and embarrassment in showing teeth.
  1 2,837 171
A study to evaluate the effect of oral stereognosis in acceptance of fixed prosthesis
Kaushal K Agrawal, Arvind Tripathi, Pooran Chand, Raghuwar D Singh, Jitendra Rao, Balendra P Singh
July-August 2011, 22(4):611-611
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90321  PMID:22124067
Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the oral stereognostic ability and satisfaction for fixed prosthesis in human being. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 40 subjects, the purpose being to investigate the relation of oral perception to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Two types of cast metal crowns-one had morphology closely resembling original tooth and other one confirmed to ideal contours were constructed on endodontically treated posterior tooth. One cast metal crown was randomly selected from two cast metal crown and fitted on prepared tooth. Oral stereognostic score of subject was determined by correct response to questionnaire based on the recognition ability of subjects. Patient satisfaction level was checked by psychometric parameter Likert scale. Same procedure was repeated with other type of cast metal crown. Results: Data obtained were compared by paired and unpaired two sample t-test. Oral stereognostic score and satisfaction score were found to be higher for cast metal crown with morphology resembling to original tooth due to recognition and discriminatory ability of subjects and recall-memory. Oral stereognostic level was found to be higher in younger than older subjects. The level of satisfaction was found to be higher in older subjects than younger subjects. Conclusion: It was concluded that acceptance of fixed prosthesis is not only based on dentist's routine procedure of treatment and patient's judgment about oral health, function, and esthetics, but also depends upon patient's oral perception and discriminatory skill for external morphology of fixed prosthesis.
  1 3,632 171
Microstructure, mechanical performance and corrosion properties of base metal solder joints
Sujesh Machha, M Vasanth Kumar, Azhagarasan , V Rangarajan
July-August 2011, 22(4):614-614
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90326  PMID:22124071
Context: Alloys have been considered to be of paramount importance in the field of prosthodontics. Long span prosthesis may often require joining of one or more individual castings to obtain better fit, occlusal harmony and esthetics in comparison to one-piece casting. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate the mechanical properties of base metal alloys joined by two different techniques, namely, gas oxygen torch soldering and laser fusion, compared to a one-piece casting. Mechanical properties evaluated were tensile strength, percentage of elongation and hardness of the solder joint. In addition, corrosion properties and scanning electron microscopic appearance of the joints were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: The samples were prepared according to American Society for Testing Materials specifications (ASTM, E8). Specimens were made with self-cure acrylic and then invested in phosphate-bonded investment material. Casting was done in induction casting machine. Thirty specimens were thus prepared for each group and compared with 30 specimens of the one-piece casting group. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS software (version 10.0, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis. ANOVA and Benferroni post hoc tests were done for multiple comparisons between the groups and within the groups for mean difference and standard error. Results: Results showed that tensile strength of the one-piece casting was higher than laser fused and gas oxygen torch soldered joints. Laser fused joints exhibited higher hardness values compared to that of gas oxygen torch soldered joints. Scanning electron microscopic examination revealed greater porosity in the gas oxygen torch soldered joints. This contributed to the reduction in the strength of the joint. Gas oxygen torch soldered joints showed less corrosion resistance when compared to laser fused joints and one-piece casting. Conclusion: Laser fusion, which is a recent introduction to the field of prosthodontics, produces joints which have properties between those of one-piece casting and the gas oxygen torch soldering.
  1 3,321 123
Effects of milk curd on saliva secretion in healthy volunteer compared to baseline, 2% pilocarpine and equivalent pH adjusted acetic acid solutions
Neda Babaee, Atefeh Gholizadehpasha, Samir Zahedpasha, Yasaman Moghadamnia, Shiva Zamaninejad, Ali Akbar Moghadamnia
July-August 2011, 22(4):547-551
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90294  PMID:22124050
Background: Dry mouth is a common clinical problem, and different products have been proposed to improve it. In this investigation, the effects of "milk curd" on the amount of saliva secretion were studied. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 patients (aged 20-30) were selected from healthy volunteers. Milk curd concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4%, and 2% pilocarpine were prepared as drops. The impact of the drugs on the saliva weight was assessed after 1-5 min. To determine the effects of the pH of the milk curd on the amount of saliva secretion, different concentrations of acetic acid were used. Results: At the end of the first minute, the differences between the data for all groups were statistically significant, and the difference between the 2% and 4% milk curd groups was higher than the others (P < 0.0001). The differences in the amount of the saliva secreted at the end of the second minute between the baseline and 4% milk curd groups and between the 0.5% and 4% MC groups were significant (P = 0.006 and P = 0.025, respectively). In total, there was no significant difference between the effect of various pH treatments and the amount of baseline saliva secretion. Conclusion: Milk curd has a significant local impact, and the saliva increase depends on the dose. It seems that this effect is not only related to its acidic taste. As a result, factors other than pH are involved in the effect.
  1 3,361 143
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Incisor tooth in the nose: Anecdotal sequel to dog bite in a 3-year-old child
Sanjeev K Uppal, Ashish Gupta, Rita Rai, Nupur Nippun
July-August 2011, 22(4):606-607
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90313  PMID:22124064
A 3-year-old male child presented to the casualty with history of unprovoked dog bite over the right lateral wall of nose. He was managed conservatively with antirabies prophylaxis and dressings. He presented after 3 months with a healed wound and the right upper central incisor projecting into the nostril. The Orthopantomogram showed a rotated temporary incisor with the roots of the permanent incisor placed normally. The tooth was extracted intranasally. Among the mutilating dog bite injuries referred to a plastic surgeon, this injury though thought provoking was also comical.
  1 3,097 94
ERRATUM
Erratum

July-August 2011, 22(4):610-610
  - 907 70
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
The effect of disinfectant agents on dimensional stability and surface roughness of a tissue conditioner material
Amiralireza Khaledi, Zohre Borhanihaghighi, Mahroo Vojdani
July-August 2011, 22(4):499-504
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90277  PMID:22124041
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of disinfectant procedures on the dimensional stability and surface quality of a tissue conditioner used as a functional impression material. Materials and Methods: A tissue conditioner (Visco-gel) used as a functional impression material was disinfected by immersion in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite or 2% glutaraldehyde solutions for 10 or 20 minutes, respectively. The control group consisted of specimens (n=10) that were not treated by disinfectants. For testing the dimensional stability, impressions of an aluminum edentulous arch with three reference points were made. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water, the specimens were treated by one of the disinfection procedures. Impressions were poured and, subsequently, 50 stone casts were measured with a Nikon profile projector. For surface roughness evaluation, disks that contained Visco-gel were pressed against glass slides. The disks were then stored in distilled water for 24 hours. After disinfection, 50 disk-shaped dental stone casts were prepared. Surface roughness values were determined using a profilometer. For each test, data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Results: The results of the dimensional stability test showed that immersion of Visco-gel impressions in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution or 2% glutaraldehyde solution did not significantly change the anteroposterior (AP) and cross-arch (CA) distances of the resultant stone casts when compared to the control group (P>0.05). The surface quality of dental stone casts formed by Visco-gel did not change significantly when impressions were immersed in the disinfectant solutions for either 10 or 20 minutes, or when stored in distilled water (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that the disinfectant solutions used in this study did not have a significant effect on the surface quality and dimensional accuracy of Visco-gel as a functional impression material.
  - 4,251 273
Role of bcl-2 oncoprotein in oral potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study
VM Sudha, S Hemavathy
July-August 2011, 22(4):520-525
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90286  PMID:22124045
Background and Objectives: The product of bcl-2 gene, bcl-2 protein, an anti-apoptotic protein, is known to be over-expressed in potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity. The aim of this study is to compare the topographical aspect and degree of bcl-2 over-expression in potentially malignant disorders including leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), and oral lichen planus (OLP), with that of the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to determine whether bcl-2 protein can be considered as a tumor marker. Materials and Methods : A group of 60 histo-pathologically diagnosed, formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue samples was included in the study. The study group was further subdivided into four groups: Group I, consisting of oral leukoplakia; Group II, OSMF; Group III, OLP and Group IV, OSCC. These samples were collected from Government Dental College, Bangalore, and then subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) staining using indirect immunoenzyme labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB) method. Results : Out of 30 cases of OSCC: 11 (36.7%) cases showed greater supra-basal keratinocyte staining; 15 (50%) cases showed greater number of positive cells in the basal cell layer, with relatively less number of supra-basal cells showing positive staining; and, rest of the 4 (13.3%) cases did not show convincing staining. Among the total 30 cases of potentially malignant disorders: 10 each of leukoplakia, OSMF and OLP, 2 (20%), 2 (20%), 4 (40%) of the cases showed greater supra-basal cell layer positive staining and 8 (80%), 6 (60%), 6 (60%) of them showed greater basal cell staining, respectively. Two cases of OSMF did not show convincing staining. In the cases that were bcl-2 positive: 2 (6.67%) of the OSCC, 3 (30%) of leukoplakia, 2 (20%) of OSMF and 1 (10%) of OLP, showed more than 50% of the cells positive. 25-50% cells were positive in 21 (70%) of OSCC, 6 (60%) of leukoplakia, 4 (40%) of OSMF and 6 (60%) of OLP cases. 10-25% of cells were positive in 4 (13.3%) of OSCC, 1(10%) of leukoplakia, 2 (20%) of OSMF and 3 (30%) of OLP cases. Less than 10% of cells were positive in 3 (10%) of OSCC and 2 (20%) of OSMF cases. Clinical Significance and Conclusion : As definite number of cases showed bcl-2 over expression in our study, the role of bcl-2 in the development and progression of oral neoplasia needs further investigation along with other oncogenes.
  - 4,515 496
REVIEW ARTICLES
Patent law in dentistry: An overview
Mohammed Nadeem A Bijle
July-August 2011, 22(4):574-579
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90301  PMID:22124055
Dentistry in recent years has developed interest in the field of intellectual property rights (IPR) and Patents due to extensive research in the fraternity and existing competition. There have been various patent applications and grants in the field of dentistry abroad due to better understanding of IPR but India still has very few patent grants and applications on the subject matter. This review article in particular deals with the understanding of IPR and Patents as a whole, especially for dental professionals involved in research and development. Hence, this would also act as an asset for dental researchers to explore and expand their scope of activities, with special privileges empowered for their work.
  - 3,326 285
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Bilateral fusion of permanent maxillary incisors
Manoj Kumar Hans, Shashit Shetty, Hitesh Chopra
July-August 2011, 22(4):603-605
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90312  PMID:22124063
Dental fusion is a rare developmental anomaly, which is included in the anomalies of tooth morphology or shape. Fusion can occur at the level of enamel or enamel and dentin, which results in the formation of a single tooth with enlarged clinical crown. Fusion is more common in deciduous dentition. Incisors are reported to be fused in primary and permanent dentition, but bilateral fusion is a rare occurrence. The prevalence of bilateral fusion in the permanent dentition is less frequent than unilateral fusion and is reported to be around 0.05%. The authors report a case of a 20-year-old male with bilateral fusion of maxillary central and lateral incisors. Multi-disciplinary treatment approach is essential to get the desired esthetic result. The best way to manage these difficult cases depends on a number of factors including the knowledge and technical skills of the practitioner.
  - 3,780 159
Glass ionomer cement as an occlusive barrier in Class III furcation defect
Rameshwari Singhal
July-August 2011, 22(4):583-586
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90304  PMID:22124057
Predicting the prognosis of molars that have experienced furcation invasion, is often a frustrating experience to the dental clinician and disappointing report to the patient involved. Although multiple treatment modalities have been attempted to retain teeth with severe furcation invasion, clinical success has not been predictable. A case report involving the use of glass ionomer cement (GIC) as an occlusive barrier in the management of Class III furcation defect involving mandibular first molar is presented. A literature review on the subject matter was conducted using Medline, Google search engines, and manual library search. GIC restoration of Class III furcation invasion gives a satisfactory result. Surgical and nonsurgical treatment options are available for the management of the condition. GIC as an occlusive barrier in Class III furcation invasion is an economical and less invasive treatment option. It also makes home care easy for the patient.
  - 6,077 328
An interdisciplinary approach to reconstruct a fractured tooth under an intact all ceramic crown: Case report with four years follow up
Sudhir Bhandari, Praveen Rajagopal, Sonika Bakshi
July-August 2011, 22(4):587-590
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90305  PMID:22124058
Trauma causing the fracture of a restored tooth with the extracoronal full coverage prosthesis remaining intact is a common occurrence in dental practice. Reconstruction of the damaged tooth foundation and recementation of the crown can pose quite a challenge for the restorative dentist. This case report describes an innovative interdisciplinary chairside technique for the recementation of an all-ceramic crown on a fractured maxillary central incisor. The course of care described is effective, affordable, and saves time in comparison with other treatment options for such clinical situations.
  - 3,180 145
Reactive positioning of pathologically migrated tooth following non-surgical periodontal therapy
Neeraj Agrawal, Prasad SV Siddani
July-August 2011, 22(4):591-593
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.90306  PMID:22124059
While contemporary periodontics has witnessed the continued emergence of sophisticated techniques to resolve esthetic concerns through various periodontal procedures, frequently the early stages of periodontal diseases are best treated with non-surgical periodontal therapy. This short communication presents a case of reactive positioning of pathologically migrated anterior tooth following non-surgical periodontal therapy.
  - 6,640 238
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