Indian Journal of Dental Research

LETTER TO EDITOR
Year
: 2009  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 248-

Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis and their roles in systematic diseases: True or false?


Ali M Tavana 
 Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatallah (a.s) University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Ali M Tavana
Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatallah (a.s) University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Iran




How to cite this article:
Tavana AM. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis and their roles in systematic diseases: True or false?.Indian J Dent Res 2009;20:248-248


How to cite this URL:
Tavana AM. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis and their roles in systematic diseases: True or false?. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2009 [cited 2014 Nov 26 ];20:248-248
Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2009/20/2/248/52880


Full Text

Sir,

Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis are considered as Gram negative anaerobic pigmented bacteria and were originally described as Bacteroides and then reclassified as subspecies Bacteroides gingivalis and then again reclassified to P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis under the genus of Porphyromonas. These bacteria were isolated from different patients with periodontal diseases and endodontic infection. A few infections were introduced with these bacteria but recent reports have been focused on heart and stroke and other diseases, either communicable or non communicable, under discussion now. In this letter, I would like to bring to your attention and ask if there is any role that these bacteria play in other human infections outside the mouth or not?

Periodontitis is a persistent bacterial infection causing chronic inflammation in periodontal tissues. Species with elevated periodontopathogenic potential include mainly Gram negative bacteria, particularly Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. [1] Possibly other Gram negative bacteria such as P. intermedia and P. nigresense or even Fusobacterium spp are also involved. [2] However, many studies have indicated that the periodontal disease are a link with heart diseases, diabetic, and, possibly, stroke as well. [3],[4] Therefore, the control of these diseases may be related to increases in the level of dental and oral hygiene. Without that, the disease may not be controlled and it must be considered in developing as well as developed countries. Perhaps a few diseases may be introduced with the link of P. gingivalis, which no one knows at the present time, and it must be indicated in the future in order to prevent the risk of this infection. With regard to P. endodontalis, it could be noted that it has presently become medically noteworthy [5] because black-pigmented anaerobic rods such as Prevotella spp. and Porphyromonas spp. are involved in the etiology and perpetuation of endodontic infections. [6] Bacterial infection causing chronic inflammation in periodontal tissues are nearly well defined but, the role of P. endodontalis is not clear at present. However, P. endodontalis was also found in one asymptomatic case without evidence of periradicular pathosis. In one study, P. endodontalis was commonly detected in symptomatic cases and asymptomatic root canal infections. [7] It should be emphasized that further studies are on-going to, hopefully, give more details. However, the role of dental hygiene and regular dental checks by dentists could be effective in preventing possible infections.

References

1American Academy of Periodontology. Periodontal diseases: Pathogenesis and microbial factors: World Workshop in Periodontics, consensus report. Ann Periodontol 1996;1:962-32.
2Tavana AM, Korachi M, Boote V, Hull PS, Love DN, Drucker DB. Phospholipid analogues of Porphyromonas gingivalis . J Appl Microbiol 2000;88:791-9.
3Colhoun HM, Slaney JM, Rubens MB, Fuller JH, Sheiham A, Curtis MA. Antibodies to periodontal pathogens and coronary artery calcification in type 1 diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. J Periodontal Res 2008;43:103-10.
4Pussinen PJ, Alfthan G, Jousilahti P, Paju S, Tuomilehto J. Systemic exposure to Porphyromonas gingivalis predicts incident stroke. Atherosclerosis 2007;193:222-8.
5Tomazinho LF, Avila-Campos MJ. Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas endodontalis , Prevotella intermedia , and Prevotella nigrescens in chronic endodontic infection. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2007;103:285-8.
6Machado de Oliveira JC, Siqueira JF Jr, Alves GB, Hirata R Jr, Andrade AF. Detection of Porphyromonas endodontalis in infected root canals by 16S rRNA gene-directed polymerase chain reaction. J Endod 2000;26:729-32.
7American Academy of Periodontology. Periodontal diseases: Pathogenesis and microbial factors: World Workshop in Periodontics, consensus report. Ann Periodontol 1996;1:962-32.