Indian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental Research
HOME | ABOUT US | EDITORIAL BOARD | AHEAD OF PRINT | CURRENT ISSUE | ARCHIVES | INSTRUCTIONS | SUBSCRIBE | ADVERTISE | CONTACT
Indian Journal of Dental Research   Login   |  Users online: 1353

Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size         

 


 
Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL RESEARCH  
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 231-237
Regular dental scaling associated with decreased tooth loss in the middle-aged and elderly in Korea: A 3-year prospective longitudinal study


1 Department of Dental Hygiene, Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
2 Department of Preventive Medicine, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea
3 Department of Dental Hygiene, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication29-May-2019
 

   Abstract 

Context: Tooth loss exacerbates the deterioration of physical function and induces illness. Numerous studies have identified the risk factors for tooth loss, and several have identified an association of tooth loss with sociodemographic factors, general health status, and lifestyle. Aims: The objective of the present cohort study was to elucidate the relationship between regular dental scaling and tooth loss in middle-aged and elderly individuals in Korea. Settings and Design: The study was 3-year prospective longitudinal study and conducted in Wonju-si of South Korea. Methods: In total, 557 subjects (219 men, 338 women; 40–75 years) were included in our 3-year follow-up survey (2010–2014). Data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population (KOGES-ARIRANG) were used. All subjects underwent an oral examination and face-to-face interview for taking oral health behavior, sociodemographic status, and the utilization of dental service. Statistical Analysis Used: Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the effects of regular dental scaling on tooth loss after adjusting for history of oral examinations and dental visits, oral health behavior, and sociodemographic status. Results: In total, 263 subjects (47.2%) experienced a loss of one or more teeth during the 3-year period, and lost a mean of 1.54 ± 2.53 teeth. The incidence of tooth loss was 1.87 (1.03–3.38) times higher in participants who did not undergo dental scaling during the 3-year period than in those who regularly received dental scaling. Conclusions: This study showed the potential causal relationship between tooth loss and regular dental scaling for preventing oral disease. Further study is needed to consolidate the evidence that regular dental scaling is effective in preventing tooth loss.

Keywords: Cohort studies, community dentistry, dental scaling, preventive dentistry, tooth loss

How to cite this article:
Lee GY, Koh SB, Kim NH. Regular dental scaling associated with decreased tooth loss in the middle-aged and elderly in Korea: A 3-year prospective longitudinal study. Indian J Dent Res 2019;30:231-7

How to cite this URL:
Lee GY, Koh SB, Kim NH. Regular dental scaling associated with decreased tooth loss in the middle-aged and elderly in Korea: A 3-year prospective longitudinal study. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Jul 18];30:231-7. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2019/30/2/231/259229

   Introduction Top


Periodontal disease is one of the most common oral health problems among elderly individuals worldwide. Apart from its contribution to the quality of life in the elderly population, oral health also influences their daily activities and social interactions.[1] The final result of oral disease is tooth loss. Tooth loss in older individuals results in discomfort during mastication and adversely affects social interactions by impairing the pronunciation of words.[2] In particular, tooth loss can impair physical and cognitive function.[3] Further, loss of teeth may result in general debilitation and illness, leading to poor quality of life and increasing morbidity and mortality.[1],[4],[5]

Dental prostheses, such as dentures and implants, prevent malnutrition by restoring masticatory function and significantly improve the quality of life of affected patients.[6] However, prostheses provide inferior masticatory function compared with natural teeth; therefore, the quality of life is comparatively worse in patients with dental prostheses than in those with natural dentition.[7],[8] Therefore, the prevention of tooth loss is critically important.[9]

The paradigm of health care has changed to focus on prevention rather than treatment.[10] In this regard, it is important to characterize the associated risk factors to establish appropriate disease prevention strategies. An understanding of this association will provide a much-needed foundation for encouraging preventive oral health care and clearly demonstrate the importance of preventive oral healthcare policy implications.

However, elderly patients typically prioritize their general health and other life-threatening illnesses and pay relatively less attention to their oral health. Furthermore, among elderly patients, the use of preventive oral health care such as regular dental scaling, dental check-up, and fluoride application is lower compared with that of major dental treatment procedures.[11]

Recently, the national health insurance benefits in Korea have been expanded to provide universal coverage to all residents in an effort to reduce the financial burden of oral disease. Particularly, preventive dental care including dental scaling[12] to prevent periodontal disease, as well as items for restoration of oral function such as dentures[13] and implants[14] are now considered national health insurance benefit items, making them easily accessible and decreasing oral health disparity associated with socioeconomic status.

Dental scaling, which is instrumentation of the crown or root surface to eliminate calculus, dental biofilm, and stains, is used as preventive dental care for clients with healthy gingiva or gingivitis.[15],[16],[17] Dental professionals recommend clients receive dental scaling regularly.[18] Removing dental plaque and calculus deposits may help reduce gingival bleeding and inflammation, thereby reducing gum disease, and ultimately, tooth loss. It has been shown that supportive periodontal therapy after active periodontal treatment is effective at preventing tooth loss in patients with periodontal diseases.[19],[20],[21] Although previous studies have shown that regular dental scaling can prevent atrial fibrillation[22] and cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction and stroke,[23] it still remains unclear whether receiving regular dental scaling for gingival health can prevent tooth loss.[24] Since the causal relationship between preventative dental scaling and tooth loss remains to be elucidated, it is not known whether it is advisable to recommend regular dental scaling to prevent tooth loss in middle-aged and elderly individuals.

Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the relationship between regular dental scaling and tooth loss by conducting a 3-year prospective longitudinal study of middle-aged and elderly individuals in Korea.


   Methods Top


Study design and subjects

The study design was a 3-year prospective longitudinal study using data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population (KOGES-ARIRANG). The KOGES-ARIRANG was a community-based prospective cohort study conducted by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. For baseline recruitment, the KOGES-ARIRANG study invited all adults aged 40 years and older who resided in rural Wonju in South Korea to participate. Eligible participants were asked to volunteer through on-site invitation, mailed letters, telephone calls, media campaign, or community leader-mediated conferences.[25]

In this study, inclusion criteria were those who were 40–75 years of age in the baseline year and those who participated in oral examinations and face-to-face interview in both baseline year and follow year. Exclusion criteria were those who did not have a tooth in the baseline year (N = 35). The analysis was performed with the exception of data that did not meet the reliability criterion (N = 296) and outlier data from which more than nine teeth were extracted during the three years (N = 11). The final sample for the study was a 557-person (219 men and 338 women) cohort group [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Selection of study population

Click here to view


The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Yonsei Wonju Christian Hospital in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki (CR105024-026). All participants provided written informed consent.

All participants underwent an oral examination to count the number of teeth by well-trained dental hygienists. The frequency of dental scaling, oral examinations and dental visits, oral health behavior, and the sociodemographic characteristics were determined based on face-to-face interview.

To test reliability, 20% of the participants were randomly selected 2–4 weeks after the survey and interviewed using the same questions to evaluate test–retest reliability; the kappa value was 0.967.

Variables

The main outcome variable of this study was defined as the loss of more than one tooth occurring during the 3-year period after baseline. Tooth loss was measured by subtracting the number of teeth in the follow year from the number of teeth in the baseline year. The main independent variable was the frequency of dental scaling within 3 years. The covariate variables were frequency of oral examinations and dental visits, oral health behavior, and sociodemographic variables.

The frequency of dental scaling was determined from the responses to the question, “If you visited a dental clinic within the last 3 years, what services have you received?” The subjects were provided with the following list: oral examination (only an oral examination, no other treatment, or preventive care); dental scaling; other dental treatments (such as, periodontal, restorative, endodontic, or prosthetic treatment, or dental implantation); and “not sure.” If the subjects answered, “dental scaling,” this study considered that the subjects received dental scaling.

Oral health behaviors included daily tooth brushing and use of dental floss or an interdental brush. Sociodemographic variables included age, sex, educational level, marital status, and cohabitation status.

Accumulation variables were used to estimate the relationship between tooth loss and the participants' independent and covariate variables because these variables can change easily.[26] These included the frequency of dental scaling, oral examinations, and dental visits; oral health behavior; and the marital and cohabitation status.

The dental scaling variable was classified as “Regular,” “Irregular,” or “Never.” For these variables, a “Regular” rating was assigned to subjects who received dental scaling in both the baseline and follow-up years. An “Irregular” rating was assigned to subjects who received dental scaling in the baseline year, but not in the follow-up year, or vice-versa. A “Never” rating was assigned to subjects who did not receive dental scaling in either the baseline or follow-up years. The dental visit and oral examination variables were classified in the same manner as the dental scaling variable.

The oral health behavior variables were classified as “Good,” “Moderate,” and “Poor.” For these variables, a “Good” rating was assigned to subjects who brushed their teeth more than twice per day and used dental floss or an interdental brush. A “Moderate” rating was assigned to subjects who met the conditions for a “Good” rating in 1 year, but a “Poor” rating in the other year (e.g., brushed their teeth more than twice a day during the baseline year, but less than once per day during the follow-up year, or vice-versa). A “Poor” rating was assigned to subjects who did not meet these conditions in both the baseline and follow-up years.

The marital and cohabitation status variables were classified in the same manner as the other variables.

Statistical analysis

A case-crossover analysis was performed to determine differences in the distribution of tooth loss associated with the independent and covariate variables. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk of the independent variable for loss of more than one tooth and risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A crude model and adjusted model were used to identify independent and covariate variables associated with tooth loss. Using the crude model, the magnitude of the effect of each independent and covariate variable on tooth loss was identified. An adjusted model was used to determine the effects of regular dental scaling on tooth loss after adjusting for covariate variables. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 20.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), and a P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


   Results Top


Participant characteristics

Of the 557 participants, 263 (47.2%) experienced tooth loss during the 3-year follow-up period. The mean and standard deviation of lost teeth per patient was 1.54 ± 2.53. The range of lost teeth was 0–19. With regard to dental scaling, 81 participants (14.5%) underwent regular dental scaling and 291 (52.2%) did not receive any dental scaling in both the baseline and follow-up years. Thirty-one participants (5.6%) had regular oral examinations and 301 (54.0%) had regular dental visits. With regard to the surveyed oral health behaviors, 463 participants (83.1%) consistently brushed their teeth at least twice daily and 136 (24.4%) maintained the use of dental floss or an interdental brush [Table 1].
Table 1: Distribution of independent variables at the baseline and follow-up year

Click here to view


Differences in tooth loss according to regular dental scaling and covariates

During the follow-up period, tooth loss was higher in participants that did not receive dental scaling than in those who received dental scaling regularly [P < 0.05; [Table 2]. In addition, tooth loss was higher in participants with negative oral behavior than in those who consistently practiced daily tooth brushing and use of oral hygiene devices [P < 0.05; [Table 2]. However, there was no significant difference among participants stratified by oral examination and dental visits.
Table 2: Differences in tooth loss according to covariates and independent variables after follow-up 3 years

Click here to view


Tooth loss occurred more in men than in women (P < 0.05); a loss of ≥1 tooth occurred in 115 men (52.5%) and 148 women (43.8%). Tooth loss increased with age (P < 0.001); 36 participants (69.2%) aged ≥70 years lost teeth, compared with 30 participants (31.6%) aged 40–49 years.

Tooth loss was also more frequent in individuals with a lower education level (P < 0.001); 113 participants (59.5%) with tooth loss had an elementary school education or less, while 98 (37.0%) had a high school education or more. There was no significant difference in tooth loss among participants stratified by marital and cohabitation status over the 3-year study period.

Logistic regression analysis for risk factors of tooth loss

Logistic regression analysis revealed frequency of dental scaling and dental visits, age, and education level as significant predictors of tooth loss in the adjusted model. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, oral health behavior, oral examination, and dental visits as covariate variables, we found that the incidence of tooth loss was 1.87 (CI: 1.03–3.38) higher in participants who did not receive scaling during the 3-year period than in those who received scaling regularly [Table 3].
Table 3: Logistic regression analysis of factors affecting tooth loss according to independent variable

Click here to view


The results showed that the risk ratio for tooth loss in participants aged 60–69 and ≥70 years was 2.57 (CI: 1.45–4.57) and 2.96 (CI: 1.32–6.61), respectively, while that in participants with an elementary school or lower education was 1.76 (CI: 1.10–2.81) times higher than that observed in participants with higher education [Table 3].


   Discussion Top


Dental plaque control is considered a positive oral health behavior for the maintenance of good oral health. Oral health professionals recommend regular dental scaling to prevent periodontal disease, a major cause of tooth loss.[18] Supportive periodontal therapy such as dental scaling after active periodontal therapy such as surgery is effective in preventing periodontal disease and tooth loss.[20] However, it remains unknown whether oral health behaviors such as dental scaling without surgical periodontal therapy are effective in preventing tooth loss in the general population. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether regular dental scaling can prevent tooth loss by using 3-year follow-up data from a cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals in Korea.

Tooth loss was 1.87 times higher in participants who did not undergo scaling within the 3-year period than in those who consistently underwent scaling after adjusting for the frequency of oral examinations and dental visits, oral health behavior, and sociodemographic characteristics such as sex, age, education level, and marital and cohabitation status. Meanwhile, the participants who visited a dental clinic lost significantly more teeth than those who did not. However, there was no significant association between tooth loss and the frequency of tooth brushing, use of oral hygiene devices, or oral examinations.

Why did participants who visited dental clinics lose more teeth than participants who did not? After middle age, most dental visits are focused on prosthetic treatment and tooth extraction due to periodontal disease.[27] The participants of this study were middle-aged or elderly individuals and presumably visited a dental clinic for prosthetic treatment or tooth extraction. Dental care utilization has a strong association with oral health outcomes, such as the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth.[21] However, the causal relationship between dental visits and tooth loss is unclear, because the frequency of dental visits depends on dental needs and demands.[28] This point should be evaluated and discussed in future longitudinal cohort studies.

The findings of our study, which is not undergoing regular dental scaling, are associated with increased tooth loss and support the results of previous studies. Although the need and demand for dental scaling is reportedly associated with socioeconomic factors — such as low education levels, low income, employment as a service and sales worker, and employment as a manual worker[29] — after adjustment for sociodemographics in this study, it was evident that regular dental scaling is associated with a lower incidence of tooth loss. This finding is similar to that of previous studies showing that supportive periodontal care after surgical periodontal therapy can prevent tooth loss.[20],[21],[30] This result suggests that scaling, which is known as a method of preventing periodontal disease, is directly related to tooth loss, since tooth loss is more frequently caused by periodontal disease than by dental caries or trauma in the middle-aged people.[31]

Nonsurgical periodontal therapy includes dental biofilm removal and control, supragingival and subgingival scaling, root planing, and adjunctive treatments such as chemotherapy; the basic objective is the restoration of periodontal health. Dental scaling is different from nonsurgical periodontal therapy.[16] In other words, dental scaling is a preventive, rather than curative, approach to periodontal disease and tooth loss.

Since 2013, dental scaling has been covered by the national health insurance in Korea in an effort to decrease the burden of oral disease and oral health disparity in association with socioeconomic status. This national health insurance policy has increased dental care utilization in adults,[12] who are more likely to demand dental treatment beyond dental scaling. With the improved health care coverage, economic barriers could be lowered and professional oral care could be extended to a wider population. Clear evidence of the effects of dental scaling on tooth loss could have very important healthcare policy implications.[32]

This study had notable limitations. First, it was conducted using face-to-face interviews, which may have led to interviewer bias. However, the validity of reported oral health behaviors is considered to be better compared with that of clinical assessments in community-based samples.[33] Second, participants answered questions on the basis of their memory; therefore, recall bias cannot be ruled out.[34] Third, this study only considered sociodemographic and oral health behavior, and other known risk factors for tooth loss, including periodontal disease at baseline year; systemic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome; and general health and lifestyle factors, such as smoking and drinking, were not considered. Further studies with long-term follow-up periods should be required to examine how the prevalence and management of chronic diseases, particularly during middle age, and changes in health practices contribute to tooth loss in old age.

Nevertheless, this study showed the potential causal relationship between tooth loss and regular dental scaling for preventing oral disease. In further studies, more concrete evidence of the clinical outcomes of regular dental scaling for preventing periodontal disease, including the impact on tooth loss, could have important implications for the utility and effect of universal national insurance coverage.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Rekhi A, Marya CM, Oberoi SS, Nagpal R, Dhingra C, Kataria S, et al. Periodontal status and oral health-related quality of life in elderly residents of aged care homes in Delhi. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016;16:474-80.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Kim HY, Jang MS, Chung CP, Paik DI, Park YD, Patton LL, et al. Chewing function impacts oral health-related quality of life among institutionalized and community-dwelling Korean elders. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2009;37:468-76.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Tsakos G, Watt RG, Rouxel PL, de Oliveira C, Demakakos P. Tooth loss associated with physical and cognitive decline in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2015;63:91-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Batista MJ, Lawrence HP, de Sousa Mda L. Impact of tooth loss related to number and position on oral health quality of life among adults. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2014;12:165.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Fukai K, Takiguchi T, Ando Y, Aoyama H, Miyakawa Y, Ito G, et al. Functional tooth number and 15-year mortality in a cohort of community-residing older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2007;7:341-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Petricevic N, Celebic A, Rener-Sitar K. A 3-year longitudinal study of quality-of-life outcomes of elderly patients with implant- and tooth-supported fixed partial dentures in posterior dental regions. Gerodontology 2012;29:e956-63.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Visscher CM, Lobbezoo F, Schuller AA. Dental status and oral health-related quality of life. A population-based study. J Oral Rehabil 2014;41:416-22.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Higaki N, Goto T, Ishida Y, Watanabe M, Tomotake Y, Ichikawa T, et al. Do sensation differences exist between dental implants and natural teeth?: A meta-analysis. Clin Oral Implants Res 2014;25:1307-10.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
George B, John J, Saravanan S, Arumugham IM. Prevalence of permanent tooth loss among children and adults in a suburban area of Chennai. Indian J Dent Res 2011;22:364.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
10.
Glick M, Monteiro da Silva O, Seeberger GK, Xu T, Pucca G, Williams DM, et al. FDI vision 2020: Shaping the future of oral health. Int Dent J 2012;62:278-91.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Manski RJ, Hyde JS, Chen H, Moeller JF. Differences among older adults in the types of dental services used in the United States. Inquiry 2016;53. pii: 0046958016652523.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Jang YE, Kim CB, Kim NH. Utilization of preventive dental services before and after health insurance covered dental scaling in Korea. Asia Pac J Public Health 2017;29:70-80.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Han SY, Kim CS. Does denture-wearing status in edentulous South Korean elderly persons affect their nutritional intakes? Gerodontology 2016;33:169-76.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Song J, Shin S, Yoon J, Choi N. Considerations of implant treatment in elderly patient: Case report and literature reviews. Clin Oral Implants Res 2016;27 Suppl 13:255.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Darby ML, Walsh M. Dental Hygiene Theory and Practice. 4th ed. Missouri: Saunders and Elsevier; 2015.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Cheng CC, Li CY, Hu YJ, Shen HC, Huang SM. Effects of tooth scaling reminders for dental outpatients. J Telemed Telecare 2013;19:184-9.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Sanz M, Bäumer A, Buduneli N, Dommisch H, Farina R, Kononen E, et al. Effect of professional mechanical plaque removal on secondary prevention of periodontitis and the complications of gingival and periodontal preventive measures: Consensus report of group 4 of the 11th European workshop on periodontology on effective prevention of periodontal and peri-implant diseases. J Clin Periodontol 2015;42 Suppl 16:S214-20.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Public Health England, Department of Health. Delivering Better Oral Health: An Evidence-Based Toolkit for Prevention. London, England: Public Health England; 2017.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Díaz-Faes L, Guerrero A, Magán-Fernández A, Bravo M, Mesa F. Tooth loss and alveolar bone crest loss during supportive periodontal therapy in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis: Retrospective study with follow-up of 8 to 15 years. J Clin Periodontol 2016;43:1109-15.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Kim SY, Lee JK, Chang BS, Um HS. Effect of supportive periodontal therapy on the prevention of tooth loss in Korean adults. J Periodontal Implant Sci 2014;44:65-70.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Ng MC, Ong MM, Lim LP, Koh CG, Chan YH. Tooth loss in compliant and non-compliant periodontally treated patients: 7 years after active periodontal therapy. J Clin Periodontol 2011;38:499-508.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Chen SJ, Liu CJ, Chao TF, Wang KL, Chen TJ, Chou P, et al. Dental scaling and atrial fibrillation: A nationwide cohort study. Int J Cardiol 2013;168:2300-3.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Chen ZY, Chiang CH, Huang CC, Chung CM, Chan WL, Huang PH, et al. The association of tooth scaling and decreased cardiovascular disease: A nationwide population-based study. Am J Med 2012;125:568-75.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Worthington HV, Clarkson JE, Bryan G, Beirne PV. Routine scale and polish for periodontal health in adults. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 2013;11. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004625.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Kim Y, Han BG; KoGES Group. Cohort profile: The Korean genome and epidemiology study (KoGES) consortium. Int J Epidemiol 2017;46:e20.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Šstrøm AN, Ekback G, Lie SA, Ordell S. Life-course social influences on tooth loss and oral attitudes among older people: Evidence from a prospective cohort study. Eur J Oral Sci 2015;123:30-8.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Vargas CM, Dye BA, Hayes K. Oral health care utilization by US rural residents, national health interview survey 1999. J Public Health Dent 2003;63:150-7.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Morishita S, Watanabe Y, Ohara Y, Edahiro A, Sato E, Suga T, et al. Factors associated with older adults' need for oral hygiene management by dental professionals. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016;16:956-62.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Lee MY, Chang SJ, Kim CB, Chung WG, Choi EM, Kim NH, et al. Community periodontal treatment needs in South Korea. Int J Dent Hyg 2015;13:254-60.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Roman-Torres CV, Neto JS, Souza MA, Schwartz-Filho HO, Brandt WC, Diniz RE, et al. An evaluation of non-surgical periodontal therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Open Dent J 2015;9:150-3.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Al-Shammari KF, Al-Khabbaz AK, Al-Ansari JM, Neiva R, Wang HL. Risk indicators for tooth loss due to periodontal disease. J Periodontol 2005;76:1910-8.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Maki Y. Oral health care systems for elderly in Asia and Japan. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2004;4 Suppl 1:S158-9.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Pitiphat W, Garcia RI, Douglass CW, Joshipura KJ. Validation of self-reported oral health measures. J Public Health Dent 2002;62:122-8.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Ossher L, Flegal KE, Lustig C. Everyday memory errors in older adults. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 2013;20:220-42.  Back to cited text no. 34
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Prof. Nam Hee Kim
20 Ilsan-Ro, Wonju Gangwondo 26426
Korea
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_566_17

Rights and Permissions


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


    Abstract
   Introduction
   Methods
   Results
   Discussion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed117    
    Printed2    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded18    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal