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Table of Contents   
ABSTRACTS  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 209-237
IADR-APR research symposium 2017



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Date of Web Publication12-Jun-2017
 

How to cite this article:
. IADR-APR research symposium 2017. Indian J Dent Res 2017;28:209-37

How to cite this URL:
. IADR-APR research symposium 2017. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Sep 25];28:209-37. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2017/28/2/209/207802



   Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India Top


As part of the International Association of Dental Research –Asia Pacific region initiative, the Indian Division of the IADR, Saveetha Dental College, under the guidance of IADR- APR President, Executive Editor, IJDR, Secretary General, IADR-Indian Division, Prof. S. M. Balaji, had organized a symposium on 25th February 2017 at MM Convention Centre, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India. The theme of the symposium was 'Dental research promotion and priorities in the Asia Pacific region'. It covered three thrust areas namely dental research as a career option, ethical concepts - adaptations for dental research and developing infrastructure for a National Institute of Dental And Craniofacial Research. The following is a compilation of abstracts of the scientific deliberations.


   Antimicrobial Efficacy of Herbal, Homeopathic and Conventional Dentifrices against Oral Microflora: An In vitro Study Top


Pradeep Kumar R

Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: drrpradeepkumar@yahoo.co.in

Objective: To assess the antimicrobial efficacy of Herbal dentifrices on Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: In-vitro study. Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli were the study organisms. The dentrifrices were divided into Group A: DaburMeswak, Group B: Gum Forte Gel, Group B: Colgate Total. The media used were Mutans media, Mueller Hilton agar and Sabouraud Dextrose agar media respectively for each microorganism. The discs were placed equidistant to each other following which these plates were incubated for 24 hours. The diameters of the zones of inhibited growth were measured. Results and Conclusion: Results from this study have shown that toothpaste formulation containing Homeopathic and natural antimicrobial agents were more effective in controlling the oral microflora compared to toothpastes containing synthetic antimicrobial agents like triclosan.


   Comparison of Phenotype and Differentiation Marker Gene Expression Profiles in Human Dental Pulp and Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Top


Deepa Ponnaiyan

Department of Periodontics, SRM Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: deepa_ponnaiyan@yahoo.co.in

Objective: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been shown to share a similar pattern of protein expression with BMMSCs in vitro. However, differences have been noted between DPSCs and BMMSCs. This study focuses on variation in expression of stem cell and differentiation markers between DPSCs and BMMSCs. Materials and Methods: The two stem cells were isolated and compared for clonogenic potential, growth characteristics, multipotency, and stem cell marker expression. Specifically, the fatty acid binding protein 4, perilipin, alkaline phosphatase and osteonectic gene expression was analyzed by RT –PCR. Results and Conclusion: Both MSCs were similar in morphology and phenotype except for CD105. Proliferation rate of DPSCs was faster than BMMSCs. DPSCs appeared less able to differentiate into adipogenic lineage, although more able to differentiate into osteogenic lineage. Data from the present study indicate how DPSCs are different from BMMSCs. DPSCs are a novel population of MSCs as observed by their unique expression of differentiation and lineage specific genes.


   Applying Cognition in Education: A Novel Approach Top


Vishnu Priya V

Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: drvishnupriyav@gmail.com

Objective: To improve the cognitive skills by analysing the perceptions of undergraduate students on journal discussion. To evaluate how effective is the journal discussion for the students. Materials and Methods: 100 BDS students were included in this study. Students were exposed to trading lectures and flipped sessions in small groups. Each group was given an article and asked to participate in journal discussion session. A questionnaire was framed to evaluate the effectiveness of journal discussion for the students. The questionnaire was administered to the students through a survey monkey link. Results and Conclusion: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Journal discussion is an effective way of teaching and learning. Students have a good team effort to learn the newer concepts. Students was found to have a boost in their confidence level which is very much needed in the current scenario.


   Knowledge, Attitude and Perception towards Organic Based Cosmetic Formulation in the Multicultural, Civilised Society: A Survey Top


Gayathri R, Vishnu Priya V

Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: gayathri.jaisai@gmail.com

Objective: To survey the awareness among the people on the usage of natural cosmetics products. Materials and Methods: A survey based study where the study group consisted of 129 females and 70 males of all age group. Survey questionnaire was prepared and administered through the link created in survey planet. Results and Conclusion: A detailed statistical analysis indicates that the every day usage of natural cosmetic hasn't gained momentum yet when compared to synthetic cosmetics.


   “The Mental Loop” Randomized Split Mouth Clinical Trial Top


James D Raj, Sindhu Ramesh

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: jamesdraj@gmail.com

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a customized anesthetic mental loop technique (MLT) against the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block (CST) in patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular first molars. Materials and Methods: 30 patients were recruited who had bilateral irreversible pulpitis in mandibular first molars. The study was approved by the Institutional review board and ethical committee. Pilot study (split mouth) was conducted on 15 patients. Based on the results of pilot study, sample size was calculated and patients were randomly allotted to two groups (N = 60). Group 1, (CST) (n = 30) and Group 2, (MLT) (n = 30) was used to provide anaesthesia. Pain of Needle administration and Anesthetic success were recorded. Results and Conclusion: Success of anesthesia for CST was 66.7% as compared to that of MLT at 76.7%. New technique can be used as an adjunct when IANB fails.


   Comparative Evaluation of the Accuracy of Two Electronic Apex Locators and Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Determining the Working Length in Teeth with Simulated Apical Root Resorption: An In vitro Study Top


Pradeep Solite

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: pandu.pradeep@gmail.com

Objective: To compare the accuracy of working length determination of Propex Pixi (Dentsply Sirona, Swiss), Root ZX mini (J Morita, USA) electronic apex locators and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in teeth with simulated apical root resorption. Materials and Methods: 20 mandibular premolars of 22 mm height were selected and a 45 degree cut was made at the apex, Palatal wall was made shorter than the facial wall by 3 mm, Pre-op CBCT was taken, 150 micro meter slice thickness, and working length was measured. The teeth were embedded upto CEJ level in an alginate mould with a gel as an added medium. Access preparation was done. Working length was measured using Propex Pixi and Root ZX mini using vernier caliper. Noted lengths were compared. Results and Conclusion: In this present study Root ZX mini measured the tooth length with the greatest accuracy than propex pixi.


   Evaluation of Knowledge and Awareness of Hepatitis-B Infection among MBBS, Dental and Nursing Students: A Cross Sectional Study Top


Christeffi Mabel R

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Chettinad Dental College and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: christeffimabelr@yahoo.in

Objective: Health professionals are at major risk of hepatis-B. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge of hepatitis-B among medical, dental and nursing students. Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaires consisting of 19 different statement on knowledge base of hepatitis -B were given to 900 students of MBBS, BDS and Nursing, from various colleges across Tamil Nadu. Results and Conclusion: The overall knowledge among dental and medical students was significantly higher than nursing students. Nursing students are at increased risk of contracting hepatitis -B as they are most vulnerable due to their frequent contact with blood and other body fluids. So we suggest that more awareness programs must be conducted on hepatitis-B infection and prevention as a part of their curriculum so as to prevent the spread of this dreadful infectious disease.


   Clinical Performance of Computer-aided Design/Computer-aided Manufacturing Fabricated Provisional Fixed Partial Dentures Top


Murali Karthik, Padma Ariga, Deepak Nallaswamy1, Suresh Venugopalan

Department of Prosthodontics, Sree Venkateshwara Dental College, 1Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: murali2002karthik@gmail.com

Objective: To compare the clinical performance of CAD/CAM fabricated and heat cured methacrylate provisional fixed dental prosthesis (FDP). Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, ten subjects aged between 18-65 years, with bilateral missing posterior teeth (Premolars, molars) were included in the study. The abutment teeth were prepared, and provisional restorations were fabricated with CAD/CAM technology and tooth coloured heat polymerized polymethacrylate. The cemented restorations were evaluated at baseline (24 hours), 1 month and 3 months. Fracture of the restoration & Modified Ryge's criteria were used to assess the clinical performance. Results and Conclusion: The Cumulative survival rate was 96.7% for CAD/CAM provisional FDP and 83.3% for Heat polymerized PMMA provisional FDP after 3 months (p > 0.05). There were significant differences in margin adaptation, colour match, surface smoothness favouring the CADCAM group. No secondary caries was detected in both the groups. The High survival rates of CAD/CAM fabricated methacrylate provisional FDP makes them a preferred material for longterm interim restorations.


   Assessment of Pregnancy Outcome in Patients with Preeclampsia Associated with Periodontal Disease: A Molecular Diagnostic Approach Top


Swetha Tanneeru

Department of Periodontics, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India. E-mail: swethatanneeru@yahoo.com

Objective: To associate the periodontal diease as a development of preeclampsia, to assess the pregnancy outcomes in preeclamptic patients associated with periodontal disease by previous literature searched on the role of periodontal diseases in pregnancy-outcome. Materials and Methods: Evidence-based perspective studies implicated periodontal disease as a risk factor for preeclampsia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Molecular based approaches using PCR to search specific red-complex bacteria and their products which appear to trigger inflammatory events in both mother and fetus. Various studies were observed to evidence the association between periodontal diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Results and Conclusion: Molecular based approach used PCR to search specific red-complex bacteria and their products which appear to trigger inflammatory events in both mother and fetus. Interventional studies are forthcoming. Clinicians and the public should be aware of this emerging evidence and should appreciate the role of maternal oral health during pregnancy.


   Determination of Craniofacial Inclination among the Sub-ethnic Indian Population Top


Sumathi Felicita A, Shyamala Chandrasekar

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: sumifeli@hotmail.com

Objective: To establish the PCF/PM angle in subjects with normal occlusion, pleasing profile and facial harmony belonging to the local sub ethnic population in India. Materials and Methods: 120 patients, 60 males and 60 females from the local population staying in Chennai city within the age of 17 years to 28 years was selected based of certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. Cephalograms were taken in the same cephalostat machine by a single operator with the head in natural posture. The angle between the posterior cranial floor and PM vertical (PCF/PM angle) was measured. The values obtained were subjected to statistical evaluation. Results and Conclusion: PCF/PM angle did not show any sexual dimorphism. Thus, in the local Chennai population the PCF/PM angle was 38.97° ± 3.27° and 39.17°± 4.12° males and females respectively.


   Inhibitory Effect of Fragaria X Ananassa Extract on Biofilm Formation: An In vitro Study Top


Geetha RV

Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: rgeetha2010@yahoo.in

Objective: The present study is to check the anti biofilm activity of Fragaria x ananassa in invitro condition. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory action on bio film formation by Fragaria x ananassa was quantified in in vitro condition by Microtitre plate assay using crystal violet dye and measured spectrophotometrically. Results and Conclusion: The results showed that extract showed 91% activity at concentration 100 μg/ml when compared to control.


   The Effect of Fennel Seeds on pH of saliva: A Clinical Study Top


Rajkumar Manohar, Abbyramy N, Abinaya R, Akila Ganesh, Balaji SK, Dinesh CC

Department of Public Health Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: raj_manoharan@gmail.com

Objective: (i) To record the baseline pH of saliva. (ii) To record the changes in salivary pH after chewing fennel seeds. Materials and Methods: Convenience sampling method was applied and 30 subjects were selected. The salivary pH was recorded by pH salivary strips. The resting pH was measured to record the Baseline salivary pH (SP1). The subject were asked to chew fennel seeds for 5 minutes. Salivary pH was measured immediately after chewing (SP2) at 0 minutes and the experiment was repeated for 5 minutes (SP3), 10 minutes (SP4), 15 minutes (SP5) and 30 minutes (SP6). The data was gathered and statistically analysed. Results and Conclusion: There was an increase in salivary pH from baseline (SP1) to 0 mins (SP2) was found to be highly significant (p = 0.000). Chewing of fennel seeds increases the pH of saliva, thus making it as anti-cariogenic.


   Measurement of Orbital Index in South Indian Dry Skulls Top


Yuvaraj Babu K

Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: yuvarajkbabu@gmail.com

Objective: The bony orbit which lodges the visual apparatus is important not only for anatomist but also for ophthalmologists, oral & maxillofacial surgeons, neurosurgeons & forensic experts. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 67 dry adult skulls were collected and their orbital index was calculated after measuring the length and width of each orbit. Results and Conclusion: The mean orbital height was 32.42 ± 2.64 mm and the mean orbital width was 35.68 ± 3.14 mm, hence the orbital index was deduced as 91.35 mm which categorises the South Indian skull type as megasome.


   Awareness, Attitude and Obstacles in Research among Dental Professionals in Chennai: An Institutional Based Survey Top


Akila Ganesh, Janani K, Rajkumar M, Archana B 1, Balaji SK1

Departments of Public Health Dentistry, and 1Periodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: drakilgans@yahoo.co.uk

Objective: To compare the awareness, attitude and obstacles in the field of research among dental professionals. Materials and Methods: An institutional based cross sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among interns, postgraduates and faculty members of the dental profession. A sample size of 261 was determined. 15 close ended questions were validated by three experts of different specialties. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and Student's t-test were used to analyze the data. Results and Conclusion: 61.2% of study subjects were currently guiding & undertaking research projects. Lack of time and financial incentives were the most common obstacles to research. Lack of publication related knowledge was the major obstacle in all groups. Post graduates & faculty preferred recent advance based research; whereas interns preferred research based on innovative idea and results were significant.


   Bacteremia due to Antibiotic Resistant Strains of Moraxella catarrhalis after Third Molar Surgery Top


Chitra N, Mangayarkarasi V1

Department of Microbiology, Sri Venkateswara Dental College, Vels University, Chennai, 1Department of Microbiology, SRM Medical College, SRM University, Potheri, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India, E-mail: chitragsekar4@gmail.com

Objective: The aims of this research study, were to investigate the prevalence of transient bacteremia caused by Moraxella catarrhalis after third molar impactions and assess the efficacy of prophylactic administration of Amoxicillin. Materials and Methods: Sample collected: Blood. The 1st sample was collected before the impaction procedure, the second sample was collected 30 seconds after completion of the impaction procedure and the third sample was collected 15 min later. Blood samples were inoculated into the culture media bottles (Hi-media BHI broth with 5% SPS). Conventional microbiological methods for culture and sensitivity and PCR for molecular studies. Results and Conclusion: Bacteria was isolated from 37 patients of the 50 patients tested. The prevalence rate of bacteremia due to Moraxella catarrhalis was found to be 64%. Pre-medication shortly before extraction does not seem to prevent entry of Moraxella catarrhalis into the blood stream. Moraxella catarrhalis can therefore, act as a dangerous pathogen as it shows resistance to Amoxicillin.


   Efficacy of Peracetic Acid in Rapid Disinfection of Endodontic File Top


Subash S

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: drsubashsharma@gmail.com

Objective: To compare the efficacy of peracetic acid in rapid disinfection of endodntic files. Materials and Methods: Newly opened and unopened files were disinfected using 4 different disinfecting solution for 5 mins. Then they were incubated in mueller hinton broth. Colony forming units were analyzed for each group. Results and Conclusion: Peracetic acid showed better disinfection of endodontic files than sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine.


   Assessment of the Facial Gingival Biotype of Maxillary Anterior Teeth: A Clinical Study Top


Radhika Arjunkumar

Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: radhikaarjunkumar@gmail.com

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the different methods of evaluating the facial gingival biotype of maxillary anterior teeth and concluding which method was the most accurate. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the outpatient department of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India. Over a period of 3 months from February 2015 - May 2015 and included 30 patients undergoing extraction of a maxillary anterior tooth. Four methods were used to evaluate the thickness of the gingival biotype of the failing tooth: visual, periodontal probing, direct measurement using a wax calliper and trans-gingival probing using an endodontic reamer. Results and Conclusion: The results suggest that biotype assessment using an endodontic reamer for transgingival probing is a reliable and objective method for its evaluation.


   Nanorobots in Periodontics Top


Bhuvana Laxmi R, Manasa P

Department of Periodontics, Sri Venkateshwara Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: bhuvanalaxmi19@gmail.com

Nanodentistry is an emerging field with significant potential to yield new generation of clinical tools, materials and devices for oral health care. Although all the research activities for nanodentistry are at the initial stage, the results of the clinical studies have a strong potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment planning as well as tissue regenerative materials for improving esthetics in dentistry. However more investigations & trials are required for its application.


   Mouthwash: Natural versus Synthetic Top


Padmapriya Ramanujam, Preethi V

Department of Periodontics, Sri Venkateshwara Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: tukkichakra@gmail.com

Objective: To assess and compare the effectiveness of Ayurvedic alum containing mouthwash 'Padikaraneer' with essential oil mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash in experimentally induced gingivitis and halitosis status. Materials and Methods: 90 BDS students were randomly divided into 3 groups, each comprising 30 students. Plaque index, gingival index, papillary bleeding index, Organoleptic testing were used. Full mouth scaling done. Baseline scores taken after 48 hours of refraining from brushing. Students of 3 groups were instructed to use mouthwash given to them for 7 days and indices were taken on 7th day, followed by brushing with standard toothpaste and using mouthwash for next 14 days. Indices assessed on 14th and 21st days. Results and Conclusion: Scores were compared for statistical significance. All three mouthwashes were effective in reducing plaque, gingival, bleeding and halitosis status. Padikaraneer has proved equally effective as compared to essential oil and chlorhexidine mouthwashes.


   Organic Toothpaste Top


Anirudhya, Saikishan

Department of Periodontics, Sri Venkateshwara Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: anirudhya.1997@gmail.com

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of prepared homemade dentifrice and commercial dentifrice. Materials and Methods: A randomized triple blinded cross over trial. 30 subjects were chosen. Scaling was completed and the subjects were abstained from brushing for 3 days. Before brushing plaque index was recorded, followed by brushing. Then after brushing plaque index was recorded. Results and Conclusion: Statistically the commercial dentifrice showed marginally better results.


   Estimation of Protein Carbonyls and Advanced Oxidative Protein Products in Gingival Tissue in Healthy and Chronic Periodontitis Subjects Top


Lekha A, Vamsi Lavu, Suresh Ranga Rao

Department of Periodontics, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: lekha.lekhs@gmail.com

Objective: To estimate the levels of Protein Carbonyl (PCs) and Advanced Oxidative Protein Products (AOPPs) in gingival tissue samples from sites with healthy gingiva and severe chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 25 subjects (case) with sites having severe chronic periodontitis and 25 subjects (control) with healthy gingiva were enrolled in this case - control study. Gingival tissue samples were collected and assesed for Protein carbonyl and AOPP levels using protein carbonyl assay kit and spectrophotometric analysis respectively. Results and Conclusion: A statistical significant difference in mean protein carbonyl values (case: 2.94 ± 0.76 nmol; control: 0.56 ± 0.20 nmol) and mean AOPP values (case: 100.16 ± 8.343 μmol; control: 68.78 ± 6.665 μmol) was observed between the two groups (p < 0.0001). Presence of elevated levels of PCs and AOPPs in gingival tissue in sites with chronic periodontitis suggest the role of oxidative stress in periodontal disease pathogenesis and represent potential biomarkers to assess periodontal tissue destruction.


   Distribution of Methanogenic Archaea in Different Oral Sites amongst Subjects with Halitosis Top


Vasanth Ayswarya V, Vamsi Lavu, Suresh Ranga Rao

Department of Periodontics, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: vvayswarya@gmail.com

Objective: To evaluate the presence of methanogenicarchaea in supra gingival plaque, subgingival plaque and tongue coating in subjects with and without oral halitosis. Materials and Methods: Supragingival plaque, subgingival plaque and tongue coating were collected from 25 halitosis and 25 healthy subjects. DNA extraction was done by Bacterial genome extraction kit. DNA of Methanogenicarchaea were detected by conventional PCR. Results and Conclusion: The prevalence of methanogenicarchaea in supra gingival plaque, subgingival plaque and tongue coating in halitosis subjects were 16%, 60% and 16% respectively and in controls without halitosis were 4%, 8% and 0% respectively. A significantly higher presence of methanogenicarchaea was observed in halitosis subjects than controls, with increased detection in the subgingival plaque thereby fulfilling the association criteria of Socransky's postulates.


   Estimation of Advance Oxidation Protein Product and Total Anti-oxidant Capacity in Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Healthy Subjects and Chronic Periodontitis Patients Top


Senthura PV, Balaji TM, Suresh Ranga Rao

Department of Periodontics, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: senthura.sssh@gmail.com

Objective: To measure and compare the levels of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in Gingivalcervicular fluid (GCF) samples obtained from healthy individuals and chronic Periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 individuals within an age range of 25 to 53 years were enrolled in this study. 25 subjects with clinically healthy gingival & 25 subjects with chronic generalized severe periodontitis were included in the study. GCF was obtained from healthy gingiva and chronic periodontitis patients using micro capillary tube calibrated with 1-5 μL (sigma Aldrich). Determination of AOPPs was based on spectrophotometric detection according to Witko-Sarsat et al. (1996). Results and Conclusion: The mean levels of Advance Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) in the Gingival Cervicular Fluid (GCF) of Group-I and Group-II are statistically significant.


   Antimicrobial Effect of Crude Extract of Garlic towards Oral Microbiome Top


Radha Vellayappan, Sheeja S Varghese

Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: dentist.radha@gmail.com

Objective: To analyze the antibacterial activity of crude extract of Garlic (Allium Sativum) ex vivo as a mouth rinse and compare their efficacy with chlorhexidinegluconate 0.12%. Materials and Methods: A solution made with white clone of garlic was used as a mouth rinse and compared with conventional chlorhexidine mouth rinse. Three groups were assigned, each having 10 patients. Group A comprising of patients using normal saline as mouthrinse, Group B consisted patients who used chlorhexidine gluconate 0.12% mouthrinse and Group C consisted patients who used crude extract of garlic mouthrinse. Pre and post saliva samples were collected. The samples were then cultured and the total bacterial count was calculated. Results and Conclusion: In this study we found that there is significant reduction of Coagulase negative staphylococci by Garlic in saliva sample. There was a partial benefit with the crude extract of garlic. Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.12% showed a better disinfection property than the crude extract of garlic.


   Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Oral Hygiene in the Construction Industry of Sriperumbudur Region, Tamil Nadu: A Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Questionnaire Study Top


Priyanka Mariam George, Jaiganesh Ramamurthy

Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: priyankageorge90@gmail.com

Objective: To assess and compare the oral health attitude, knowledge and practices of engineering professionals versus the site workers in Sriperumbudur region of Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. This study was aimed in order to conduct industry based community-oriented oral health promotion programs with the results obtained. Materials and Methods: Study group comprised of a total of 316 employees of the Construction industry from various Construction sites from Sriperumbudur region. The study population was classified into two groups, first group consisting of 121 were the professionals including Engineers and the second group of 195 consisted of site workers of various trades. They were assessed using data obtained from a self administered questionnaire. Data were entered into a personal computer and analyzed using the SPSS software version 20. Results: We understand from the study that even in one particular industry, it has been found that among the two groups A (Professionals) & Group B (Workers), Group B have low level of oral health awareness and practices as compared to Group A. Conclusion: Special training needs to be organized in order to train and change certain misconceptions and to imbibe healthy oral practices.


   Comparison of Platelet-rich Fibrin and Simvastatin with Platelet-rich Fibrin in Socket Preservation Top


Shyamacharan A Samanth, Sheeja S Varghese

Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: docsaasha@gmail.com

Objective: Tooth extraction results in bone resorption. PRF is a source of platelets and Growth Factors. Simvastatin has pleiotrophic effects. We combined PRF and Simvastatin to see effects on bone regeneration and maintain socket dimensions. Materials and Methods: 21 sockets were considered for this study and divided into 3 groups of 7 sockets each. Results: Results showed that, there was better retention of clinical ridge width, radiographic bone height and better quality and quantity of bone histology in the PRF plus Simvastatin (group 1), PRF (group 2) compared to control (group 3). Conclusion: PRF plus Simvastatin and PRF reduce loss of alveolar ridge width and alveolar height and also improve quality and quantity of bone formed compared to control.


   Assessing the Antimicrobial Assay for the Treatment of Aggressive Periodontitis in South Indian Population: An Ex vivo Study Top


Kavarthapu Avinash, Kaarthikeyan Gurumoorthy

Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

E-mail: avin_sourav@hotmail.com

Introduction: Aggressive periodontitis patients may yield multiple species of putative periodontal bacterial pathogens that vary in their antibiotic drug susceptibility and resistance all over the world. This study aims at assessing the antibiotic resistance to subgingival periodontal pathogens in aggressive periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: The study recruited fifteen patients with aggressive periodontitis who visited Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India. After thorough scaling subgingival plaque was collected using sterile curette without damaging surrounding tissue. It was then collected in a sealed air tight container containing thyoglycolate broth, and transferred immediately to microbiology department. The samples were cultured under anaerobic condition and tested for susceptibility to various antibiotics. Result and Conclusion: Doxycycline showed the maximum susceptibility and metronidazole showed least susceptibility to periodontal pathogens with 92.90% and 14.77%. The susceptibility of other drugs was between 35.40% and 64.33%. Majority of patients with AgP are resistant to metronidazole followed by amoxicillin, clindamycin and tinidazole. Hence, resistance to the drugs to be checked periodically before prescribing them.


   Antimicrobial Activity of Cassia auriculata Flower Extract on Anaerobic Periodontal Pathogens: Ex vivo Study Top


Sudharsana A, Sankari R

Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: sudharsana17@gmail.com

Objective: To examine the anti-bacterial activity of Cassia auriculata flower against anaerobic periodontal pathogens using agar well diffusion method. Materials and Methods: The study was an ex vivo experimental design. Preparation of flower extract: Cassia auriculata flowers were obtained from Salem district of Tamil Nadu, India. Flowers were dried at room temperature for ten days and then were blended using electric blender. The ethanol extract of Cassia auriculata flower was prepared in collaboration with sidha institute. Subgingival plaque sample was collected from five chronic periodontitis patients from the deepest pocket using sterile curette. This was then transferred to thioglycolate transport medium. The microbial inhibition assay was done using the agar well diffusion method. The well was filled with different concentrations of the extract (50, 100 and 500 mg/ml) and plates were placed in an anaerobic jar with gas-pak and incubated at 37 ± 0.1°C for 24 hours. Results: The mean zone of inhibition found in 50 mg/ml is 14.92 mm, 100 mg/ml is 16.6 mm and 500 mg/ml is 14.6 mm. 100 mg/ml showed the maximum zone of inhibition. Conclusion: From the present study we can conclude that ethanolic extract of Cassia auriculata flower extract has antibacterial activity against anaerobic periodontal pathogens. But for more precise effect on specific micro organisms, more studies with specific strain should be done.


   Differential Methylation Status of Selected Genes in Gingival Tissue Samples from Healthy Individuals and Chronic Periodontitis Patients: A Pilot Study by the Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation Method Top


Vamsi Lavu, Priyanka Venugopal1, Vettriselvi Venkatesan1, Suresh R

Department of Periodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Sri Ramachandra University, 1Department of Human Genetics, College of Biomedical Sciences, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: lavu.vamsi@gmail.com

Background and Objective: The differential expression of genes regulating the cytokines such as [IL1A, IL1B, TNF A, IL6, IL10, IL6, IL4] and mi-RNA's [MIR 155, 146A, 146B, LET 7A, LET 7B, LIN28A] regulating them plays a pathological role in chronic periodontitis which might be regulated by the epigenetic mechanism. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether there is a unique methylation profile for selected genes [[IL1A, IL1B, TNF A, IL6, IL10, IL4] and mi-RNA's [MIR 155, 146A, 146B, LET 7A, LET 7B, LIN28A] in gingival tissue of individuals with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Whole genome methylation was done in a representative gingival tissue sample from age and gender matched control (Healthy gingiva) and chronic periodontitis individuals by (Methylation Dependent Immunoprecipitation method) MEDIP method. Results and Conclusion: Differential methylation (increased methylation counts) was observed in upstream and coding and downstream regions for the selected genes IL1A, IL1B, TNF A, IL6, IL10, IL6, IL4 and mi-RNA's - MIR 155, 146A, 146B, LET 7A, LET 7B, LIN28A in chronic periodontitis subjects as compared to controls (healthy gingiva). These results suggest that the differential methylation status of CpG motifs in the selected genes may contribute to periodontitis pathogenesis.


   Antimicrobial Efficacy of Herbal, Homeopathic and Conventional Dentifrices against Oral Microflora: An In vitro Study Top


Pradeepkumar R, Shivashankar Kengadaran

Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: drrpradeepkumar@yahoo.co.in

Objective: To compare the efficacy of herbal, homeopathic and conventional dentifrices on oral microflora using antibiotic susceptibility tests. Materials and Methods: Three strains of micro-organisms- Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were taken and incubated in Mutans media, Mueller Hilton agar and Sabouraud Dextrose agar respectively for each microorganism. Different dilutions (1:5, 1:10, 1:15) of several brands of toothpastes with different compositions were made. Sterile discs were incorporated with equal amount of prepared toothpaste formulations using micropipette. Then these discs were placed equidistant to each other following which these plates were incubated for 24 hours. Results and Conclusion: Results from this study have shown that toothpaste formulation containing Homeopathic and natural antimicrobial agents were more effective in controlling the oral microflora compared to toothpastes containing synthetic antimicrobial agents like triclosan.


   Association between Halitosis and Depression: A Systematic Review Top


Vyshiali S, Pradeep Kumar R, Joseph John

Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: vyshpillai@gmail.com

Objective: The objective of this systematic review is to analyze the existing literature on the association between halitosis and depression. Materials and Methods: The Data Bases of PubMed, Cochrane, LILACS, Science direct and SIGLE were searched up to February 2016. Results and Conclusion: 8 publications fulfilled all the inclusion criteria and 216 publications were excluded. Seven included studies found a positive correlation between halitosis and depression except one study which claimed that there is no association between halitosis and depression. This highlights the significance of the psychological aspect of halitosis besides its medical aspects. Clinicians should not focus only intra-oral etiological factors to diagnose halitosis; they should also consider psychological conditions.


   Comparing the Effectiveness of Herbal and Conventional Dentifrice of Dental Caries: A Systematic Review Top


Shivashankar Kengadaran, Meignana Arumugham I

Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: shiva.freee@gmail.com

Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to analyze the existing literature to compare the effectiveness of herbal and conventional dentifrices on dental caries. Materials and Methods: Search strategy: The Data Bases of PubMed and Google scholar were searched up to September 2015 for the related topic. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials, comparative clinical trials and In-vitro studies in which the effectiveness of herbal and conventional dentifrices on dental caries. Results and Conclusion: The systematic search revealed a total of 19 publications from PubMed and Google Scholar which were scrutinized based on pre-set inclusion and exclusion criteria. Six publications fulfilled all the inclusion criteria and 10 publications were excluded from the review. Out of Six studies, three studies were clinical studies and three were In-vitro studies. With the evidences available it can be concluded that herbal toothpastes can be used as an alternative to fluoridated toothpaste and both has the similar kind effect on cariogenic microflora.


   Ozone Therapy: A Boon to Dentistry Top


Sruthi S, Neelima Gayatri, Keerthana R Krishna, Vishnupriya Srivalli

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, MNR Dental College and Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. E-mail: crazy.sruthi@gmail.com

Objective: To describe clinical applications of ozone therapy in dentistry. Materials and Methods: Ozone therapy is a novel clinical & non invasive tool that has emerged in recent years which encompasses various branches of dentistry. Glycolipids of cell membrane become the prime targets, thereby increasing the cellular permeability, causing O3 molecules to enter the cell and eventually cell death. It may serve as an alternative to conventional treatments and may be used as Root canal irrigants, Bleaching agents, in remineralization of incipient caries, Osteomyelitis and periimplantitis. Results and Conclusion: Several studies have been undertaken with satisfactory results and numerous multi center double blinded randomized clinical trials are to be done to standardize the treatment protocol.


   Research: An Undergraduate's Perspective Top


Samyuktha Dinesh, Samson Jimson

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tagore Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: dineshsamyukta@gmail.com

Objective: To evaluate the importance of doing research during undergraduation. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 79 interns of Tagore Dental College. Results and Conclusion: Most of the students felt that study/ research should be made compulsary in the undergraduate curriculum.


   Clinical Study of Hemodynamic Changes in Dentist during Extraction of Teeth in Patient Top


Nivetha M, Samson Jimson

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tagore Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: nivi654@gmail.com

Objective: To examine the variations in the pulse rate and the blood pressure of the dentists before and after performing extractions. Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted involving undergraduate dentists in private practise. They were evaluated at 3 different intervals and the values obtained were statically derived. Results and Conclusion: Twenty subjects were evaluated. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate were obtained and a significant increase in the values was seen.


   An Evaluation on the Effect of Preoperative Administartion of Ibuprofen in Reducing the Pain Intensity after Extraction of Tooth Top


Aswini, Samson Jimson, Parthiban J

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tagore Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: jimsons@tagoredch.in

Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the pain following the preoperative administration of IBUPROFEN after extraction. Materials and Methods: GROUP A will be given preoperative analgesic- IBUPROFEN 400 mg along with RANTAC 150 mg one hour before extraction. GROUP B will receive only postoperative analgesics. The difference in pain intensity between GROUP A and B is determined for every 6th hr, 12th hr and 24th hr using VISUAL ANALOGUE SCALE (PAIN SCALE) and the outcome will be determined by appropriate statistics. Results and Conclusion: This study is an on going process and the future inference will be: The use of preoperative analgesic IBUPROFEN provides well tolerated analgesia during and after extraction by comparing the pain levels between the study and the control groups.


   Clinical Implication of Acute Normovolaemic Haemodilution in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeries Top


Sudha R

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tagore Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: sudha.r1994bds@gmail.com

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of Acute NormovolaemicHaemodilution (ANH) in reducing the perioperative homologous transfusion. To compare the results of acute normovolaemichaemodilution and homologous blood transfusion in terms of Hb%, PCV%. To assess the cost effectiveness of ANH with homologous transfusion. Materials and Methods: 16 healthy patients between age of 14 and 70 years who require maxillofacial surgical procedure under general anesthesia weighing 60-70 kg with hemoglobin between 10-12 g% and total blood loss more than 336 ml were selected and randomly divided in a sequential manner into two groups (8 in each group). Group I patients were subjected to acute normovolaemichaemodilution and group II were subjected to homologous blood transfusion. Results and Conclusion: From the statistical analysis it has been proved that hemoglobin and packed cell volume values are well maintained in acute NormovolaemicHaemodilution than in homologous blood transfusion.


   A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of 2.5% Iodized Salt Saline Mouth Rinse and 2.5% Crystal Salt Saline Mouth Rinse on the Healing of Postextraction Socket Wound Top


Sindhu P, Samson Jimson, Lokesh B

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tagore Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: scienz.riskas@gmail.com

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of saline mouth rinse in post-extraction socket wound healing in healthy patients, in the absence of routine therapeutic antibiotics. The objective was to compare the healing of post-extraction socket wound using iodized salt saline rinse and crystal salt saline rinse. Materials and Methods: The study design randomly divided patients of age above 16 years who require non-surgical extraction into three groups. Group A (n = 20) will serve as control group. Group B (n = 20) will be instructed to use iodized salt saline rinse and Group C (n = 20) to use crystal salt saline rinse. Each patient of group B and C received six samples of iodized salt and crystal salt respectively with each sample containing 5 grams. Evaluation was based on presence or absence of pain, erythema and swelling. Results and Conclusion: Study is on progress. The scope of this study is to analyze the effect of saline rinses on healing of post-extraction socket wound in the absence of routine therapeutic antibiotics and also to offer a comparison between the effect of iodized and crystal salt saline rinse on post-operative healing.


   Entanglements in Exodontia; Can You Untangle Them? Top


Varshini S, Archana S

Department of Oral Surgery, Sri Venkateswara Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: varshini.subramani@gmail.com

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and experience of senior undergraduate dental students towards management of complications in exodontia. Materials and Methods: Dental housemen from various dental colleges, participated in the study group. A questionnaire was distributed and results were analysed. Results and Conclusion: Majority were performing extractions, in their practice. Among them 60% lack confidence in handling complications and hence sought an oral surgeon for guidance. This negative attitude can be overcome by educational workshops relating to the subject, that increases awareness of dental students, about their knowledge and practice relating to management of complications in exodontia.


   Odontogenic Keratocyst: An Interesting Case Presentation Top


Manimaran S, Rajesh P, Mahathi Neralla

Department of Oral Surgery, Chettinad Dental College and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: smanimaranchetty@gmail.com

Odontogenic keratocyst usually shows predilection for the posterior mandible - the ramus and angle areas rarely in the anterior region. Our case presented an array of peculiarities. A history of trauma, bloody aspirate and a radiographic evidence of unilocular pattern and presence in the anterior region of mandible and association with multiple non-vital tooth drove our diagnosis towards a infected periapical cyst. Peculiarities like these made diagnosis difficult.


   Applicataion of Finite Element Analysis in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: The Failure of Treatment Modalities Top


Manay Roshini

Department of Oral Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: rosh.manay@gmail.com

Objective: To design and optimize a bone plate for fractures of the mandibular body that will provide maximum fracture stability with minimal implanted volume and patient intrusion. Materials and Methods: A finite element model of a fractured human mandible was created using tomography scans. Material properties were assigned to the cortical & cancellous bone, and dental region. Boundary conditions included simulating a unilateral molar clench and incisal loading. The optimized bone plate design was compared with standard bone plate configurations based on stress and strain. Results and Conclusion: InterFlex II plate stresses are less than or equal to the paired plate configuration, and fracture strain is within 10% of the corresponding paired plate strain under both loading scenarios.


   Comparison between the Efficacy of Sterile Hemocoagulase with Saline Pressure Pack in Bilateral Extraction Cases: A Systematic Review Top


Gauri Gupta, Muthusekhar MR

Department of Oral Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: drgaurigupta@gmail.com

Objective: To compare the efficacy of hemocoagulase with saline pressure pack after extraction of tooth. Materials and Methods: Thorough search was carried out to include the relevant studies that were considered for or included in the review. Pubmed data base was searched; till date. Results and Conclusion: Hemocoagulase is significantly effective in reducing pain, swelling and bleeding after extraction of tooth.


   Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy versus Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis: A Comparative Evaluation of Postoperative Neurosensory Disturbance – A Systematic Review Top


Nobin Mathew, Abdul Wahab

Department of Oral Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: nobinmthw@gmail.com

Objective: To evaluate bsso vs mdo for post operative neurosensory disturbance. Materials and Methods: Articles from pubmed, cochrane and handsearch was done. Results and Conclusion: There is no statistical significance for post op neurosensory disturbance after comparing bsso and mdo.


   Efficacy of Cyanoacrylate and Black Braided Silk for the Closure of Incision after Surgical Removal of Impacted Third Molars: A Systematic Review Top


Divya James, Uma Maheswari G

Department of Oral Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: divyajames31@yahoo.com

Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of cyanoacrylate and black braided silk for the closure of surgical incision after removal of impacted third molars. Materials and Methods: Sources used for identification of studies included or considered for this review, detailed search strategies were carried out on the following databases. PubMed PubMed Advanced Search MEDLINE. Results and Conclusion: The reviews found some clinical evidence that, there is significant difference between sutures and cyanoacrylate on postoperative pain following mandibular third molar surgery. There is also significant difference between sutures and cyanoacrylate on haemostasis following mandibular third molar surgery.


   Three Dimensional Cone Beam Computer Tomography Evaluation of Effect of Le Fort I Osteotomy on Pharyngeal Airway: A Prospective Study Top


Arun M, Muthusekhar MR, Senthil Nathan, Vijay Jain

Department of Oral Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: arunche66@gmail.com

Objective: This study to evaluate the changes in pharyngeal airway dimensions after le fort I impaction surgery using 3D CBCT. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted at Saveetha University, Chennai. 8 healthy patients having vertical maxillary excess included in this study. Isolated lefort one osteotomy with superior repositioning orthognathic surgery procedure carried out. Results and Conclusion: With the use of 3D CBCT, the pharyngeal airway volume assessed. The volume and area of the pharyngeal airway has been decreased following le fort one superior repositioning but they are statistically insignificant.


   Evaluation of Post Operative Pain Control Using Lignocaine Hydrochloride and Tramadol with Lignocaine Hydrochloride in Surgical Removal of Third Molar Top


Melvin George, Muthusekhar MR, Uma Maheswari G, Abdul Wahab

Department of Oral Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: melgeos91@gmail.com

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anaesthetic efficacy of 2% lignocaine and 2% lignocaine with tramadol both with 1:200000 epinephrine. Materials and Methods: Inclusion criteria were subjects without systemic disorders or antecedents of complications associated with local anesthetics and presenting impacted lower third molars requiring osteotomy and tooth sectioning for extraction. Exclusion criteria were subjects below 15 years of age, pregnancy, systemic disease, trismus and presence of infection near the proposed injection site. Total of 40 patients were assessed. Lignocaine group consisted of 20 patients and lignocaine + tramadol group consisted of 20 patients. Results and Conclusion: 2% Lignocaine + tramadol had better anesthetic efficacy and required lesser number of analgesics when compared with 2% lignocaine.


   Frontal Sinus and Nasal Septum Deviation Pattern in Personal Identification: A Forensic Study Top


Gayathri Mohan, Sreedevi Dharman

Department of Oral Medicine, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: arthimohan2010@gmail.com

Objective: To determine if there is sexual dimorphism in frontal sinus and nasal septum deviation pattern between males and females, that aids in personal identification in forensics. Materials and Methods: The frontal sinuses and nasal septum deviation pattern are to be noted in about 100 patients using digital PA view. Comparison is to be done between males and females and the presence of sexual dimorphism is to be assessed using chi-square test. Results: The analysis on the frontal sinus pattern and nasal septum deviation showed that asymmetry of frontal sinus is seen in 63.45% and 43.74% of deviation of the nasal septum. Left domination of frontal sinus (35.41%) and straight nasal septum (30.2%) were more common among patients. As for the area, the mean area of frontal sinus in males (2118.27%) is more when compared to females (1564.79%). Combined use of the frontal sinus and nasal septum patterns along with the area of frontal sinus using posteroanterior skull radiograph will be a useful useful tool and an easy, quick method for a tentative screening in case of mass disasters.


   Teeth Anomalies in Consanguineous Marriage: A Survey Top


Sneha Hariharan, Preetha S

Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: snehahariharan.99@gmail.com

Objective: A survey into finding the different type of teeth anomalies in the offsprings born to consanguineous parents. Materials and Methods: The participants include 30 consanguineous couples and their children. The type of teeth anomaly in the children was identified by means of clinical examination and the degree of consanguinity was assessed via questionnaire.


   Recent Advances in Forensic Odontology Top


Keerthana P

Department of Forensic Denntistry, Sri Venkateshwara Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: p.keerthana1996@gmail.com

Objective: To compare the dental records of a person during life with those retrieved from the person after death. Materials and Methods: Not applicable. Results and Conclusion: The availability of dental records will allow comparing the dental characteristics of a person during life with those retrieved from the person after death.


   Forensic Odontology: The Future in India Top


Smrithi Prathap

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Sri Venkateswara Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: smrithi.smrith@gmail.com

To assess the knowledge and attitude among senior dental students of forensic odontology. A questionnaire based study surveying 400 dental students from dental colleges across Chennai. The result has reported that majority of population surveyed have received formal education in their course however most of them feel that they have inadequate knowledgedue to lack of practical application.


   Analysis of Latent Lip Print from Glass Surfaces using Silk Black Fingerprint Powder Top


Jayapriya D, Uma Maheswari

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: jayapriya.ramadurai@gmail.com

Objective: Study aims to develop latent lip prints on glass surface using black fingerprint powder and its comparison with standard lipstick prints and also determines the effectiveness of the technique. Materials and Methods: Latent lip print was developed by asking the subjects to drink water from drinking glass and the print formed was developed by sprinkling the black finger print powder and transferred to a bond sheet. Results and Conclusion: About 85% of the patients have different lip patterns in all the quadrants and 15% of patients have similar lip patterns. There was 90% match of latent lip prints to lipstick lip prints.


   Oral Health Status and Alzheimers Dementia Top


Durga Devi, Narasimman M, Venkatakrishnan CJ

Department of Prosthodontics, Tagore Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: tweetdurgadevi@gmail.com

Objective: The general objective of this study is to determine assess relationship between mastication and brain function in elderly people. To determine whether masticatory exercise improves the cognitive function in elderly people with dementia and patient with normal cognitive function of same age group. Materials and Methods: Fourty patients (age >50) will be enrolled in the study. Cognitive impairment will be evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Patients will be asked to chew colorless odourless chewing gum thrice daily for 3 months.


   Assessment of Sexual Dimorphism Using Diagonal Tooth Measurements: An Aid in Gender Determination Top


Fazeelath Banu, Sreedevi Dharman

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: sanjamrut@gmail.com

Objective: To study the degree of sexual dimorphism in teeth using crown, cervical diagonal diameters and to evaluate the applicability of diagonal measurements in sex determination in forensics. Materials and Methods: Mesiobuccal-distolingual and distobuccal-mesiolingual crown and cervical diameters of maxillary canine and first molar were measured in 120 upper dental casts from 60 males and 60 females using digital Vernier calliper. t-test performed to compare mean values between gender. Discriminant function co-efficient analysis done, jacknife statistics to find accuracy of presumable unknown samples. Results: Percentage of sexual dimorphism was maximum for left maxillary canine crown MBDL (5.08%), followed by left maxillary molar crown MBDL (3.11%). The classification of accuracy results was 68.3% for males and 65% for females with overall accuracy of 66.7%. Conclusion: MBDL and DBML crown dimensions are reliable indicators and can be used along with/instead of linear measurements in sex determination. Diagonal measurement are preferred over linear in case of attrition, crowding, malposition of teeth.


   Bite Marks in Forensic Science Top


Arathi M

Department of Forensic Dentistry, Chettinad Dental College and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: arathim1995@gmail.com

Objective: To highlight about the collection methods, analysing techniques and the complications involved. Materials and Methods: Not applicable. Results and Conclusion: This poster elaborates in detail about bite mark analysis and aquisition of data from forensic scene.


   Tuned Aperture Computed Tomography Top


Vaibava Keerthana S

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Chettinad Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: msg2vaiba@gmail.com

Objective: This poster aims in describing the applications and advantages of TUNED APERTURE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY over other conventional imaging modalities. Materials and Methods: Not applicable. Results and Conclusion: TUNED APERTURE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY shows promise as a supplement to film-based dental radiography and as a digital alternative to conventional tomographic systems used in dento-alveolar applications.


   Study Design of Research Top


Lalitha S

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Chettinad Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: laluazarath@gmail.com

Objective: To design a study project. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire. Results and Conclusion: 30% only follow a proper protocol.


   Chromosome 19 and 14 Top


Jerome Thomas

Department of Anatomy, Sri Venkateswara Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

E-mail: jerome1632@icloud.com

Chromosome 19 determines the size of the nose and chromosome 14 determines the shape of the nose. Any defect in this chromosome leads to abnormal size and shape of the nose. Abnormal size and shape of the nose is a developmental anomaly of the nose. The main problems faced by some individuals are respiratory illness. Some individuals experience psychological effect like embarrassment and social disapproval. They may also face difficulty in wearing spectacles because of their abnormal nose size or shape.


   To Design a Simple Method to Establish Koilonychia Top


Nirisha Sriram, Gowri Sethu V

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: nirishasriram@gmail.com

Objective: To detect the change in nail curvature with mild decrease in anaemia using a simple instrument. Materials and Methods: A wooden plate measuring 100 mm x 150 mm x 15 mm was fixed to a wooden base to which an inverted 'T' shaped slit about 1 cm wide was made. During measurement, the subject places one index finger at the centre area of the T with the palmar surface resting on the base of the horizontal slit in the midline. A movable vertical piece was fixed over the centre part of the 'T' shaped slit. A tooth pick was attached horizontally to the tip of the 'v'and the readings were determined with the help of a ruler.


   Barriers and Stigma Faced by Physically and Socio-economically Challenged Individuals Top


Anbarasi K, Vijayaraghavan PV, Kandaswamy D

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: anbarasi815@gmail.com

Objective: To emphasize the barriers and stigma faced by physically and socio-economically challenged individuals. Materials and Methods: A real time project for dental students assigned at the entry-level internship. Team-work (Group A: 19 students worked with orphanage children, Group B; 20 students worked with visually impaired children in a special school, Group C; 19 Students worked with transgender individuals) to find out the oral health care status and provision of the sample patients and recording the special care needed by these patients and challenges in obtaining the care. Results and Conclusion: The project generated an understanding amongst graduating dentists that the demand for service often extended beyond what is typically distributed in clinical practice. Hence this study concludes that bridging programs need to be included in dental program.


   The Prognostic Role of Positron Emission Tomography Computerized Tomography in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy Top


Divyambika CV, Satish Srinivas K, Suriya Kumar

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: divyambika@rediffmail.com

Objective: To correlate the pre and post therapy SUVMax with tumor response in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Patients receiving radical chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer were selected. Patients were subjected to PETCT before and after treatment and the SUVMax were recorded, which were compared with the incidence of local recurrence.


   Management of Dental Phobia by Using Virtual Reality: A Randomised Control Trial Top


Hemamalini M, Karpagavalli S

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: hema.malinidr2106@gmail.com

Objective: To reduce dental anxiety, phobia & pain level in patients who comes to OP clinic with dental phobia & anxiety through VRET. Materials and Methods: Patients with dental anxiety and phobia who entered Saveetha Dental Hospital OP of age group between 18 to 60 yrs. 1) Visually challenged 2) Medically compromised 3) Migraine 4) Patients wearing spectacles 5) Those who are not interested were excluded from the study. Results and Conclusion: Additional studies can further determine the correlation between presence and pain management, as well as the association of pain distracting qualities of VR and various types of pain.


   Comparison of Lactate Dehydrogenase, Amylase and Alkaline Phosphatase in Serum of Oral Cancer Patients and Healthy Individuals Top


Pukhrambam Nirmada, Pratibha Ramani, Anuja N, Herald J Sherlin, Gheena S, Abilasha R, Don KR, Gifrina Jayaraj, Archana S

Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: nirmadapukhrambam@gmail.com

Objective: The aim of the study is to estimate the level of salivary amylase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase in serum of oral cancer patients and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: It is a hospital based study and is carried out in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India. Study group consisted of patients visiting the oncology department and diagnosed as oral cancer compared with the same age healthy individuals kept as control. Enzymes were estimated by colorimetric method. Results: Increased level of ALP and LDH were observed in serum of oral cancer patients. Decreased level of amylase enzyme was seen in the study group.


   Human Cell Impersonators - Vegetable and Fruit Cells that Mimic Human Cell or Organisms Top


Hannah R, Pratibha Ramani, Anuja N, Herald J Sherlin, Gheena S, Abilasha R, Don KR, Gifrina Jayaraj, Archana S

Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: rgrace_89@yahoo.co.in

Objective: To identify the distinctive morphologic pattern of fruit and vegetable cells and differentiate them from human cells. Materials and Methods: Commonly eaten local fruits and vegetables were selected. In each preparation, a small amount of the edible portions of the fruit or uncooked vegetable were ground with mortar and pestle in order to depict mastication, and smeared onto glass slides. The slides were fixed in isopropyl alcohol for 20 minutes and stained using Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Results: All vegetable cells contained nuclei, cytoplasm, and cell walls. Fruit cells contained nuclei and cytoplasm, but variably contained cell walls. Vegetable contaminants can resemble anucleated to intermediate squamous cells, respiratory columnar cells, viral inclusions such as cytomegalovirus or Molluscumcontagiosum, fungal elements etc. Fruit contaminants can mimic similar infectious parasites or fungal spores, and contribute to a seemingly necrotic background. Conclusion: The distinctive morphologic pattern of fruit and vegetable cells make identification of these impersonators of pathologic processes possible, and differentiates them from human cells.


   Googling Symptoms: Making You a Hypochondriac Top


Uma PK, Pratibha Ramani, Anuja N, Herald J Sherlin, Gheena S, Abilasha R, Don KR, Gifrina Jayaraj, Archana S

Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: umacherry@gmail.com

Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of googling symptoms and its effect on young professionals who are frequent users of social media. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was done with 302 social media participants. A structured questionnaire was given to them in aspects including attitude, knowledge and practice of googling symptoms and its effect. Survey was conducted between October 2016 to November 2016. Results: The survey showed 71.2% googled their symptoms and 47.4% thought they had the worst probable diagnosis and 48.8% started worrying about it. With the rise of android systems and easy availability of the internet there is an increase in number of people googling symptoms before meeting the doctor and get more anxious and stressed. For the sake of efficiency, it would be best if we brought our list of symptoms to the doctor's office rather than online diagnosis. Conclusion: A physical examination-something internet cannot do greatly increases the doctor's chances of pinpointing the illness.


   Gross Room Hygiene – Biosafety Practices in Gross Room Top


Sandhya S, Pratibha Ramani, Anuja N, Herald J Sherlin, Gheena S, Abilasha R, Don KR, Gifrina Jayaraj, Archana S

Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: sandhyasundar0402@gmail.com

Objective: To assess various biosafety practices of Pathologists and their assistants in their respective gross room. Method: The study design was a cross sectional prospective one obtained with the use of structured questionnaire. Questionaires were distributed among pathologists and their assistants from various dental and medical colleges. Data consisted of general hygiene practices, chemical safety safe specimen handling and waste disposal. Results: There were 57 subjects in the study. About 47% of pathologists and assistants did not have access to Material safety data sheet of chemicals they are using. 44% were not involved in safety meetings, 39% were not disinfecting gross table, 33% not disinfecting instruments between specimens, 31% did not have access to information on safe handling of specimen, 31% were not in ventilated gross room with exhaust fan facility. Conclusion: Study findings underscore the need for more awareness on biosafety measures in gross room. Periodic safety meetings should device safety plan and instructions and ensure strict compliance.


   Rehydration with Corn Syrup of Air Dried Buccal Smear: An Alternative to Routine Wet Fixation Top


Aiman Zafar, Pratibha Ramani, Herald Sherlin, Brundha MP, Gheena Ranjith

Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: aimanzafar@gmail.com

Objective: To evaluate the possibility of air dried smear and rehydration with corn syrup instead of conventional method. Materials and Methods: 20 paired buccal smear taken from healthy individuals. One set labelled as wet fixation with 95% ethanol and other set labelled as dry fixation with rehydration with corn syrup. They were graded blindly. Results: Statistically significant similarities were seen between the two groups in terms of cellularity and staining intensity, P > 0.01. Conclusion: The procedure of air drying and rehydration with corn syrup is inexpensive, easy, convenient technique and almost equally effective to routine fixation.


   Vegetable Stain as an Alternative to H and E Top


Sherin Singnarpi, Pratibha Ramani, Anuja N, Herald J Sherlin, Gheena S, Abilasha R, Don KR, Gifrina Jayaraj, Archana S

Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: sherinsingnarpi@rocketmail.com

Objective: To evaluate the effect of a dye extract from beet root to stain the oral buccal smear. Materials and Methods: Collected buccal smear from inpatients in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India. Around 10 buccal smears each and fixed in alcohol for 30 minutes. Then the staining was done with beet root extract solution. Results: The cells were stained brown in colour with beet root. This study showed that the preservation of cellular morphology was present and clarity of cellular details was moderate. Also showed mild staining uniformity and background staining was present. Conclusion: Beet root can be used to stain buccal smear in exfoliative cytology.


   Staining of Civatte Bodies in Oral Lichen Planus Using Periodic Acid-Schiff and Toluidene Blue: A Comparative Study Top


Subashini V, Pratibha Ramani, Anuja N, Herald J Sherlin, Gheena S, Abilasha R, Don KR, Gifrina Jayaraj, Archana S

Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: shini2810@gmail.com

Objective: To use periodic acid Schiff and 1% toluidene blue in the identification of civatte bodies in diagnosed cases of oral lichen planus and thereby to analyse their efficacy. Materials and Methods: This study includes 5 diagnosed cases of OLP. OLP blocks were retrieved from archives of Oral pathology department in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India. Three tissue sections were made for each case to stain with Periodic acid Schiff, hematoxylin & eosin and 1% toluidene blue. After staining, the civatte bodies were counted in each tissue sections by two experienced oral pathologists using light microscope. Stained sections were compared, and data obtained was statistically analyzed. Results: Civatte bodies were stained better with Periodic acid Schiff when compared to hematohylin and eosin and 1% toluidene blue. A significant p value of less than 0.05 was obtained. Conclusion: Periodic acid Schiff can be used as a special stain in staining civatte bodies.


   Impregnation and Embedding Using Bees Wax and Paraffin Wax in Oral Tissues: A Comparative Study Top


Vini Mary Antony J, Pratibha Ramani, Anuja N, Herald J Sherlin, Gheena S, Abilasha R, Don KR, Gifrina Jayaraj, Archana S

Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: jemeninoantony26@gmail.com

Objective: To compare bees wax and paraffin wax in the impregnation and embedding of oral tissue samples. Materials and Methods: Study was carried out at the department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India. Random sampling was done based on the biopsy samples received. Sample size was calculated to be 20. The specimens were split into two and was labelled as A and B. Group A contained 10 specimens in which bees wax was added for impregnation and embedding. Group B included 10 specimens in which paraffin wax was added for impregnation and embedding. Then routine tissue processing and embedding was done except for the wax. Scoring criteria includes intensity of the section, staining features which included nuclear details, cytoplasmic details and background staining. Scoring was then calculated and chi square statistical analysis was done and the results were tabulated. Results: Bees wax showed good intergrity of the section, uniformity of the section, cytoplasmic details and background staining. Conclusion: Bees wax can be used as an alternative to paraffin wax in impregnation and embedding of tissue samples.


   Effect of Skipping Breakfast on Enamel Erosion Top


Keshaav Krishnaa P, Vishnu Priya V, Gayathri R

Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: keshaav.krishnaa.98@gmail.com

Objective: To estimate the extent of discolouration on teeth exposed to HCl vapours under invitro conditions. Materials and Methods: The teeth were exposed to HCl vapours in the same concentration as in the gastric juice. The change in shade was noted. Results and Conclusion: There is a change in shade on exposure to the vapours. Thus skipping food may lead to gastric juice accumulation which may lead to enamel discolouration. It leads to an acidic environment which may also lead to caries formation.


   Variations in the Perception of Umami Taste Using Ajinomoto Top


Kalyani P, Gifrina Jayaraj

Department of Oral Pathology. Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: kals9702@gmail.com

Objective: To determine the variations in the concentrations required to evoke umami sensation among individuals of different age groups. To find out if there exists any age related variations in the perception of umami taste. Materials and Methods: The sample size of the study was 100. The participants fall under three different age groups namely 1. Below 30 years 2. 30-50 years and 3. Above 50 years each with 36, 24 and 40 participants respectively. People with hypergeusia, ageusia and other taste disorders were excluded from the study. The study had two different aspects: 1. Questionnaire 2. Taste strip method. Results were statistically analyzed. Results and Conclusion: Statistical analysis reveals that the perception of umami taste decreases with age. Further, the recognition threshold also shows a marked decrease with age. Among all three age groups, participants below 30 years of age were more familiar with umami taste. Tangy and sour were the most common descriptions of umami taste. The soft palate had the lowest RT and anterior tongue had the highest RT.


   A Medical Medicament Top


Visale Thangadurai, Priyadharshini N

Department of Oral Pathology, Sri Venkateshwara Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: charmingvisale@gmail.com

Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of the TTA PASTE in reducing pain/burning sensation in comparison to a single agent. Materials and Methods: Tulsi, turmeric and Aloe vera were mixed in a ratio of 1:1:9. The study was conducted in 2 phases. Phase 1 tolerability test and phase 2 subjects with aphthous ulcer. They were again divided into test and control groups. The test group subjects were given the TTA paste and the control group subjects were given Aloe vera gel. Follow up of the patients were done. Results and Conclusion: The results were tabulated and analyzed statistically. There was a significant improvement in pain scale and reduction in the duration of lesion in the test group than the control group. This study provides evidence that the TTA paste is well tolerated, self applicable treatment modality.


   Laser Capture Microdissection Top


Merryl J

Department of Oral Pathology, Sri Venkateshwara Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: orcadiva@gmail.com

LCM allows for the microscopic procurement of specific cell types from tissue sections under direct microscopic visualization that can be used for gene expression analysis, protien analysis etc. Laser capture microdissection is a useful method for obtaining microscopic samples as small as individual cells from tissues for molecular analysis. The use of LCM technologies allows for the scanning of gene expression patterns and the search for those correlating with a disease state.


   Prevalence of Salivary Gland Tumours: A Retrospective Clinico-pathological Study Top


Shreya S, Don KR

Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: shreyasridhar13@gmail.com

Objective: To study the prevalence pattern of salivary gland tumors and its clinico-pathological correlation and to compare the results with the findings in the literature. Materials and Methods: A total of 38 histologically diagnosed cases of salivary gland tumors were retrieved from the archives of Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India for a period of 12 years (2004-2016). Data collection was based on continuous information obtained with the sample results of histopathology exams, which were analysed retrospectively for the histopathological type, age, gender and anatomical location and the results were compared with the lite. Results and Conclusion: In our study, among the benign tumours, pleomorphic adenoma was found to be most prevalent (26.3%), with predominant female predilection (60%), most prevalent age group being 31-40 years and the predominant site being palate (50%). Among the malignant tumours, adenoid cystic carcinoma was found to be most prevalent (23.6%), with predominant female predilection (67%), most prevalent age group being 61-70 years and the predominant site being palate (67%).


   Exfoliative Cytology in Oral Lichen Planus: A Comparative Study Top


Hemamalini Balaji, Pratibha Ramani

Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: b.hemamalini27@gmail.com

Objective: To Compare the efficacy of staining by Papinicalaou, Hematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa staining in exfoliative cytological smears from oral Lichen Planus patients. Materials and Methods: Exfoliative cytological smears were obtained from ten (n = 10) clinically diagnosed cases of Lichen Planus and ten normal control patients. Five smears were prepared for each patient (2-PAP stain, 1-Giemsa stain, 2-H and E stain) and stained with RAPID PAP kit, Giemsa stain, Hematoxillin and eosin stain. Then the characteristics of the staining like cytoplasmic stain, nuclear stain, appreciation of nuclear characters was analysed and statistical comparison was done using one way ANOVA. Results and Conclusion: Based on the study we have noticed that comparing the PAP stain with Hematoxylin and eosin staining, PAP staining showed increased degree of differentiation and Giemsa.


   Preliminary Photochemical Analysis and Cytotoxicity Potential of Bacopa monniera on Oral Cancer Cell Lines Top


Jerusha P, Vishnupriya V, Gayathri Dandapani

Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: jerushanathan@yahoo.co.uk

Objective: To conduct preliminary photochemical analysis and cytotoxicity potential of Bacopa monniera on oral cancer cell lines. The genotoxicity potential and Apoptotic induction potential of the herb was also analyzed. Materials and Methods: The plant extract was prepared and phytochemical analysis was performed. The viability was examined using MTT assay test. Apoptotic induction potential ofBacopamonnieri was studied on KB cell line by investigating the activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9. Genotoxicity analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis was carried out. Results and Conclusion: Viability of KB cell lines decreases as the concentration of extract is increased. It shows increasing cytotoxicity with increasing concentration. Main constituents were carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, cardiac glycosides and phenols. Minor constituents include flavainoids and coumarins. Secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, quinones and phenols, showed anti cancer potential and antioxidant property. Caspase3 and Caspase9 was activated proving the apoptotic potential.


   Saliva and Wound Healing Top


Praveen Kumar V, Shanmuga Siva

Department of Oral Surgery, Venkateshwara Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: praveenragavan20@gmail.com

Objective: Saliva promotes wound healing due to the presence of tissue factor and also helps in clotting by the presence of clotting factors. Thus, saliva can be used for clotting and in the healing of the wound in the oral cavity in delayed and certain pathological condition. Saliva enhances wound healing and clotting, so, saliva can be stimulated in cases of delayed wound healing in patients of OSMF, radiation patients and mucosal bleeding in case of gingivitis.


   Genotoxicity Analysis of Mace (Myristica fragrans) on Oral Cancer Cell Lines Top


Cinthura C, Gayathri R, Vishnupriya V

Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: cchinthura@yahoo.com

Objective: Since genotoxins are mutagens, they cause mutations. Mace shows genotoxic activity and therefore this research aims in analysing genotoxicity of mace (Myristica fragrant) on oral cancer cell lines. Results and Conclusion: DNA fragmentation was observed with the two concentrations of mace extract on oral cancer cell lines by agarose gel electrophoresis method. This proves that myristica fragrans (mace) shows genotoxicity on the oral cancer cells by degrading its DNA. Hence Mace has the potential to be an anti-cancerous drug.


   The Effects of Visual Education by Using Brushes Redux Application: A Comparative Study Top


Brundha MP

Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: mpbrundha7@gmail.com

Objective: To know how useful the brushes redux application in visual education for making innovative teaching videos. To compare the effect of visual and verbal learning among undergraduate students. Materials and Methods: This study was a comparative study with a sample size of 200 randomly selected students in two groups. One group (A) was exposed to classroom lecture on Amyloidosis. The other group (B) was exposed to innovation video on Amyloidosis which was prepared by using brushes redux iOS application along with the lecture. Both the groups were given a questionnaire with a set of 10 questions for evaluation. The results were statistically analysed and tabulated. Results and Conclusion: An Unpaired t test (Comparison of two means) was done as a statistical analysis. The mean value for Group A was 40.00, with the standard deviation 28.3 and the mean value of Group B was 68.0, with the standard deviation 25.3. P = 0.0314, So there was a significant difference between the two groups with a 'p' value <0.05, which indicated that learning through video along with lecture (Group B) showed better results than the lecture alone (Group A).


   A Prospective Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing Video Based Discussion with the Conventional Lectures for Undergraduates in Dental Implantology Top


Vidhya Gopinath, Deepak Nallaswamy, Thyaneswaran N

Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: vodhya_dr@yahoo.com

Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the impact of video based discussion on the performance of undergraduate students in the dental implantology course. Materials and Methods: The study participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups, Group A (Video based discussion) and Group B (traditional lecture based). At a power of 80%, this study required a sample of 27 per group. Independent sample t test was used to evaluate the mean difference between the two group. Results and Conclusion: The mean University examination scores obtained by the students of the Group A (video based discussion) and Group B (traditional lecture based) were 45.66 ± 3.87 and 45.61 ± 6.450 respectively (p = 0.4). Comparison of Higher Secondary School marks obtained by the students amongst the group A (video based discussion) 76.95 ± 4.17 and group B (traditional lecture based) 76.08 ± 4.95 with p = 0.4 was also taken into consideration which showed similar results as the University exams. The video based discussion was as effective as the traditional learning method and could be successfully introduced in the curriculum.


   Evolution of Tensile Strength and Rupture Elongation of Nano-Particle Reinforced Maxillofacial Silicon after Ozone Water Disinfection: A Pilot Study Top


Suji D, Ahila SC, Aparna D

Department of Prosthodontics, SRM Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: dr.suji.cheerful@gmail.com

Objective: Evaluate the tensile strength and rupture elongation of nano-particle reinforced maxilla-facial silicon after ozone water disinfection. Materials and Methods: According to ASTM D412 and D624, a dumbbell shape die was fabricated using maxilla-facial HTV, RTV silicone reinforced with 3% silicone dioxide nanoparticles. The samples were disinfected using neutral soap, 4% cholorhexidine and ozone water. Then the samples were treated with disinfection solutions for 10 minutes. The tensile strength and rupture elongation were evaluated in UTM at 500 mm/min cross-head speed. Results and Conclusion: 3% silicone dioxide nano-particles incorporated silicone showed more tensile strength compared to RTV silicone.


   Estimation of Bacterial Load in Gingiva of Patients Wearing Removable Dentures Attending Out Patient Clinics for Review Top


Jembulingam Sabarathinam, Muralidharan NP

Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: drjembu@gmail.com

Objective: This study was done to assess the bacterial load in gingiva of patients wearing complete or removable partial dentures since any prosthetic material placed in mouth will make the oral cavity more susceptible to infections. Materials and Methods: 20 patients from Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India who were given removable dentures who came for review were taken for this study after obtaining informed consent. 10 patients were people who had natural tooth and 10 people with removable dentures. Swabs were collected from the gingiva of the subjects and was cultured in BHI medium. Then the colonies were manually counted and tabulated. Results and Conclusion: The bacterial load on gingiva of removable denture wearers is twice as much as in the gingiva of non-denture wearers which proves that denture wears are easily susceptible to gingival infection twice as much as non denture wears and need extra prophylactic methods to prevent bacterial accumulation.


   Finite Element Analysis of Aramany Class 1 Single and Two Piece Obturator Top


Monisha M, Gopi Chander N

Department of Prosthodontics, SRM Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: monishaa1395@gmail.com

Objective: The study conducted to evaluate the stress on the supporting structures of Aramany class I defect restored with single and two piece closed bulb obturator prosthesis. Materials and Methods: Finite Element (FE) model of Aramany class I defect rehabilitated with single and two piece closed bulb obturator prosthesis was constructed. Unilateral defect restored with tripodal design single piece closed bulb obturator was used as FE model 1 and two piece magnet retained closed bulb obturator as FE model 2. Finite element analysis (FEA) with three different load (150N, 200N, 250N) applications was used to calculate the von-Mises stress. Results and Conclusion: 62.28 MPa was observed in two piece closed bulb design with 150N force and highest stress value of 104.15 MPa in single piece obturator with application of 250N.


   Evaluation of Efficacy of Acupressure and Acupuncture in Preventing Gag Reflex of Patients during Prosthodontic Treatment Top


Arthisri AS, Rathinavel Pandian, Venkatakrishnan CJ

Department of Prosthodontics, Tagore Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: thillaarthisri@yahoo.com

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Acupressure and Acupuncture in preventing gag reflex during prosthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of forty two (N = 42) patients who required RPD, FPD, CD or any other prostheses with gagging severity index (GSI) scale 5 were included in the study based on the patient inclusion criteria. These patients were randomly divided into two groups of 21 each using simple lottery method. In each group seven patients received point A (CHENJIANG), next seven received point B (Neiguan), and last seven received Point C (Hegus). Results and Conclusion: The effectiveness of the 2 procedures was evaluated.


   Drug Emancipating Dental Implants Top


Aishwarya Raju

Department of Prosthodontics, Sri Venketeshwara Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: ashscute@gmail.com

The drug (commonly antibiotics) released from the dental implants can inhibit the bacterial growth around it, which curtails the growth of microbes and thus helps to reduce the implant related complications. To extend the longevity and to minimize the related complications of placing dental implants, this survey recorded of the number of failed cases of dental implants and the number of cases that has failed due to peri-implantits. As the bacterial growth is retarded there is decrease in the risk of infections and its further complications, hence increasing the robustness of the dental implant placed.


   Awareness of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate in Tooth Remineralisation among Dental Students: A Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey Top


Varusha Sharon C, Vinay Sivaswamy

Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: varusha3105@gmail.com

Objective: To increase the awareness of CPP-ACP in tooth remineralisation among Dental students. Materials and Methods: The survey questions were posted in Survey Planet and was circulated among students. The obtained data was statiscally analysed. Results and Conclusion: The awareness about the product is not at a remarkable rate. The awareness rate is less than 50%. As a conclusion, the uses and indications of CPP-ACP must be inculcated in the curriculum to gain better knowledge.


   Stimulatory Salivary Sensors for Irradiated Edentulous Patients Top


Ravalika S, Gopi Chander N

Department of Prosthodontics, SRM Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: singarapu.ravalika@gmail.com

Objective: The objective is to fabricate a stimulatory salivary sensor that reduces the prosthesis discomfort in xerostomia and irradiated patients. Materials and Methods: Micro pressure sensors are used to reduce the limitations faced by the patient. The sensors are placed in palatal region of the maxillary complete denture to induce salivation. A pressure sensor typically measures the gases or liquids and it expresses the force required to stop or stimulate the flow of a fluid. The transducer generates a signal as a function of the pressure imposed and salivary reservoirs with artificial substitutes attached with sensors helps in stimulating salivation. Results and Conclusion: This provides an update on the futuristic management of xerostomia, with further investigations and technological improvement.


   Knowledge Aptitude and Practice of Dental Practitioners in Management of Traumatic Neuroma Top


Asvini Devi VN, Dhanraj Ganapathy

Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: avini92devi@gmail.com

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge aptitude and practice of dentists in management of traumatic neuroma. Materials and Methods: The study was done among 100 general dental practitioners in India. Questionnaire was sent via mail through google forms and the responses were recorded. Results and Conclusion: The study inferred that a vast majority were not aware of the management strategies, follow up and rehabilitation of patients with traumatic neuroma. Hence, vigorous dental awareness programs need to be conducted to address this issue.


   A Systematic Review on Surface Treatment of Tantalum Top


Abinaya K, Thiyaneswaran N

Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: dr.abinayakannan@gmail.com

Objective: To systematically review the literature of the past and the present for studies on surface treatment of Tantalum metal and its effects. Materials and Methods: The data bases of Pubmed Central and Medline were searched for the related topics. Bibliographies of studies and reviews, identified in the electronic search, were analyzed for studies published outside the electronically searched journals. Results and Conclusion: The search yielded a total of 32 articles out of which 27 were discarded after reading the title and abstracts. Four articles were handpicked and a total of 9 articles were obtained based on the inclusion criteria. Alkali treated Tantalum, showed superior properties than unpolished Tantalum and other metals in terms of better bonding, increased surface roughness, increased thickness of surface oxide layer and formation of surface crystals indicating osseointegration From this review we may conclude that porous alkali treated Tantalum may be a promising material in the field of Oral Implantology.


   Fabrication of Chitosan/nHA Composites Cross Linked with Chlorotrimethylsilane Top


Aravind K, Dhanraj M

Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: aravindbhat29@gmail.com

Objective: To fabricate and evaluate, smart polymer composites of chitosan/nano hydroxyapatite. Materials and Methods: The composites were prepared by dissolving Chitosan flakes (3 g) in 2% acetic acid. The solution was then filtered using a cloth filter. The required quantity of CTMS was added to form the corresponding experimental groups. nano hydroxyapatite (0.2 g) was added to each of the solution and ultrasonicated. Later, the solutions were cast into petri dishes and dried inside a hot air oven at a temperature of 50 C for 48 h. The samples were tested with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Water absorption studies. Results and Conclusion: The results of the study showed that the polymer Cs/nHA composite with CTMS showed favorable response to changes in pH. Swelling studies performed in deionized water showed that at high concentrations of CTMS the composite films degraded within 24 hours.


   Stereomicroscopic Evaluation of Surface Adaptation of Denture Base Resins with Different Polymerization Techniques Top


Benita P, Dhanraj M

Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: benitavirgo19@gmail.com

Objective: To assess the surface adaptation of denture base resins processed using different polymerization techniques. Materials and Methods: 20 master casts were made from a silicone negative replica of maxillary complete edentulous arch. This study consists of 4 groups with 5 samples in each group. The samples were viewed under high magnification stereo microscope under 3X magnification and the adaptation of the denture base to the cast in the corresponding sites were evaluated. The discrepancy in the surface adaptation was measured using stereo microscope and expressed in microns and the obtained values were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results and Conclusion: In this study denture bases fabricated using injection molding heat cure technique showed the greatest surface adaptation with the least adaptation discrepancy followed by autopolymerization technique, compression molded heat cure technique and light polymerization technique.


   Effect of Presurgical Surface Immersion with Various Osseoinductive Materials on the Removal Torque and the Percentage of Surface Delamination as a Measure of Osseointegration of Mini Implants of Rabbit Tibia: An Experimental Animal Study Top


Subhashree R, Deepak Nallasamy, Thyianeeshwaran N

Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: drsubhashree27@gmail.com

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of osseoinductive materials (PRP, PRF, BMP2) on the rate of osseointegration. Materials and Methods: It is an experimental single blinded animal study with 12 healthy male New Zealand white rabbits. Randomization was carried out using lottery method and the animals were grouped accordingly. Group 1: Placebo Controlled model – Rabbits received ortho mini implants. Group 2: Rabbits received ortho mini implants, surfaced dipped with PRP. Group 3: Rabbits received ortho mini implants, surfaced dipped with PRF. Group 4: Rabbits received ortho mini implants, surfaced dipped with BMP2. The primary stability was measured using a customized wrench. The animals were sacrificed after 7 weeks. Results and Conclusion: There was a mild increase in the osseointegration as measured by the removal torque of the implants immersed in PRP, PRF and BMP 2; however there was no significant difference in the area of delamination between the groups. Modification of the implant surface could significantly increase the removal torque as well as the bone adherence.


   Evaluation of Accuracy of Stereolithographic Surgical Guides in Implant Placement: A Systematic Review Top


Arunasree VM, Deepak Nallaswamy

Department of Prosthodontics. Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: arunavaduguru@gmail.com

Objective: To determine the accuracy of the stereolithographic surgical guide in implant placement. To compare between the virtually planned and placed position of the implantand to determine the angular and linear deviations at the apex and neck of the implant. Materials and Methods: The search strategy included searching MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Scholar's portal database. A hand search was also performed. A systematic search was done on the articles acquired from the above mentioned databases which were then manually analysed according to the pre–set inclusion and exclusion criteria independently. Results: Twenty seven studies fulfilled our inclusion/exclusion criteria and were included in this review. Among the included articles only two studies were randomised controlled trials, and due to heterogeneity in the outcome measures, namely angular deviation, global deviation at neck and apex of the implant, a meta-analysis could not be performed. However, based on the available evidence, SimPlant® by Materialise. Inc and Nobel Clinician® are the most clinically analysed systems. Nobel appears to be more accurate in replicating the implant angulation while SimPlant appears to be more accurate in replicating the global implant position.


   Microbial Resistant Dentures: An In vitro Approach Top


Siva Nagini Y, Deepak Nallaswamy

Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: yssr.nagini@gmail.com

Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of antibiotic impregnated dentures to control the microbial colonisation which is further causing infections in geriatric denture wearers. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 20 denture blocks were prepared with a size of 5*5 mm. As a group of 10 they were impregnated with antifungal agent fluconozole 150 mg. The other group of 10 were impregnated with an antibiotic agent amoxicillin 500 mg. Both were added in antibiotic to resin ratio of 0.025:1. They were placed in the artificial saliva of ph 5, 7, 9. The salivary medium is replaced every day. After a period of 7 days the blocks were reevaluated for the degree of growth of microbial pathogens. Results and Conclusion: The fluconozole impregnated blocks show the decreased thickness of candidal growth. The amoxicillin impregnated blocks shows the clear zone of inhibition of bacterial growth and an average clear zone is determined. The amoycillin shows the marked effect against the bacteria. The study gave a scope for further investigations with incorporating newer agents or different agents at various concentrations.


   Affordability versus Willingness for Dental Treatment Top


Pravinya Sam, Suresh V

Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: pravinyasam@ymail.com

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the awareness about dental treatments and willingness to spend for dental treatment among patients as an important factor in determining the treatment plan. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was framed to evaluate the buying capacity of individuals towards comfort and gadgets and their buying capacity when it comes to dental treatment and the responses were collected using an online surveying tool. Results and Conclusion: People are more willing to spend for gadgets and comfort than the basic dental needs. Most of them are unaware of the fact about regular dental visits and visit the dentist only on getting pain or other severe problems and show negligence towards spending for other crucial treatments even when the dentist educates them about the need for the treatment.


   Effect of Recasting on the Bond Strength of Porcelain to Base Metal Alloys: A Systematic Review Top


Prithvi Udhayaraja, Dhanraj Ganapathy

Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: prithviudhayaraja@gmail.com

Objective: To evaluate the effect of Recasting on the bond strength of Porcelain to Base Metal Alloys. Materials and Methods: Electronic search of the Pub Med–MEDLINE database was done. The reference lists of all eligible studies were also searched. The results of the searches were analyzed. Results and Conclusion: The PUBMED search yielded a total of 7 articles of which three studies met the inclusion criteria and 4 were excluded. All the 3 included studies evaluated the effect of recasting on the bond strength of porcelain to base metal alloys. The literature has reported the following findings on porcelain bond strength with recasted alloys: The first Recasting of Alloys reduces the bond strength of Porcelain to the base metal alloys. The Second Recasting does not differ greatly from the first Recasting. A 50% Recast of Alloys greatly reduces their strength.


   A Retrospective Study of the Radiographic Bone Formation in Patients after Indirect Sinus Lift Using Transcrestal Osteotomy with Simultaneous Implant Placement in Tenting Fashion Top


Sneha Gada, Thiyaneswaran N

Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: snehagada1@gmail.com

Aim: To retrospectively evaluate the amount of bone height gained using thetranscrestal approach for sinus lift using osteotomies along with simultaneous placement of implantsin our institution. Materials and Methods: Records of the past 2-year period (2014–2016) of partially edentulous patients reviewed in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India were scanned to obtain records of patients who underwent implant placement to replace missing teeth in posterior edentulous maxillary region with deficient vertical bone height. The inclusion criteria being the sinus lift procedure had been carried out without the use of any graft material. The average follow-up time was 6-12 months. CBCT evaluation pre-operative records were procured and the post operative CBCT was taken. Bone height from the sinus floor to the bone crest was measured at the same site. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test. Results and Conclusion: Transcrestal osteotomy with implants used to tent the sinus membrane without additional graft material can show a significant mean bone height gain of 4.6 mm.


   Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey on Use of Face Bow in Fabrication of Complete Denture among Prosthodontist Top


Sweetha G, Ashish Jain

Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: gsweetha7@gmail.com

Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the use of and attitudes towards a face-bow among prosthodontists in complete denture fabrication. Materials and Methods: 50 prosthodontists in different dental colleges affiliated separately. A questionnaire was sent to them with 10 questions covering the following aspects: (I) the education and experience background of the prosthodontists, (ii) the use of and attitudes towards a face-bow in complete denture fabrication and (III) about their patient satisfaction. Results and Conclusion: Prosthodontist who had fabricated at least five complete denture seldom used a face bow in complete denture fabrication they believed more than 90% of their edentulous patients were satisfied with the complete denture, that fabricated without using a face bow, only 33.33% believed that the quality of the denture would be lower if face bow was not used. More than 54% believed that there was no difference in using and not using the face bow in complete denture. 42.3% believed it is not necessary to use face bow in complete denture & 55% believed it time consuming.


   Effect of Dietary Aminoacids Lysine and Arginine on Osseointegration of Titanium Implants Top


Visalakshi Ramanathan, Suresh V

Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: visalakshi.parameswaran@gmail.com

Objective: To assess if amino acids lysine and arginine combination have the potential in changing the effectiveness of bone healing around implants. Materials and Methods: The total sample size was 12 and was based on the E value (E=Total number of animals – number of groups). The study has 2 groups henceforth E value is 10. Control group was assigned with 3 animals, experimental group was assigned with 9 animals (1:3). The experimental animals were fed with standard pellet diet, water along with amino acids L-Lysine and L-Arginine Titanium implants measuring 2.5 mm * 6 mm (Leforte screws) were placed in each osteotomy done in tibial bone by retracting the long flexor muscle. One animal from control group and 3 animals from experimental group were euthanized at the end of 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks respectively. The tibial bone was harvested and fixed in 1% formalin. The interpretations of the specimens were noted down by two independent observers and scored. Results and Conclusion: Based on the result of this study there is difference in the experimental group animal's vascularity, clot organization, osteoblasts, fibroblasts and osteoid bone formation in 8 weeks when compared to 4 weeks and 2 weeks and control groups as well but the difference between the control and experimental group animals doesn't seem to be statistically significant.


   Can the Sella Turcica Bridging be used as an Indicator for Malocclusion Top


Suganya DV, Ashwin Mathew George

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: dvsukanya@gmail.com

Objective: Calcification of the interclinoid ligament (ICL) of the sella turcica, or sella turcica bridging, has been associated with severe craniofacial deviations. In order to investigate the correlation between the presence of buccally displaced canine with sella bridging, a retrospective study was performed. Materials and Methods: 15 subjects with buccal impacted canine and a control group of 15 subjects with a complete permanent dentition and skeletal class 1. The presence of the complete sella bridging between the anterior and posterior clinoidal processes of the sphenoid bone was evaluated using lateral cephalograms. Results and Conclusion: There is a significant difference in increase of sella bridging and impacted canine which can also be used as a diagnostic marker for malocclusion. Bridging of sella turcica can be considered as a valid cephalometric interpretation to ascertain the presence of dental anomalies like buccally erupted canine.


   Slow Maxillary Expansion in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients: A Systematic Review Top


Suvetha S, Ravindra Kumar Jain

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: suvetha150992@gmail.com

Objective: The aim of this systematic review is to review the literature on effects of slow maxillary expansion in CLP population. Materials and Methods: A search of the electronic database of PUBMED, up to and including 2016 was made. Studies included were randomised control trials, case series and case reports. Results and Conclusion: This systematic review shows that slow maxillary expansion is effective, stable and significant in treatment of cleft lip and palate patients. Further studies with larger sample sizes is required to conclude the long term stability of slow maxillary expanders.


   Effect of Premolar Extractions on Vertical Dimension in Borderline Extraction Case: A Multicentre Retrospective Study Top


Swetha Sridharan, Aravind Kumar

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: swetha611@gmail.com

Objective: Aim of this study is to investigate the short-term effects of systematic premolar extraction in borderline cases for extraction therapy on vertical dimension. Materials and Methods: 50 first premolars extracted, 50 non-extraction patients were included with the criteria of Overjet of 6–9 mm and crowding of >6 mm. Patient selection by multivariate cluster analysis ensured homogeneity at baseline regarding dentoskeletal parameters. Parameter changes were determined with the models and compared between the extraction and non-extraction group. Results and Conclusion: The systematic extraction of premolars in borderline patients with a distinct sagittal overjet and crowding did not significantly influence vertical dimension. The influence of premolar extractions on vertical dimension is often overestimated, since only slight changes are to be expected. In integrated treatment planning, the extraction decision should not be primarily based on concerns about the aggravation of vertical dimension.


   Digital versus Manual Top


Nivethiga A, Saravana Pandiyan

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: sathyanive25292@gmail.com

Objective: This study evaluated the accuracy of dental measurements made on plaster models compared with blue cam images and digital photographs. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised pre-treatment diagnostic study models of 10 randomly selected subjects divided into three subcategories. CAD CAM and photographs of the model were taken and digitally analysed. Plaster models were analysed with a vernier calliper. Results were obtained. ANOVA test was done to determine the statistical significance. Results and Conclusion: Digital measurement using photographs in FACAD and Blue CAM generated digital models can be used as an alternative to the conventional measurement of plaster models using a vernier callipers.


   Relationship between American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index and Complexity of Treatment Plan Top


Dhivya R

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: pangaja.sas@gmail.com

Objective: Our aim was to determine the relationship between the severity of malocclusion recorded using ABO Discrepancy Index and the complexity of orthodontic treatment plan. Materials and Methods: Using randomised sampling method, 300 subjects of mean age 20.09±6.03 (126 males and 174 females) were selected from the patients reporting to Orthodontics Department of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India. We scored molar relationship, overjet, overbite, anterior and posterior cross bite, scissors bite, cross bite, cephalometric values like ANB, GoGnSn and IMPA values from their lateral cephalograms and models. The treatment plan were retrieved from their case records. A scoring has been used to determine the complexity of treatment plan. The DI scores were compared with the score given for treatment plan. Results: 48%, 46% and 6% had mild, moderate and severe malocclusion respectively. Of the total subjects 50% had class I malocclusion. Spearman correlation revealed positive correlation between DI score and complexity of treatment plan (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that mild and moderate malocclusions were more common among the subjects with similar numbers when compared with severe malocclusion and the complexity of treatment increased with the increase in the Discrepancy Index scores.


   Comparative Shear Bond Strength Evaluation of Recycled Brackets Using Different Methods Top


Arthypriya D

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: drarthypriya@gmail.com

Objective: To evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of brackets recycled using different methods. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using three groups of orthodontic brackets (0.022” × 0.028”, MBT prescription) bonded on the premolars mounted in cubes. A total sample of 90 extracted maxillary and mandibular premolars were used in this study. The samples were divided into 3 groups namely Group I (Flaming +acid etching), Group II (Flaming+electro polisher), Group III (Sandblasting). Recycling of the brackets were done by different methods. Tests were done in a Universal Testing Machine Instron to find the bond strength of recycled brackets using different methods. Results: From the result of ANOVA, we observed the test is significant (F = 20.79, P < 0.01). When the Tukey's t-test result was applied it was seen that the mean shear bond strength of all groups of brackets is as follows: Group I (5.31 Megapascals [Mpa]) < Group II (7.37 Mpa) < Group III (8.96 Mpa). We can also say that shear bond strength of following bracket groups can be arranged as Group I < Group II < Group III. Conclusion: From this study we conclude that Group III, which was recycled with sandblaster showed the highest shear bond strength.


   Fatigue Resistant Device versus Powerscope: A Comparitive Study Top


Remmiya Mary Varghese, Aravind Kumar S

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: remmiya@gmail.com

Objective: The purpose of this prospective randomized controlled trial was to compare the dentoskeletal changes seen in Skeletal class II cases when treated by Forsus fatigue resistant device and Powerscope class II corrector between the age group of 13-16 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 6 patients were randomly assigned either to group 1 with Forsus fatigue resistant device or group 2 with Powerscope class II corrector to check for the dental and skeletal changes achieved using fixed functional appliance. Changes were analyzed in both groups on lateral cephalograms taken pre functional appliance and after a duration of six months in both the groups. Results: Paired t test was used to analyze the treatment changes within the groups and independent t tests for the treatment changes between groups. Within the group statistically significant changes was seen and between the groups no statistically significant change was seen. Conclusion: Significant changes had occurred in both the groups. An evident reduction in ovejet and ANB angle was seen. An increase in mandibular length was also seen in both groups. The Powerscope Class II Corrector and Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device are both acceptable compliance-free appliances for Class II correction.


   Cytotoxicity of Orthodontic Molar Bands with Soldered Joints Top


Sunita Sugumaran, Ravindra Kumar Jain

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: sunita_eco@yahoo.co.in

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of orthodontic molar bands with silver solder joints. Materials and Methods: Stainless steel metallic orthodontic bands soldered using silver solders were evaluated for cytotoxicity. According to the manufacturer, the bands are composed of 17–20% Cr, 8–10% Ni, and a maximum of 0.60% Mo and Fe. For the silver solder, a segment of stainless steel 19 gauge wire (17–20% Cr, 8–10%Ni, and a maximum of 0.60% Mo and Fe) was soldered to the lingual side of each band using silver solder alloy (55–57% Ag, 21–23% Cu, 15–19% Zn and 4–6% Sn) and solder flux heated by a micro-torch using propane gas. The amount of solder alloy, flux used for soldering and the polishing procedure were standardized. An in vitro cytotoxicity test using indirect contact method was performed using test sample as per ISO 10993:5. Results and Conclusion: As per ISO 10993:5 the achievement of numerical grade more than 2 is considered as cytotoxic effect. The test sample showed nil cytotoxic reactivity to L929 cells after 24 contact. Since the test sample achieved a numerical grade not greater than 2, none of the samples are considered as cytotoxic. Control gave nil cytotoxic reactivity as expected.


   Force - Deflection Property of a Triple Force NiTi wire Top


Deepa Kumaran, Shantha Sundari

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: dentistvdeepa@gmail.com

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the deactivation forces of the anterior, middle and posterior wire segments of the Triple Force NiTi with that of anterior, middle & posterior segments of the conventional NiTi archwire. Methodology: The wires (n = 40), 20 specimens in two groups of 0.016 Triple Force NiTi and 0.016 Conventional NiTi were ligated to stainless steel brackets with steel ligatures. A testing machine (model 3382 INSTRON) recorded the deactivations for a deflection of 2 mm at a cross head speed of 0.3 mm/mt with 50N load. The deactivation forces of anterior, middle and posterior segments for both groups were recorded. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the deactivation forces, Between anterior, middle and posterior segments of the new Triple Force NiTi (p<0.05) and Between anterior segments of Triple Force NiTi and Conventional NiTi, posterior segments of Triple Force NiTi and conventional NiTi (p<0.05). Conclusion: Under the conditions of this study, Triple Force NiTi wire has the potential to efficiently align the teeth.


   Comparison of Rate of Mandibular Decrowding in Empower and MBT Brackets during Levelling and Aligning Top


Vanita Barai, Vinod Abraham

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: vanitabarai@gmail.com

Objective: To assess and compare the rate of mandibular decrowding, using two different brackets, empower and MBT during levelling and aligning. Materials and Methods: A RCT of 30 cases divided into 2 groups. The first receiving conventional MBT and the second empower. Following strap up, patients were reviewed at the 4th and 8th week during which impressions were recorded for the stage. Decrowind was assessed with Little's index of irregularity and the amount of decrowding computed and assessed. Results and Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the amount of decrowding between both groups. Average amount of decrowding was 0.46 mm.


   Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy in Pain Reduction after the Prebanding Orthodontic Separation Top


Priya B

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: drpriya153@gmail.com

Objective: The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of LLLT in pain reduction in split mouth techniques on patient undergoing pre-banding orthodontic separation. Methods: 30 volunteers with the age range from 13 to 32 years participated in the study. The separators was placed between the mesial and distal contacts of maxillary first molars. The study was to have a split mouth design where first quadrant was exposed to low level laser at 830 nm radiation, while the second quadrant was exposed to light cure. The whole procedure was carried out immediately after placing the seperators. Patients were provided with a visual analog scale (VAS) and the volunteers were asked to grade the degree of pain procedure separately on both sides immediately after irradiation, 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, after the procedures. Result: It was found that the pain was significantly less in laser exposed region. Conclusion: LLLT immediately after placing separator reduced the prevalence of pain perception at 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs,. LLLT might have positive effects in orthodontic patients immediately after placing separators.


   Smile Analysis Top


Faridha S

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: faridha188@gmail.com

Objective: To study the variations observed in smile parameters on patients with different growth pattern. Methodology: Study involves standardised frontal photographs of 30 male and 30 female patients with 10 patients with horizontal growth pattern 10 with vertical growth pattern, 10 with average growth pattern in both male and female. Smile analysis included parameters like incisor exposure at smile, smile width, buccal corridor. Result: The mean values of smile parameters are significantly higher in males as compared to females irrespective of growth pattern. The mean incisal display, interlabial gap, lower lip to incisal edge distance, upper vertical lip length, occlusal plane angles are highest in both male and females of vertical growth pattern. Whereas the smile index, posterior corridor were less in vertical growth pattern. That is the transverse smile parameters where decreased in vertical growth pattern. Conclusion: The facial growth pattern has signifant influence on the parameters of smile along with sexual dimorphism.


   Effect of Bonding Agent Applied from Gloved Surface on Bond Strength Top


Sruthi S, Aravind Sivakumar

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: dr.sruthi92@gmail.com

Objective: To compare the change in the bond strength when bonding agent is placed from a plastic cup, Latex glove & Nitrile glove during bracket bonding. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 extracted human premolars without any restorations, cracks, caries, hypoplastic areas or plier's impressions were collected for this study and used within 3 months. All extractions done on patients indicated for orthodontic purposes in patients of 11-30 years of age. Standard bonding materials namely etchant, Transbond bonding agent, applicator tips, Transbond composite, light cure unit were used. Instron universal testing was machine used for measuring shear bond strength of orthodontic adhesive to teeth structure. Results and Conclusion: No statistical significance was seen between the 3 groups.


   An Estimation of Mento-Labial Angle on Standardized Lateral Cephalogram in Chennai Population: A Cross Sectional Study Top


Gayathri Devi

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: kgayathridevi11@gmail.com

Objective: To estimate the mentolabial angle from the lateral cephalogram of adult males and females having normal occlusion and class 1, class 2, class 3 malocclusion. To compare the measures of mentolabial angle between each malocclusion. Materials and Methods: Assessment of mentolabial angle was done by tracing the 75 lateral cephalograms. Results and Conclusion: The measure for mentolabial sulcus angle in adults having Class I malocclusion is 98.44° ± 11.21° Class II malocclusion is 83.32° ± 24.44° Class III malocclusion is 130.60° ± 21.34° Comparison between groups is statistically significant.


   Efficacy of Mouthrinse in Maintaining Oral Health of Patients Attending Orthodontic Clincs Top


Shahana RY

Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: shayazeer@gmail.com

Objective: The invitro experiment studying the effects of mouth rinses containing chlorohexidine and hydrogen peroxide on spirochetes. Results and Conclusion: Hydrogen peroxide found to be more beneficial for orthodontic patients to maintain their oral helath during the period of their orthodontic brackets.


   DNA Profiling of Streptococcus mutans in Children with Black Tooth Stains: A Pilot Study Top


Dhanalakshmi Ravikumar, Deepa G

Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: dhana9677@gmail.com

Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic patterns of Streptococcus mutans by DNA finger printing among caries-active, caries-free and in children with black tooth stains. Materials and Methods: Five children with black tooth stains and 5 caries-free children between 3-6 years of age were recruited. Saliva samples were collected using a sterile tube, followed by microbial culture of Streptococcus mutans, DNA isolation and PCR amplification. The molecular weights of each band were converted into a binary data and data were entered into SPSS software version 20.0 to generate similarity dendrograms. Results and Conclusion: Identical genotypes and high genetic similarity were seen among isolates of the caries-free and black tooth stains. Polymorphism and genetic diversity exist between the black tooth stain and caries-active samples.


   Usage of Internet for Academic Purpose by Undergraduate Student Top


Deepa Gurunathan

Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: drgdeepa@yahoo.co.in

Aim and Objective: To evaluate the usage of internet foracademic purposes by undergraduate students. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire was distributed to approximately 150 undergraduate students. Data was collected and recorded. Statistical analysis was done with the collected data to evaluate the usage of internet by the undergraduate students for their academic purposes. Results and Conclusion: They show their internet interest more for personal use than academic purposes. Their internet usage seems to be more for communication than searching for informations. Time is a factor which stops them from using internet. Hence it is essential to motivate the students to use the internet in a knowledgeable way.


   Cariometer Top


Veerale Panchal, Deepa Gurunathan, Shanmugaavel Karthikeyan

Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: veerale60193@gmail.com

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of cariometer app for caries prevention. Materials and Methods: 17 children were asked to use cariometer app and their oral hygiene habits, dietary habits and the score given by the app evaluated after 3 days. Results and Conclusion: There was a significant improvement in the diet, oral hygiene, after the use of the app. There was a significant decrease in the dietary score as given by the app. The app aids in improving dietary habit and oral hygiene habits in pre school children.


   Triple Antibiotic Paste with Comparison of Dental Materials Top


Kanthaswamy AC

Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: keenacks@gmail.com

Objective: To compare the efficacy of Triple Antibiotic Paste with routine Pulpectomy filling materials. Materials and Methods: The study group consist of 60 children in which 30 were control group who were filled with Metapex and 30 were experimental group who were filled with Triple antibiotic past. The follow up were done for 1 year and analysed with radiograph and with clinical signs. Results and Conclusion: Triple antibiotic paste shows clinically and radiographicaly better results than Metapex. Compare to Metapex, Triple antibiotic paste found to be more effective as an obturating material in primary molars.


   Materials Used for the Repair of Furcation Perforations: A Systematic Review of In vitro Studies Top


Madhu Sudhan V

Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: dr.madhusudhan24@gmail.com

Aim: To review the literature for an ideal material used in sealing the furcal perforation of molars. Materials and Methods: Structured electronic and hand search of the scientific articles was carried out in the EnterzPubmed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials & ScienceDirect databases and the reference lists from the scientific papers which are eligible for the study were searched. All the scientific papers were reviewed, assessed and graded according to the predetermined criteria. Results: The search resulted in 4 articles in Pubmed. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials database revealed zero articles. ScienceDirect search yielded 124 articles. A total of 117 articles. Hand search yielded 9 articles, After reviewing the titles and abstract 7 articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria. The evidence suggested that, there is a lack of strong clinical data to support the use of Calcium hydroxide, RMGIC, MTA & Biodentine as a sealing material for the perforation of the furcation in the molar teeth. This review strongly recommends the need for a properly randomised controlled clinical trial.


   Comparison of the Caries Status in Children Aged 3–6 Years with Low and High Self Esteem Top


Vaishali S, Shanmugaavel Karthikeyan

Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: vaishudevasri1348@gmail.com

Aim: To compare the self esteem of children with and without dental caries in the age group of 3 to 6 years. Materials and Methods: 8 schools were selected out of which 5 schools permitted and questionnaire which was based on popes scale was designed and distributed to 560 students and 366 questionnaires were returned. Result and Conclusion: Children with low self esteem have high index of caries when compared with children with high self esteem.


   Early Childhood Caries and First Dental Visit in School Going Children Top


Keerthika S, Shanmugaavel Karthikeyan

Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: keerthika699@gmail.com

Aim: Impact of first dental visit and early childhood caries. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among school going children of age between 3-6 yrs. Result and Conclusion: First dental visit had significant impact on early childhood cariess.


   Antimicrobial Activity of Fruit Juices on Oral Bacteria Top


Sahana Kritivasan, Muralidharan NP

Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: sahanakriti@gmail.com

Objective: To determine the Antimicrobial activity of fruit juices on the bacterial flora of mouth. The study is done to analyze whether the fruit juices helps in reducing the oral bacterial count which is constantly increasing. Materials and Methods: One section of the study is done using natural crude extracts of the fruit juices. The extract were sterilized by autoclaving at 121C for 30 minutes. The samples with 3 bacterial suspension was evaluated. The other section of the study was done by dividing the patients undergoing scaling treatment into two groups namely A&B in which one group was advised chlorhexidine and the other group pomegranate juice. Salivary samples were collected pre and post of the mouth rise and culture was prepared. Results and Conclusion: Summarising the antimicrobial effect of fresh juice pomegrante had significant effect on reducing the growth of the microorganisms than guava and apple in an in vitro condition. Where as fresh pomegranate mouth wash also showed considerable antimicrobial activity when compared with 2% chlorhexidine mouth wash. Thus consuming fruits juices regularly can be a good prophylactic measure.


   Estimating the Bacteria Load in the Saliva and Susceptibility to Caries in Smokers and Nonsmokers Top


Priyanka R, Muralidharan NP

Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: mayflowerg3@yahoo.com

Objective: The aim of the study is to know the effect of smoking in the oral microbial flora and to know the susceptibility to caries. Materials and Methods: 40 patients attending the dental OP were selected for the study after examining the oral cavity and they were segregated into two groups of 20 each, Smokers and Nonsmokers. Before initiating the treatment the salivary samples were collected in the sterile disposable containers and immediately transferred to microbiology lab for analysis. The salivary samples were diluted in the ratio of 1:40 with sterile saline and uniformly suspended. A fixed quantity was transferred. Results and Conclusion: In this study, the bacterial load in the saliva of smokers was compared with the non- smokers. The total bacterial count in the saliva of smokers and non-smokers did not show any significant variation (<3%) in the count, whereas the mutans count between the two groups had shown a significant variation of nearly 83%. There is a fourfold decrease in the mutans count in the smokers. When the total bacterial count in the two groups were compared, there was a reduction in mutans count in smoker group.


   Effect of Rosemary Oil on Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans: An In vitro Study Top


Sarvesh Kumar, Geetha RV

Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: dr.sarveshkumarj@gmail.com

Objective: To identify the effects of rosemary oil on biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: The effect of rosemary oil on biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans was studied using 96 well microtitre plate assay. Results and Conclusion: On analyzing the results it was observed that rosemary oil tends to prevent biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. By removing oral bacteria, rosemary essential oil can prevent gingivitis, cavities, plaque buildup, and other damaging dental conditions. So it can be used in dental aids like mouthwash and tooth paste as an alternative for chemicals, as these chemicals in long term can cause side effects like erosion of enamel etc.


   Antibacterial Effect of Garlic Extract on Growth of Staphylococcus aureus Top


Ilankizhai RJ, Geetha RV

Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: ilankizhairj@outlook.com

Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antibacterial activity of fresh garlic juice against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: Staphylococcus aureus was obtained from the Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India. In the present study, we are using fresh garlic juice as a form of garlic extract to analyze the antibacterial effect of garlic extract on Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial effect of garlic extract was tested by agar well diffusion method. Results and Conclusion: The crude garlic extract showed favorable results against Staphylococcus aureus even in varying concentrations.


   Candies for Cavities?! Top


Archana S, Chitra N

Department of Pharmacology, Sri Venkateswara Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: archanas.sms@gmail.com

The aim of the poster is to prove that licorice candies can prevent tooth decay. Licorice candies has licorice roots extract that contain a compound called glycyrrhizin, which has been proven to reduce tooth decay by inhibiting certain germs.


   Probiotics in Dentistry Top


Hemalatha Yadavgopal

Department of Pharmacology, Sri Venkateshwara Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: hema.yadavgopal482@gmail.com

They help in stimulating flora and also suppressing pathogens which cause and spread diseases. It is a dietary supplement, containing potentially beneficial bacteria and yeast. Probiotics is showing promising result in oral cavity which controls chronic oral diseases like dental caries, periodontitis etc. Probiotics play an important role in combating issues with overuse of antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance. It is right time to change the way bacteria are treated in today's world.


   Healozone Top


Karkuzhali S, Josephine Mary, Karthik K, Chitra N

Department of Microbiology, Sri Venkateshwara Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: josephineraj162@gmail.com

Objective: (i) To record the baseline pH of saliva. (ii) To record the changes in salivary pH after chewing fennel seeds. Materials and Methods: Convenience sampling method was applied and 30 subjects were selected. The salivary pH was recorded by pH salivary. Results and Conclusion: There was an increase in salivary pH from baseline (SP1) to 0 mins (SP2) was found to be highly significant (p = 0.000). Chewing of fennel seeds increases the pH of saliva, thus making it as anti-cariogenic.


   Isolation of Enterococcus species in Postoperative Local Sepsis in the Oral Cavity Top


Nivashini GSV, Muralidharan NP

Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: nivashinisridhar@gmail.com

Aim and Objective: To assess the incidence of Enterococcus species in post-operative local sepsis in the oral cavity. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of Enterococci resistant to one or more of these antibiotics is increasing day by day which has resulted in serious therapeutic difficulties. The isolation of Enterococcus and sensitivity pattern of the following drugs such as amoxicillin, amoxyclav and ampicillin were found by performing antibiotic sensitivity test by Kirby bauer disc diffusion method. Results and Conclusion: Totally 75 samples were collected and processed out of which 37 samples showed positive bacterial culture. From these positive cultures 9 different species are isolated and Enterococcus found to be in 15 samples. Comparing the sensitivity pattern for the most commonly prescribed antibiotics against Enterococcus species, we state that they are equally sensitive to all the above mentioned antibiotics.


   Role of Polyamines in Infected Root Canal Top


Arun Kanishkar MA, Raaja Sreepathy, Chitra N

Department of Microbiology, Sri Venkateswara Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: arun.kanishkar@gmail.com

Teeth that are painful to percussion or spontaneous pain have been shown to have higher concentration of total polyamines in necrotic pulps. Decomposing pulp or organic matrix or gram negative obligate anaerobic bacteria in infected root canal convert them or produce polyamines. They play an important role in periapical inflammation. Among the four different types of polyamines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine) putrescine and cadaverine has a major role in infected root canal. Polyamines on significantly larger level are the root cause for teeth with spontaneous pain, swelling and putrescent odour.


   Probiotics in Dentistry Top


Theerthika D, Swajanya SV, Chitra N

Department of Microbiology, Sri Venkateswara Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: theerthika123@gmail.com

Probiotics are dietary supplements, which have been advocated for the prevention and the treatment of a wide range of diseases. These products consist of beneficial micro-organisms, which stimulate health promoting flora thus, suppressing the pathologic colonization and disease spread. Since, probiotics are now widely used in dental specialties (reduction in caries development, in achieving periodontal health, reducing oral malodor, etc), a thorough understanding of their risks and benefits is essential. The human gut contains several hundred microbial species, the diverse environment may benefit from consuming multiple probiotic strains.


   Vaccines for Dental Caries Top


Pragya P, Priyanka K, Chitra N

Department of Microbiology, Sri Venkateswara Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: vidya0912@gmail.com

Dental caries (cavities) is an infectious disease ubiquitous in civilized populations. Its treatment costs billions of dollars per year and entails considerable discomfort. Caries--the destruction of enamel, dentin, or cementum has a multifactorial etiology which includes host susceptibility, diet containing fermentable carbohydrates and cariogenic microorganisms. An object of the present invention to provide a subunit vaccine for dental caries. Another object is to provide a subunit vaccine derived from Streptococcus pneumoniae for dental caries. Yet another object is to provide compositions for administering a vaccine against dental caries. A further object is to provide a method for preventing dental caries. These and other objects of the present invention will be apparent from the following description. Vaccine against dental caries is prepared from the capsular polysaccharides of at least one of S. pneumoniae types 4, 12 or 19. Local immunization is preferred over a remote site vaccination.


   Impacts of Improper Disposal of Biomedical Waste Top


Jayapriya RS, Kamala G, Prathiba G

Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sathyabama Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: jayapriyasundhar@gmail.com

Biomedical waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, test, or immunization and research activities for use for humans and animals. Improper disposal of biomedical waste has various hazards on both humans and animals. Most vulnerable peoples at risk are sanitation workers, doctors, nurses, rag pickers, and sometimes even patients (nosocomial infections or hospital acquired infections). Various hazardous biomedical wastes may be, used needles or syringes, soiled gauze, chemicals, heavy metals (mercury, lead), radiations which may affect life of humans through the soil, water, air, etc. These may cause immense problems like cancers, loss of vision, mental retardation, neuronal disorders, bacterial or viral infections like HIV and cholera respectively. Hence, proper disposal of biomedical waste is very essential. Treatment techniques include double chambered incineration, autoclave, microwave, hydroclave, plasma torch and chemical treatment.


   H1N1 A Outbreaks in India Top


Sangeetha KS, Swetha Thampy

Department of Microbiology, Sathyabama Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: sangeethaks232@gmail.com

Influenza A virus is an orthomyxovirus which causes respiratory infection in humans. It is also found in pigs, aquatic birds and in poultries. Haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are two important antigens which are present on the surface of the virus. Sixteen subtypes of haemaglutinins (H1-H16) and nine subtypes of neuraminidase (N1-N9) are known in birds, some of which have also been found in humans in various combinations - 3 HA(H1, H2, H3) and 2 NA (N1, N2) types. H1N1 is swine origin influenza A virus. Spread of infection is quick and fast as it is transmitted by aerosol from infected patients. As the virus is very prone to shift and drift its mutation, transmission and spread is impossible to control but can be reduced by taking proper preventive measures. Complications occur in young children, elderly people, patients with cardiac and lung problems and pregnant women. Influenza occurs sporadically, as in epidemics or in pandemic form. Molecular method such as RT PCR is the choice of diagnosis. Virus isolation is done using embryonated eggs and in monkey kidney cell culture. Tamiflu is the drug of choice and injectable and aerosol vaccines are available.


   Nano-diagnostics and Nano-therapeutics in Atherosclerosis Top


Sakthivel R, Aravind J, Kesavaram Padmavathy, Krishnan Mahalakshmi

Department of Microbiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath University, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: juliuasamaldas@yahoo.co.in

Inflammation is essentially a protective biological response that restores tissue homeostasis following acute infection or injury. However, in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, inflammation is not effectively resolved and can lead to tissue damage and exacerbation of the underlying condition. Nanoparticles are currently used for detecting vascular inflammatory processes, which serve as predecessors to atherosclerosis. Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles and fluorine imaging have gained success in the diagnosis of atherosclerosis. Nanoparticle-based fluorinated MRI contrast agents have now revolutionised the field of molecular imaging in atherosclerosis. Nano-therapeutics have been used to augment resolution and to reduce inflammation with minimal host collateral damage. Targeted delivery and controlled-release of anti-inflammatory cytokines especially, interleukin 10 (IL-10) has been made possible using IL-10 incorporated polymeric nanoparticles. These Col-IV IL-10 NP22 nanoparticles are reported to be potential candidates for target nanodrug delivery to reduce atherosclerotic plaques. Also, HDL-based nanoparticles have been developed that can bind to the immune players – macrophages, both the free-floating and those glommed on to a plaque. These, HDL based NPs prevent them from turning into foam cells and hence inhibit the production of inflammatory molecules.


   Chitosan in Dentistry Top


Dharini J, Dhivyadharshini S, Kesavaram Padmavathy, Krishnan Mahalakshmi

Department of Microbiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath University, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: dharinisriram98@gmail.com

Chitosan is a bioplymer of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine derived by the partial deacetylation of chitin obtained from crustacean (shrimp, crab shell and squid)shells. The antibacterial property of chitosan is largely due to the electrostatic interactions between reactive functional group- NH3+ of chitosan that binds to negatively charged bacterial cell surface components that eventually results in the leakage of intracellular components and cell death. Chitosan has been proved to have a wide variety of applications in dentistry. Chitosan -EDTA combination (1:1) is documented to be a potential root canal irrigant that performs a dual role – root canal disinfection and smear layer removal with minimal erosion. Chitosan derivates (N-carboxymethyl-chitosan and imidazolyl-chitosan) has been documented to reduce dental caries and S. mutans count. Chitosan based gels have shown to possess antimicrobial activity against the periodontopathic bacteria, P. gingivalis. Chitosan based Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) and Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) membranes are candidate biopolymers owing to their low cost, superior biocompatibility, non-antigenicity, suitable degradation rate, flexibility in hydrated environments, hemostatic activity, antimicrobial and wound healing potential. Bioactive coating with chitosan is reported to improve osseointegration of orthopaedic and cranifacial implant devices.


   Dental Stem Cells Top


Luthfa Sanjjana

Department of Anatomy, Priyadharshini Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: luthfa_14@yahoo.com

The most valuable ongoing research in regenerative dentistry is stem cells. These cells have the ability to multiply fairly and to form specialised dentin, bone and neuronal cells. Teeth are the most natural source for stem cells, the collection being easy, convenient and affordable and has various prospective theraupautic applications. Regenerative capacity of the pulp is well known and has now been attributed to the pulpal stem cells. In the face of extraordinary advances in prevention diagnosis and treatment of diseases, devastating illness like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's affect the person's individuality, health and well being. These stem cells have multiple applications and there are several limitations as well. These limitations lie in identifying, isolating, purifying and multiplying these cells in the labs. But these limitations seem insignificant in cases where there is an emergency and the patient has not banked his umbilical cord, the dental stem cells come to rescue without any worry of graft rejection.


   Combating Caries with Self-destructing Bacteria Top


Soundaria S, Bhavishya B

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Priyadharshini Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: sanjjusr@gmail.com

Dental cariesis caused by the action of acids on the enamel surface. When bacteria present on the surface of tooth consumes sugar it releases lactic acid. Prolonged exposure of tooth to lactic acid causes erosion of enamel leading to caries. The ability of streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) to survive in acid is the reason for the species being main driver of tooth decay. This acid durability is due the presence of an enzyme called fatty acid bio synthase M (Fab M). This enzyme acts by forming a fatty acid barrier in the cell membrane as soon as it comes in contact with lactic acid. This prevents the acid from penetrating the cell and destroying it. When the enzyme is shut down, it makes the s.mutans 10000 times more vulnerable to acid damage. Considering this scientists have designed a new drug that targets Fab M gene and knocks it down. Once the gene is knocked down it does not produce fatty acid that guards the cell membrane from acid. The cell eventually gets destroyed by its own acid as soon as it eats sugar.


   Green Tea – Makes You Smart Top


Abishek Raj P, Midhun NG

Department of Biochemistry, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: juliuasamaldas@yahoo.co.in

The purpose of this presentation is to showcase the benefit of green tea. The first phase of this presentation involves a study on the production of green tea and its role in improving brain function. Green tea is composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The later phase of the presentation shows the explanation of clinical disorders related to the brain, which can be prevented by constant use of green tea. Conclusion: Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. It is composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion which has a great importance in general health; however more studies are necessary to confirm its action on other diseases.


   Assessment of Dentinal Thickness Using Various Rotary Files: An In vitro Study Top


Manojkanna K, Chandana CS

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: manojkanna05@gmail.com

Objective: To known the remaining dentin thickness in root pericervicular dentin by various rotary files. Results and Conclusion: Mani silk file shows less amount of dentin removal than protaper next and protaper.


   Evaluation of Depth of Penetration of Irrigant using a Rotary and a Reciprocating File System: An In vitro Study Top


Aishwarya R, Iffat Nasim

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: ash.ranganath@yahoo.com

Objective: To evaluate the depth of penetration of irrigant using a rotary and a reciprocating system using dye penetration method. Results and Conclusion: Protaper Universal rotary system and Wave one gold reciprocating system showed equal amount of dye penetration. No statistical difference was evident between the two groups.


   Comparative Evaluation of Flexural Strength and Flexural Modulus of Bulk Fill Composite using Different Curing Modes of Light Curing: An In vitro Study Top


Khirtika SG, Sindhu Ramesh

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: ksg991@gmail.com

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two different modes of light exposure (Conventional and pulse delay) on the flexural strength and flexural modulus of bulk fill composites. Results and Conclusion: Significant differences were found regarding flexural modulus means for the curing modes.


   Antimicrobial Efficacy of Aloe Vera Nanoparticles Top


Haripriya Subbaiyan, Ajitha P, Sandhya R

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: sharipriya92@gmail.com

Objective: To compare the Antimicrobial activity of Aloe Vera Nanoparticles to that of Calcium Hydroxide in persistent Endodontic infections. Results and Conclusion: Silver nanoparticles of Aloe vera demonstrated antimicrobial activity, henceforth research should be directed towards the use as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment.


   Thermal Degradation Profiles of Indirect Restorations: An Aid in Forensic Identification Top


Lokhasudhan G, Ajitha P, Sandhya R

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: lok9392@gmail.com

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of heat on different materials used for the fabrication of crowns. Materials and Methods: The crowns were fabricated (n = 10) with one of the following materials, Group 1: Lithium Disilicate Group 2: Zirconia Group 3: Indirect composite resin. Crowns were heated in the furnace to 400C and 1100C and assess for surface characteristics.


   Evaluating the Depth of Penetration of Irrigant of Varying Tapers using a Rotary System in Mesiobuccal Canal: An In vitro Study Top


Deepak S, Nivedhitha MS

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: sdeepu.92@gmail.com

Objective: To evaluate the irrigant penetration depth of varying tapers using m-two files in mesiobuccal canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty mesial canals of mandibular first molars were randomly assigned into 3 groups (n = 10): (1) 30.04%, (2) 25.06%, (3) 20.06%. Irrigation penetration depth was measured in occlusal radiograph using iohexol radiopaque gel. Results and Conclusion: There was statistically significant difference in depth of penetration of irrigant between group 1 and 3 and 2 and 3. And no significant difference between group 1 and 2. 20.06% taper files does not render complete debridement of mesiobuccal canal.


   Neuropeptides (Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide and Substance P) in Inflamed Pulp Tissue between Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients: An In vitro Study Top


Abirami R, Hannah Rosaline, Arasappan Rajkumar, Kandaswamy Deivanayagam

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Ramachandra Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: abirami592@gmail.com

Objective: To detect neuropeptides CGRP and substance P in inflamed pulp between diabetic and non diabetic patients. Results and Conclusion: The detection of neuropeptides CGRP & Substance P in diabetic patients were significantly less than in non diabetics.


   Evaluation of Surface Roughness of Bulk Fill Resin Composite with Different Filler and Photoinitiator System after Aging Top


Anita Jayakumaar, Mathan Rajan, Arathi Ganesh, Kandaswamy Deivanayagam

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: anitkris@gmail.com

Objective: To evaluate the surface roughness of bulk fill resin composite with different photoinitiator and filler system after aging with 3D non - contact profilometer. Materials and Methods: Bulk fill resin composite with different filler and photoinitiator system. Results and Conclusion: Results were analysed using One-way ANOVA, post-hock Tukey's test. Resin composite with Camphorquinone & Ivocerin as photoinitiator showed lowest surface roughness.


   Recent Advances in Dental Materials Top


Indumathi Balaji

Department of Prosthodontics, Sri Venkateshwara Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: indumathibalaji5@gmail.com

Objective: Technologies to create products and develop procedures that can be utilized by the dental professionals to treat various dental disease and oral conditions. Materials and Methods: Advances in dental care are making procedures faster, longer lasting and easier on patients. Results and Conclusion: Provides patient with more ease as well as comfort during the dental treatment.


   Cone Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation on Apical Transportation of Root Canal using Various Rotary Instruments: An In vitro Study Top


Jyothi Jain

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: jyothijain75@gmail.com

Objective: To Evaluate Apical Transportation of Root Canal using various rotary instruments using CBCT. Materials and Methods: CBCT, M two, pro taper, pro taper next. Results and Conclusion: Considering the absence of significant differences in apical transportation at all levels following preparation with M-two, ProTaper and ProTaper Next, it can be concluded that all the three systems have similar canal transportation values.


   Comparative Evaluation of the Accuracy of Two Electronic Apex Locators and Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Determining the Working Length in Teeth with Simulated Apical Root Resorption: An In vitro Study Top


Pradeep S

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: drrpradeepkumar@yahoo.co.in

Objective: To compare the accuracy of working length determination of Propex Pixi (Dentsply Sirona, Swiss), Root ZX mini (J Morita, USA) electronic apex locators and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in teeth with simulated apical root resorption. Materials and Methods: Propex Pixi (Dentsply Sirona, Swiss), Root ZX mini (J Morita, USA) electronic apex locators and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Results and Conclusion: In this present study Root ZX mini measured the tooth length with the greatest accuracy than propex pixi.


   Efficacy of Peracetic Acid in Rapid Disinfection of Endodontic File Top


Subash Sharma V

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: drsubashsharma@gmail.com

Objective: To compare the efficacy of per acetic acid in rapid disinfection of endodntic files. Materials and Methods: Newly opened and unopened files were disinfected using 4 different disinfecting solution for 5 mins. Then they were incubated in mueller hinton broth. Colony forming units were analyzed for each group. Results and Conclusion: Peracetic acid showed better disinfection of endodontic files than sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine.


   Comparative Evaluation of the Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Three Rotary Systems: In vitro Top


Delphine P

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: delphy.priscilla@gmail.com

Objective: Aim of the study to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 different rotary systems. Materials and Methods: 10 files of each system - pro taper Next, M two, Hero shaper files. Used in customised static cyclic fatigue testing device. Results and Conclusion: Significant difference in the cyclic fatigue resistance between the different files was seen.


   Comparative Evaluation of Inhibitory Effect of Different Fluoride Releasing Agents on Streptococcus mutans Top


Manish Ranjan, Sristi Nadar

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: manish.mds30@gmail.com

Sensitivity is very common in most people and fluoride varnish is used to relieve sensitivity and prevent dental caries. Three different fluoride releasing agents MI Varnish, VOCO Profluoride and 60 second taste. Streptococcus mutans is the bacteria that cause progression of caries and hence it is important to test the inhibitory effect of fluoride releasing agents on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 10 culture plates of nutrient agar was used. The three fluoride varnishes were placed on the culture plate that was swabbed with streptococcus mutans and a lawn culture done. The culture plates were observed after 24 hours and the legth of inhibition noted. Results: The bacterial inhibition in the culture was measured after 24 hours. It was found that phosphate fluoride gel by pascal company showed the most inhibition of about 26 mm, ACP-CPP showed a bacterial inhibition of 12 mm, and Sodium fluoride did not show any bacterial inhibition. This showed that phosphate fluoride is the most effective fluoride-releasing agent in inhibiting streptococcus mutans growth in the oral cavity. Thus it is advisable to use phosphate fluoride varnishes for better results.


   Don't be Rejected, How Can We Help Top


Balaji SM1,2,3

1President, IADR-APR, 2Secretary General, ISDR-IADR Indian Division, 3Maxillofacial Surgeon, Balaji Dental & Craniofacial Hospital, Teynampet, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: smbalaji@gmail.com

A good chance of getting published begins with a thorough planning. It is the duty of the dental college and the dean, teachers to create a contusive environment for research. In the Indian context, in Scopus database, a significant proportion of published dental research failed to garner citation and the numbers progressively increases with every year. Also, every year, the institutions and research teams faces numerous rejections from several journals. The root of the problem lies within us. The curriculum at both undergraduate and postgraduate level should enforce review dental journals periodically; include examinations in research methodology, basic bio-statistics and ethical concepts. Also, basic infrastructures and providing essential funding to initiate research projects are responsibilities of the Institution. With changes in pattern of education and research, the role of deans and teachers has undergone transformation. They have changed from leaders of research team to motivators and mentors of research. By being an active participant in the research team, the Deans can transform the research scenario. The present lecture will propose the minor changes in the functioning of Deans and Teachers of Dental institutions to have better research output as well as easily accepted in journal of repute.



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