Indian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental Research
HOME | ABOUT US | EDITORIAL BOARD | AHEAD OF PRINT | CURRENT ISSUE | ARCHIVES | INSTRUCTIONS | SUBSCRIBE | ADVERTISE | CONTACT
Indian Journal of Dental Research   Login   |  Users online: 836

Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size         

 


 
Table of Contents   
CASE REPORT  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 109-113
A contemporary approach for treatment planning of horizontally resorbed alveolar ridge: Ridge split technique with simultaneous implant placement using platelet rich fibrin membrane application in mandibular anterior region


1 Department of Periodontics, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication3-Apr-2017
 

   Abstract 

Treatment of edentulous sites with horizontal atrophy represents a clinical situation in which the positioning of endosseous implants might be complex or sometimes impossible without a staged regenerative approach. This case report presents management of horizontally deficient mandibular anterior ridge with a contemporary approach to treatment planning and application of platelet-rich fibrin membrane for ridge split technique and simultaneous implant placement. Implants in anterior mandibular area are considered to be most predictable, stable, with high success rate and patients' satisfaction with implant esthetics. In contrast to traditional ridge augmentation techniques, ridge splitting allows for immediate implant placement following surgery and eradicates the possible morbidity from a second surgical site.

Keywords: Cone beam computed tomography, horizontal ridge resorption, mandibular anterior implants, platelet rich fibrin membrane, ridge-split technique

How to cite this article:
Parthiban PS, Lakshmi R V, Mahendra J, Sreekumar K, Namasivayam A. A contemporary approach for treatment planning of horizontally resorbed alveolar ridge: Ridge split technique with simultaneous implant placement using platelet rich fibrin membrane application in mandibular anterior region. Indian J Dent Res 2017;28:109-13

How to cite this URL:
Parthiban PS, Lakshmi R V, Mahendra J, Sreekumar K, Namasivayam A. A contemporary approach for treatment planning of horizontally resorbed alveolar ridge: Ridge split technique with simultaneous implant placement using platelet rich fibrin membrane application in mandibular anterior region. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Jul 19];28:109-13. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2017/28/1/109/203625

   Introduction Top


Atrophic edentulous jaws can represent a significant challenge to the successful use of endosseous implants. The horizontal and vertical ridge resorption occurs at differential rates that vary among individuals and at different sites in the same person. However, there is greater extent of horizontal resorption that would make the implant positioning a complex task. Several implant driven treatment techniques have been proposed for horizontal defects such as monocortical block bone grafting, guided bone regeneration, ridge splitting procedures, and alveolar distraction osteogenesis. The complexity of such augmentation procedures warrants informed treatment planning that implies the aid of three-dimensional(3D)/volumetric evaluation of bone using cone beam computed tomography(CBCT). This case report describes a case of horizontally resorbed mandibular anterior ridge, which was treated with ridge split technique and simultaneous implant placement.


   Case Report Top


A 40-year-old female patient reported to the outpatient department with a chief complaint of missing lower front teeth region for the past 4months. The patient was systemically healthy and reveals a history of extraction of lower mandibular anterior teeth due to the advanced periodontal disease before 4months. On intraoral examination, reduced lower vestibular depth and Siebert's classIII alveolar defects were noticed. Acomplete case history with preoperative procedures including oral prophylaxis was performed. This was followed by investigations including routine blood screening, conventional orthopantomogram(OPG), and ridge mapping. Ridge mapping showed ridge width of<4mm and radiograph showed a ridge height of>10mm, which was inconclusive to plan the treatment. Hence, CBCT was advised in relation to the edentulous span with the note that the patient was more concerned about esthetic outcome and reduced treatment time.

Cone beam computed tomography analysis

The edentulous span necessitates placement of three implants to maintain the inter-implant distance of 3mm to counteract bone loss [Figure1]. Three implants were planned at equidistance, and CBCT sagittal slice was taken at site A(Implant 1), B(Implant 2), and C(Implant 3)[Figure2] and [Table1]. According to Tolstunov's classification of alveolar ridge defect, this particular case of horizontal deficiency falls under moderate resorption class[Table2].[1]
Figure1: Cone beam computed tomography image–coronal section showing the edentulous span in relation to 32–42

Click here to view
Figure2: Cone beam computed tomography image–sagittal section showing buccolingual width at 3mm below the crest and 6mm below the crest(a) Implant site A(b) Implant site B(c) Implant site C

Click here to view
Table 1: Preoperative measurements from cone beam computed tomography analysis showing the ridge width in relation to site A, B, and C at 3 mm apical to crest and 6 mm below the crest

Click here to view
Table 2: Tolstunov's classification of alveolar ridge width

Click here to view


The treatment planning was done using Romexis software in 3D visual reconstruction of CBCT image[Figure3]. The treatment was planned for ridge split technique with an intention to increase the local bone volume along with simultaneous implant placement in the mandibular anterior edentulous area and the procedure was explained to the patient completely, and duly written consent was obtained. The interpositional space was intended to be filled with bone graft. Platelet-rich fibrin(PRF) was prepared preoperatively after collection of 10ml intravenous blood drawn and centrifuged at 2700rpm for 10min without the addition of anticoagulant. The fibrin clot portion was then separated and sandwiched between two sterile glass plates to remove the acellular plasma. Fibrin matrix rich in growth factors(platelet-derived growth factor, Epidermal derived growth factor (EDGF), Insulin-like growth factor (IGF), transforming growth factor-β, thrombospondin) accelerates healing by altering the metabolism of epithelial cells and fibroblasts and promotes microvascularization.[2]
Figure3: Treatment planning done using Romexis software in three-dimensional visual reconstruction cone beam computed tomography image

Click here to view


Surgical technique

After administration of local anesthesia(2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 adrenaline) by mental nerve block, a crestal incision was given to elevate a mucoperiosteal flap [Figure4]. The crestal incision was given about 2mm lingual to the mid-crestal line for following reasons (1) the lower labial vestibular depth was shallow,(2) after ridge splitting and implant placement close approximation of the flaps would be difficult, and(3) besides to attain increased width of keratinized tissue around the implant. During mucoperiosteal flap elevation, the mentalis muscle attachment was found to at a higher level in the symphysis region, and the muscular attachment was preserved with the intention to support the labial cortical bone after lateralization.
Figure4:(a) Preoperative view of missing teeth(32, 31, 41, 42).(b) Crestal incision and flap elevation.(c) Crestal split with two lateral slit and ridge expansion.(d) Osteotomy site prepared in relation to implant site A, B, C and parallel pins were used to check the parallelism.(e) Single piece implants placed.(f) Platelet-rich fibrin membrane placement.(g) Flap approximated using simple interrupted sutures.(h) Temporization.(i) Final restoration

Click here to view


Initially, mid-crestal cut was placed using uni-beveled chisel(2mm) with bevel facing the labial bone and mallet to guide the further ridge-split. Further deepening of the crestal cut into the cancellous bone was performed using calibrated chisel. The depth of the ridge-split was determined in this case based on the CBCT measurements. Preoperatively, the ridge width at the level of 6mm below the crest was 6.39, 7.0, and 6.55mm at implant site A, B, and C respectively, that was ideal for 3.3mm diameter implant to achieve 1mm bone around the implant. Hence, the ridge splitting was performed up to a depth of 5mm. Following crestal ridge splitting, two lateral cortical cut were placed on either side of the edentulous span using bone-cutting carbide bur. The lateral cuts were then connected with the horizontal crestal cut to allow for the ridge expansion. Once the targeted depth was reached, chisels of increasing thickness were used with lever and wedge movements to gradually mobilize the lateral cortical bone. All attempts to avoid fracture of the buccal and lingual cortical bone were taken during mobilization of the cortical bone by providing adequate support, and also the lingual flap was not elevated apical to the crest. Furthermore, the ridge was carefully expanded to prevent fenestration and off-axis loading after implant placement.

Osteotomy site was prepared in relation to A, B, and C, to place three implants of dimensions 3.3mm×10mm single piece using pilot drill followed by 2.8mm diameter drill. The paralleling was checked, and self-tap implants were placed in the osteotomy bed. The interpositional space between the cortical plates was filled with particulate grafts–demineralized bone matrix(DMBM-Osseograft™), and PRF membrane was placed. The flap was closely approximated using 3-0 black silk sutures. Temporization was done on the day of surgery[Figure5]. The temporary bridge was cemented and the excess cement was removed meticulously. The postoperative instructions and ice pack were given. Antibiotics(Augmentin, BD for 5days) and analgesics(aceclofenac+paracetamol, BD for 3days) were prescribed. 0.2% chlorhexidine rinse was prescribed to use every 3h for 1week and twice daily for following 2weeks postoperatively. The suture removal was done on the 15thday after surgery.
Figure5: Immediate postoperative orthopantomogram showing implants placed

Click here to view


Clinical outcome

The ridge splitting technique performed in this case allowed a gain in width of 3mm uniformly throughout the edentulous span. The postoperative OPG taken on the 15thday after surgery showed the healing phase bone following the implant placement. The follow-up CBCT was taken on the 15thday showing ridge expansion of 6.62mm, 7.61mm, 7.35mm, respectively, at implant site A, B, C[Figure6] and [Table3]. The final restoration(DMLS–PFM direct metal laser sintered porcelain fused to metal) was given 3months following implant placement.
Figure6: Cone beam computed tomography image taken on the 15thday showing ridge expansion

Click here to view
Table 3: Postoperative measurements from cone beam computed tomography analysis

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


Following tooth extraction, the horizontal resorption hits the ridge with dissimilar yet certain patterns. There is accelerated bone loss in the labial wall of maxilla termed as centripetal resorption, whereas lingual wall of mandible tend to resorb faster known as centrifugal resorption.[3] The nonextraction cause of ridge atrophy involves denture-induced atrophy, trauma, periodontal disease, congenital alveolar defects, and tumor resection. Alveolar ridge width deficiency can be due to either cortical plate or cancellous bone resorption. However, cortical plate deficiency affects the implant survival to a greater degree because subsequently it can cause implant dehiscence after implant insertion and enhanced bone loss following implant loading.[4]

A variety of classifications have been proposed to address the horizontal, vertical, and combination defects and their treatment needs based on clinical evaluation or radiographic evaluation.[5],[6],[7],[8] A clinically relevant implant-driven classification of the alveolar ridge width was proposed by Tolstunov,[1] with the goal to assist an operator in choosing the proper bone augmentation technique. This classification projected eight classes to match the specific ridge topography and width with an appropriate surgical technique that can be used to that particular case of ridge width. Comparing the many techniques that were advocated for implant placement in horizontally deficient ridge, ridge-split provides several advantages such as predictable ridge expansion of 2–4mm, graft stability and decreased postoperative graft exposure, lack of donor site morbidity as with Onlay block grafting, and remarkably allows immediate implant insertion.[1]

Simion et al. in 1992, first introduced the ridge split technique to provide implant driven treatment for horizontally resorbed ridges.[9] Following that several modifications to original technique have been proposed. The staged approach of ridge expansion followed by implant placement after 2–4months is recommended for maxilla that has more elastic bone whereas mandible has more dense cortical bone, which is best suited for crestal ridge split and green-stick fracture on the lingual plate.[10] Minimum ridge width required for ridge split is 3–4mm and an adequate ridge height of>10mm is required to achieve primary stability during immediate implant placement.[11] In this case, the patient had an initial ridge width of<4mm, and hence ridge splitting was planned anticipating an increase of 3mm ridge width. Ridge split creates a 4-wall defect with cortical envelope and simulates an extraction socket.[1] An internal coagulum that forms with the placement of interpositional grafting helps in healing and woven bone formation. This technique provides excellent protection to the graft from exposure and displacement, also delivers vascularization from both the cortices and basal bone by internal perfusion throughout the whole healing process. Compared to maxillary soft tissue(palatal), mandibular soft tissue is more elastic and expands for the increase in ridge width to achieve a close approximation of flap.

The PRF membrane acts as a healing material accelerates wound closure by acting as a fibrin bandage.[2] The leukocytes concentrated in the PRF scaffold holds anti-infectious properties. The Platelet concentrates secrete the growth factors which are protected from proteolysis by the fibrin network, the growth factors promote cell migration and matrix remodeling during healing period.[12] The demineralized bone matrix material has a potential osteoinductive property which influences the osteoblastic behavior toward new bone formation.[13]

In a study conducted by Yoon et al., the implant survival rate after ridge-split procedure during an average follow-up period of 4.2±2.1years was 100% regardless of the implant system and complications.[14] Likewise, another study showed that the mean loss of the alveolar bone height was 0.542mm.[15] Thus in the present case, the crestal ridge split technique provided a predictable outcome and allowed reduced treatment duration by cutting off the waiting time for the second surgery. However, the limitation of the technique used in this case was a discomfort to the patient because of malleting that could have been averted by the use of the rotary instruments with surgical bone cutting burs and piezosurgery instruments. Furthermore, there is a risk of buccolingual bone fracture when excessive force is delivered which makes the procedure technique sensitive.[15] Despite the risk, the present case showed no such complication and the patient was satisfied with the final outcome after a follow-up period of 6months.


   Conclusion Top


Implants in anterior mandibular area are considered to be the most predictable and stable with high success rate and patient's satisfaction with implant esthetics. In contrast to traditional ridge augmentation techniques, ridge split technique allows for immediate implant placement following surgery and eradicates the possible morbidity from a second surgical site. Further long-term follow-up studies of several cases are needed to ensure the predictability of the procedure.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
TolstunovL. Classification of the alveolar ridge width: Implant-driven treatment considerations for the horizontally deficient alveolar ridges. JOral Implantol 2014;40:365-70.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
de WijsFL, CuneMS. Immediate labial contour restoration for improved esthetics: A radiographic study on bone splitting in anterior single-tooth replacement. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1997;12:686-96.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
QahashM, SusinC, PolimeniG, HallJ, Wikesjö UM. Bone healing dynamics at buccal peri-implant sites. Clin Oral Implants Res 2008;19:166-72.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
CawoodJI, HowellRA. Aclassification of the edentulous jaws. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1988;17:232-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
JensenO. Site classification for the osseointegrated implant. JProsthet Dent 1989;61:228-34.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
WangHL, Al-ShammariK. HVC ridge deficiency classification: A therapeutically oriented classification. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2002;22:335-43.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Guideline: Cologne Classification of Alveolar Ridge Defects(CCARD). Consensus Paper Approved at the 8thEuropean Consensus Conference(EuCC) in Cologne; February, 2013.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
SimionM, BaldoniM, ZaffeD. Jawbone enlargement using immediate implant placement associated with a split-crest technique and guided tissue regeneration. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1992;12:462-73.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
TolstunovL, HickeB. Horizontal augmentation through the ridge-split procedure: A predictable surgical modality in implant reconstruction. JOral Implantol 2013;39:59-68.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
ScipioniA, CalesiniG, MicarelliC, Coppè S, ScipioniL. Morphogenic bone splitting: Description of an original technique and its application in esthetically significant areas. Int J Prosthodont 2008;21:389-97.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
ShivashankarVY, JohnsDA, VidyanathS, SamG. Combination of platelet rich fibrin, hydroxyapatite and PRF membrane in the management of large inflammatory periapical lesion. JConserv Dent 2013;16:261-4.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
12.
LundquistR, DziegielMH, AgrenMS. Bioactivity and stability of endogenous fibrogenic factors in platelet-rich fibrin. Wound Repair Regen 2008;16:356-63.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
KumaranST, ArunKV, SudarsanS, TalwarA, SrinivasanN. Osteoblast response to commercially available demineralized bone matrices–An in-vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2010;21:3-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
14.
YoonJM, KimYT, JangYJ, ParkJC, ChoiSH, ChoKS, etal. The long-term clinical stability of implants placed with ridge splitting technique. JKorean Acad Implant Dent2011;30:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
González-García R, MonjeF, MorenoC. Alveolar split osteotomy for the treatment of the severe narrow ridge maxillary atrophy: A modified technique. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2011;40:57-64.  Back to cited text no. 15
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jaideep Mahendra
Department of Periodontics, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_288_16

Rights and Permissions


    Figures

  [Figure1], [Figure2], [Figure3], [Figure4], [Figure5], [Figure6]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table1], [Table2], [Table3]



 

Top
 
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


    Abstract
   Introduction
   Case Report
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3021    
    Printed29    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded145    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal