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ORIGINAL RESEARCH Table of Contents   
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 742-747
Maternal periodontal disease as a significant risk factor for low birth weight in pregnant women attending a secondary care hospital in South India: A Case-control study


Department of Community Health, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Rebecca Joyce Mathew
Department of Community Health, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.152184

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Context: Periodontal disease (PD) is a common infection in the community; however, its relationship with low birth weight (LBW) has not been well-established. Aims: The aim was to determine the association between maternal PD and LBW. Settings and Design: A case-control (1:1) study. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised of women who delivered at the hospital during the study period (September 2011 to February 2012).Women between 18 and 35 years of age, who delivered singleton, live infants during study period with at least 18 teeth were enrolled. Those with pregnancy induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, blood-borne viral infections, periodontal treatment within the past 6 months and valvular heart disease were excluded. Control population was parity matched to the cases. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test, t-test and univariant and multivariant logistic regression were used to analyze various study findings, and level of significance was set at 5% (P < 0.05). Results: PD was independently associated with LBW (odds ratio: 4.94, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-23.65, P=0.045). Additionally, conventional risk factors such as maternal height (P=0.029), secondary schooling (<8 years of schooling) (P = 0.001), socio-economic status (P = 0.046), type of family (joint) (P = 0.008), number of ante-natal visits (P = 0.028) and gestational age at birth (<37 weeks) (P = 0.045) showed significant association with LBW. Conclusions: There seems to be an association between PD and LBW independent of conventional risk factors. Women who had PD were 5 times more likely to deliver LBW infants.


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