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Table of Contents   
REVIEW ARTICLE  
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 808-811
Taurine: A potential mediator for periodontal therapy


1 Department of Periodontics, Desh Bhagat Dental College And Hospital, Mandi Gobindgarh, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India
2 Department of Conservative Dentistry And Endodontics, Baba Jaswant Singh Dental College, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
3 Private Practice, Ferozpur, India
4 Private Practice, Shimla, India

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Date of Web Publication24-Dec-2018
 

   Abstract 

Taurine or 2-aminoethanesulfonic has many fundamental biological roles such as conjugation of bile acids, antioxidation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, and modulation of calcium signaling. It is essential for cardiovascular function and development and function of the skeletal muscle, the retina, and the central nervous system. Functions of taurine include osmoregulation; membrane stabilization; modulation of calcium levels; and antioxidation, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antilipid activities. Taurine was first discovered as a component of ox (Bos taurus, from which its name is derived) bile in 1827; it had taken over a century before insights into its physiological functions were made. The present review throws light on the multifactorial properties of taurine and its potential to be used in periodontal therapy.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory, antilipid action, antioxidant, periodontitis, taurine

How to cite this article:
Chaudhry S, Tandon B, Gupta A, Gupta S. Taurine: A potential mediator for periodontal therapy. Indian J Dent Res 2018;29:808-11

How to cite this URL:
Chaudhry S, Tandon B, Gupta A, Gupta S. Taurine: A potential mediator for periodontal therapy. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 May 27];29:808-11. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2018/29/6/808/248233

   Introduction Top


Taurine, or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an organic acid which is not utilized in protein synthesis, but rather is found free or in simple peptides. It is a major constituent of bile and can be found in the large intestine and accounts for approximately 0.1% of total human body weight. Taurine has many fundamental biological roles such as conjugation of bile acids, antioxidation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, and modulation of calcium signaling. It is essential for cardiovascular function and development and function of the skeletal muscle, the retina, and the central nervous system (CNS). While taurine is sometimes called an amino acid and, indeed, is an acid containing an amino group, it is not an amino acid in the usual biochemical meaning of the term, which refers to compounds containing both an amino and a carboxyl group.[1] Taurine plays an important physiological and pathological role in various organs and tissue components. These include osmoregulation; membrane stabilization; modulation of calcium levels; and antioxidation, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antilipid activities.[2],[3],[4] The antioxidant effects of taurine have been found to affect cell proliferation, inflammation, and collagenosis.[5] Topical formulation containing taurine with various concentrations enhances wound healing on the skin,[5] gingiva,[6] maxillary mucosa,[7] and periodontal tissue.[8] Taurine is necessary for normal cell differentiation and immune maturation.[3],[9] Antioxidant and antiapoptosis effects of taurine improve wound healing, and it also prevents damage by oxidation on incisional skin wounds.[10]


   Biochemistry and Metabolism Top


Taurine molecule contains a sulfonic acid group, rather than the carboxylic acid moiety found in other amino acids [Figure 1]. Unlike true amino acids, taurine is not incorporated into proteins and is one of the most abundant free amino acids in many tissues, including skeletal and cardiac muscle, and the brain.[3] In the body, taurine is synthesized from the essential amino acid methionine and its related nonessential amino acid cysteine. There are three known pathways for the synthesis of taurine from cysteine. All three pathways require pyridoxal-5-phosphate, the active coenzyme form of Vitamin B6, as a cofactor. A Vitamin B6 deficiency has been shown to impair taurine synthesis.[11] The activity of cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, the enzyme which converts both cysteine sulfinic acid into hypotaurine and cysteic acid into taurine, is thought to reflect the capacity for taurine synthesis.[12]
Figure 1: Structure of Taurine

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   Historical Background Top


Taurine was first discovered as a component of ox (Bos taurus, from which its name is derived) bile in 1827; it had taken over a century before insights into its physiological functions were made. Early concepts of its physiological functions were provided in a study by Curtis and Watkins.[13] They demonstrated that taurine could be a neurotransmitter which was later supported by Davison and Kaczmarek.[14] Hayes et al. reported that cats fed a taurine-deficient diet developed central retinal degeneration. This report emphasized that taurine was essential in species that are unable to synthesize it, such as cats.[15]


   Properties Top


Antioxidant property

The useful effects of taurine as an antioxidant in biological systems have been attributed to its ability to stabilize biomembranes, to scavenge ROS, and to decrease the peroxidation of unsaturated membrane lipids.[16]. In addition, taurine scavenges HOCl produced by the activation of granulocytes, forming taurine chloramine, and thus may act as an indirect antioxidant.[17] Taurine has also been found to exert a protective role against the oxidative stress in the management of patients with chronic periodontitis.[18]

Anti-inflammatory property

Locally administered taurolidine (TRD) shows strong anti-inflammatory properties. In vitro, the effect of TRD and HOCl-treated TRD on peritoneal macrophages was compared with that of taurine-N-monochloramine (TauCl). TRD inhibits vascular permeability increased by inflammatory stimuli; it also significantly attenuates the influx of neutrophils into the peritoneal cavity, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 6 [IL-6]) by peritoneal exudate cells.[19]

Anti-apoptotic property

Taurine has positive effects on bone metabolism. Taurine has been found to inhibit serum deprivation-induced osteoblast apoptosis via the taurine transporter (TAUT)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. In this study, the effect of taurine on apoptosis of mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells was evaluated and a reduction of MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis induced by serum deprivation was observed.[20]


   Functions of Taurine Top


Taurine as host modulatory agent

HOCl and TauCl which are the end products of the neutrophilic respiratory burst have been found to modulate the host inflammatory response by inhibiting the production of IL-6, prostaglandins, and other pro-inflammatory substances. Thus, HOCl and TauCl, playing a crucial role in the periodontal inflammatory process, offer opportunities for the development of novel host modulation therapies for the treatment of periodontitis.[21]

Taurine in exercise

Taurine has been found to have a positive effect on the left ventricular function due to its regulatory role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis via its effect on voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels by the regulation of Na+ channels and via Na–Ca exchange and Na(+)-taurine cotransport.[22],[23] Hence, taurine modulates intracellular Ca2+ levels. Combined supplementation with branched-chain amino acid and taurine has been found to be a useful strategy for attenuating delayed onset muscle soreness and muscle damage.[24]

Taurine in neuroprotection

Taurine release from different CNS cells is observed under pathophysiological conditions such as hypoosmotic stress, ischemia, or acute hyperammonemia, where its interaction with the receptors for inhibitory neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid and glycine plays a neuroprotective role.[25]

Effect of taurine on osteoclastogenesis

Taurine has been found to inhibit osteoclastogenesis in the coculture of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells through the TAUT. Thus, taurine has been found to play a direct role in bone homeostasis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.[26]

Role of taurine in modulation of Ca2+ levels

The effects of taurine and homocysteine on Ca2+ uptake, Ca2+-ATPase activity, and generation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anions in vitro in isolated rat myocardial mitochondria were studied. It was found that taurine (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) promoted Ca2+ uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, as well as concentration dependently reducing the homocysteine (0.5 mmol/L)-induced inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Taurine was also found to have a diphasic action on mitochondrial Ca2+-ATPase activity.[27]

Clinical application in periodontics

It has been demonstrated that taurine can protect the heart from neutrophil-induced reperfusion injury and oxidative stress. Because the respiratory burst activity of neutrophils is also significantly reduced in the presence of taurine, perhaps taurine's protective effect is mediated by its antioxidative properties.[26]

A study by Gültekin et al. in 2012[10] concluded that topical application of 1% taurine on the two basement membrane proteins (laminin 5 and type IV collagen expressions) of regenerating oral gingival epithelium demonstrated histologic evidence of rapid reepithelization of human gingival wounds.

In a study by Sree and Sethupathy in 2014,[18] oxidative stress, the antioxidant status present in the gingival tissue and plasma of patients with chronic periodontitis and antioxidant property of taurine, was evaluated. It was concluded that taurine seems to improve the antioxidant status of chronic periodontitis patients by influencing the levels of lipid peroxidation products Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione.


   Safety and Toxicity Top


Not much is known about the possible effects of taurine overdose, or if an overdose is even possible. Because the kidneys remove any excess taurine that is consumed, it may be difficult to take too much taurine. The Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed estimates the observed safe level in humans to be 6 g/person/day (corresponding to 100 mg/kg body weight per day). In the absence of data, taurine is considered to be a skin and eye irritant and skin sensitizer and to be hazardous if inhaled.[28]

There are no conflicts of interest.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Birdsall TC. Therapeutic applications of taurine. Altern Med Rev 1998;3:128-36.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Giriş M, Depboylu B, Doğru-Abbasoğlu S, Erbil Y, Olgaç V, Aliş H, et al. Effect of taurine on oxidative stress and apoptosis-related protein expression in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis. Clin Exp Immunol 2008;152:102-10.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Huxtable RJ. Physiological actions of taurine. Physiol Rev 1992;72:101-63.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Dinçer S, Babül A, Erdoğan D, Ozoğul C, Dinçer SL. Effect of taurine on wound healing. Amino Acids 1996;10:59-71.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Değim Z, Celebi N, Sayan H, Babül A, Erdoğan D, Take G, et al. An investigation on skin wound healing in mice with a taurine-chitosan gel formulation. Amino Acids 2002;22:187-98.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Sofuoglu AA. The Investigation of the Effect of Taurine on Early Wound Healing. Ankara, Turkey: Gazi University; 2005. p. 98.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Ozmeriç N, Ozcan G, Haytaç CM, Alaaddinoğlu EE, Sargon MF, Senel S, et al. Chitosan film enriched with an antioxidant agent, taurine, in fenestration defects. J Biomed Mater Res 2000;51:500-3.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Sofuoglu A, Sofuoglu IP, Uc D, Tozum TF, Kılınc T, Taner L. Evaluation of initial periodontal treatment with taurine gel application in periodontally diseased patients. J Hacettepe Fac Dent 2007;31:9-15.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Pasantes-Morales H, Quesada O, Morán J. Taurine: An osmolyte in mammalian tissues. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998;442:209-17.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Gültekin SE, Sengüven B, Sofuoğlu A, Taner L, Koch M. Effect of the topical use of the antioxidant taurine on the two basement membrane proteins of regenerating oral gingival epithelium. J Periodontol 2012;83:127-34.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Shin HK, Linkswiler HM. Tryptophan and methionine metabolism of adult females as affected by Vitamin B-6 deficiency. J Nutr 1974;104:1348-55.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Hayes KC. Taurine requirement in primates. Nutr Rev 1985;43:65-70.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Curtis DR, Watkins JC. The pharmacology of amino acids related to gamma-aminobutyric acid. Pharmacol Rev 1965;17:347-91.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Davison AN, Kaczmarek LK. Taurine – A possible neurotransmitter? Nature 1971;234:107-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Hayes KC, Carey RE, Schmidt SY. Retinal degeneration associated with taurine deficiency in the cat. Science 1975;188:949-51.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Nandhini AT, Thirunavukkarasu V, Ravichandran MK, Anuradha CV. Effect of taurine on biomarkers of oxidative stress in tissues of fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats. Singapore Med J 2005;46:82-7.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Franconi F, Loizzo A, Ghirlanda G, Seghieri G. Taurine supplementation and diabetes mellitus. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2006;9:32-6.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Sree SL, Sethupathy S. Evaluation of the efficacy of taurine as an antioxidant in the management of patients with chronic periodontitis. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2014;11:228-33.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Marcinkiewicz J, Kurnyta M, Biedroń R, Bobek M, Kontny E, Maśliński W, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of taurine derivatives (taurine chloramine, taurine bromamine, and taurolidine) are mediated by different mechanisms. Adv Exp Med Biol 2006;583:481-92.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Zhang LY, Zhou YY, Chen F, Wang B, Li J, Deng YW, et al. Taurine inhibits serum deprivation-induced osteoblast apoptosis via the taurine transporter/ERK signaling pathway. Braz J Med Biol Res 2011;44:618-23.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Mainnemare A, Mégarbane B, Soueidan A, Daniel A, Chapple IL. Hypochlorous acid and taurine-N-monochloramine in periodontal diseases. J Dent Res 2004;83:823-31.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Satoh H, Sperelakis N. Review of some actions of taurine on ion channels of cardiac muscle cells and others. Gen Pharmacol 1998;30:451-63.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Soukoulis V, Dihu JB, Sole M, Anker SD, Cleland J, Fonarow GC, et al. Micronutrient deficiencies an unmet need in heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;54:1660-73.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Ra SG, Miyazaki T, Ishikura K, Nagayama H, Komine S, Nakata Y, et al. Combined effect of branched-chain amino acids and taurine supplementation on delayed onset muscle soreness and muscle damage in high-intensity eccentric exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2013;10:51.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Albrecht J, Schousboe A. Taurine interaction with neurotransmitter receptors in the CNS: An update. Neurochem Res 2005;30:1615-21.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Yuan LQ, Liu W, Cui RR, Wang D, Meng JC, Xie H, et al. Taurine inhibits osteoclastogenesis through the taurine transporter. Amino Acids 2010;39:89-99.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Chang L, Zhao J, Xu J, Jiang W, Tang CS, Qi YF, et al. Effects of taurine and homocysteine on calcium homeostasis and hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anions in rat myocardial mitochondria. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2004;31:237-43.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP). Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of taurine as a feed additive for all animal species. EFSA J 2012;10:2736.  Back to cited text no. 28
    

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Correspondence Address:
Dr. Swantika Chaudhry
Department of Periodontics, Desh Bhagat Dental College and Hospital, Mandi Gobindgarh, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab - 147 301
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_123_17

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    Abstract
   Introduction
    Biochemistry and...
    Historical Backg...
   Properties
   Functions of Taurine
   Safety and Toxicity
    References
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