Indian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental Research
HOME | ABOUT US | EDITORIAL BOARD | AHEAD OF PRINT | CURRENT ISSUE | ARCHIVES | INSTRUCTIONS | SUBSCRIBE | ADVERTISE | CONTACT
Indian Journal of Dental Research   Login   |  Users online: 212

Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size         

 


 
Table of Contents   
EDITORIAL  
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3
What is the evidence - based relationship of peri-implantitis and smoking: A different perspective


Executive Editor, Indian Journal of Dental Research, Director and Consultant Maxillofacial Surgeon, Balaji Dental and Craniofacial Hospital, Teynampet, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication7-Apr-2016
 

How to cite this article:
Balaji S M. What is the evidence - based relationship of peri-implantitis and smoking: A different perspective. Indian J Dent Res 2016;27:3

How to cite this URL:
Balaji S M. What is the evidence - based relationship of peri-implantitis and smoking: A different perspective. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Oct 14];27:3. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2016/27/1/3/179805
Smoking tobacco is an adverse habit that is known to delay healing of oral wounds. [1] It affects the healing potential through several pathways - directly and indirectly. Several meta-analysis and systemic reviews have identified tobacco use as a negative factor for implant placement. [2],[3] However, a new meta-analysis comes out with a diametrically opposite perspective. [4]

Using what is known as individual participant led meta-analysis wherein all parameters of details in the identified studies are included for analysis instead of aggregate data. This is believed to yield more significant data than the conventional aggregate type of meta-analysis. [5]

For the present peri-implantitis - Tobacco meta-analysis study, the authors employed very stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of 5876 manuscript that had studies of effect of tobacco on peri-implantitis, only seven studies were qualified to be studied and included. Based on the data, patient -led meta-analysis and implant-based meta-analysis models were chalked out. The result of this study indicated that smoking was crucial when patient-based meta-analysis was considered, while studying the individual implant-based meta-analysis, the significance was lost. [5] This indicated that there are other potential confounders that cloud the results in previous studies. The list of potential confounders for peri-implantitis is huge ranging from age, gender, number of implants, salivary flow rate, preexisting medical illness and condition, other medications, etc. [2],[3] The effect of these and few other unidentified factors probably play a crucial role in determining the incidence of peri-implantitis.

This study is a reminder call for a better study design to study the accurate and detailed effect of smoking on dental implants. From an implant survival perspective, the issue of smoking tobacco is accounted. The smokers have a higher degree of peri-implantitis while from individual patient-based perspective of meta-analysis, smoking tobacco does not appear to influence the outcome of peri-implantitis, indicating a possible role of other confounders and outliers. [5]

The result comes as rather a shocking piece of evidence for translation to clinical practice. In clinical practice, I had been using dental implant survival and peri-implantitis as a reason to make my patients quit the use of tobacco with evidence from the literature. But, with emergence of this piece of evidence, based on only a few articles, there is every possibility that my patients counteract my claims with this evidence. An evidence-based study in this regard will be appreciated by the dental community to combat peri-implantitis as well as the menace of tobacco usage.

 
   References Top

1.
Balaji SM. Tobacco smoking and surgical healing of oral tissues: A review. Indian J Dent Res 2008;19:344-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
2.
Chrcanovic BR, Albrektsson T, Wennerberg A. Smoking and dental implants: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dent 2015;43:487-98.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Chambrone L, Preshaw PM, Ferreira JD, Rodrigues JA, Cassoni A, Shibli JA. Effects of tobacco smoking on the survival rate of dental implants placed in areas of maxillary sinus floor augmentation: A systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res 2014;25:408-16.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Sgolastra F, Petrucci A, Severino M, Gatto R, Monaco A. Smoking and the risk of peri-implantitis. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Oral Implants Res 2015;26:e62-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Riley RD, Lambert PC, Abo-Zaid G. Meta-analysis of individual participant data: Rationale, conduct, and reporting. BMJ 2010;340:c221.  Back to cited text no. 5
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
S M Balaji
Executive Editor, Indian Journal of Dental Research, Director and Consultant Maxillofacial Surgeon, Balaji Dental and Craniofacial Hospital, Teynampet, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.179805

Rights and Permissions




 

Top
 
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


    References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1821    
    Printed31    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded95    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal