Indian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental Research
HOME | ABOUT US | EDITORIAL BOARD | AHEAD OF PRINT | CURRENT ISSUE | ARCHIVES | INSTRUCTIONS | SUBSCRIBE | ADVERTISE | CONTACT
Indian Journal of Dental Research   Login   |  Users online: 811

Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size         

 


 
Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL RESEARCH  
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 547-549
Probiotics for future caries control: A short-term clinical study


1 Department of Pedodontics & Preventive Dentistry, AECS Maaruthi College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Prosthodontics, Vydehi Institute of Dental Science and Research Centre, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission09-Feb-2013
Date of Decision13-Apr-2013
Date of Acceptance18-Apr-2013
Date of Web Publication21-Dec-2013
 

   Abstract 

Objectives: To compare mutans streptococci levels in saliva, before and after consumption of probiotic ice-cream and curds.
Materials and Methods: Forty caries free children in the age group of 12-14 years were selected and equally divided into four groups I, II, III, IV. Children in group I and II were given 100 ml probiotic ice-cream and plain ice cream respectively and group III and IV were given 100 ml probiotic curd and plain curd respectively for a period of 7 days. Saliva samples were assessed at baseline, 1 hour after consumption and after 7 days intervention period using Mitis salivarius Bacitracin agar. The number of colonies was counted and subjected to statistical analysis.
Results: The study revealed a reduction in salivary mutans streptococci (MS) counts after 1 hour in all the groups. However after 7 days, probiotic ice-cream and curd showed a statistically significant (P < 0.001) reduction in MS counts as compared to the control ice cream and curd. The difference in the reduction of MS counts with probiotic ice-cream and probiotic curd at 1 hour and 7 days was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The use of probiotic products could be an alternative strategy of displacing pathogenic microorganisms by probiotic bacteria and can thus be exploited for the prevention of enamel demineralization.

Keywords: Curd, ice-cream, Mutans streptococci, probiotic

How to cite this article:
Chinnappa A, Konde H, Konde S, Raj S, Beena J P. Probiotics for future caries control: A short-term clinical study. Indian J Dent Res 2013;24:547-9

How to cite this URL:
Chinnappa A, Konde H, Konde S, Raj S, Beena J P. Probiotics for future caries control: A short-term clinical study. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Dec 11];24:547-9. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2013/24/5/547/123363
The term probiotic refers to live micro organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. [1]

The concept of probiotic evolved from Elie Metchnikoff's ideas that the bacteria in fermented products could compete with microbes that are injurious to host and are hence, beneficial to health. [2] The idea behind probiotics is the replacement of pathogenic species with non-pathogenic species such as strains of lactobacilli or bifidobacteria, which are the most common types of microbes used as probiotics. [3]

A number of probiotic-induced benefits on the general health have been proposed, such as reduced susceptibility to infections, reduction of allergies and lactose intolerance, as well as lowered blood pressure and serum cholesterol values. [4] The possible impact of probiotics on the oral health is less explored. [3],[5],[6]

Dairy foods such as cheese, yoghurt and milk are considered useful vehicles for probiotic bacteria, but an ideal administration vehicle has yet to be identified. [3] Ideally, the delivery should be suitable for all ages and especially for very young children, since, it has been suggested that exposure early in life may facilitate a permanent installation of health promoting strains. [5],[7],[8] In this context, ice-cream and curd are interesting probiotic food, as they are popular and universally liked. [9],[10],[11]

Studies carried out to validate the beneficial effect of probiotic ice-cream and curd on the oral ecology are few.

The aim of the present study was therefore to compare the mutans streptococci (MS) levels in saliva, before and after consumption of probiotic ice-cream and curds.


   Materials and Methods Top


Forty children were randomly selected for the Study. Children in the age group of 12-14 years with all permanent teeth erupted (except 3 rd molars), no clinically detectable caries, no history of any preventive dental treatment and no antibiotic medication for the past 6 months were included in the study.[20]

Children undergoing orthodontic treatment and medically compromised children were excluded from the study. A written consent was obtained from the parents. The selected children were equally divided into four groups I, II, III, IV. Children in group I and II were given 100 ml probiotic ice-cream and a plain ice cream respectively and group III and IV were given 100 ml probiotic curd and plain curd respectively for a period of 7 days. Both ice cream and curd was given once daily.

Saliva samples were assessed at baseline, 1 hour after consumption and after 7 days intervention period using Mitis salivarius Bacitracin agar. The number of colonies was counted and subjected to unpaired t-test statistical analysis.


   Results Top


The pre - and post-treatment levels of the mean salivary MS are given in [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]. The study revealed a significant reduction in salivary MS counts after 1 hour in both group I and II [Table 1]. However, after 7 days, probiotic ice-cream showed a statistically significant (P < 0.001) reduction in MS counts as compared to the control ice cream [Table 1]. In both groups III and IV a significant reduction in MS counts after 1 hour as compared to base line was seen [Table 2]. The 7 th day result showed a statistically significant (P < 0.001) reduction in MS counts with probiotic curd as compared to plain curd [Table 2]. Comparison between probiotic ice-cream and probiotic curd at 1 hour and after 7 days showed no significant difference [Table 3].
Table 1: comparison of mean salivary mutans streptococci after consumption of probiotic and normal ice-cream


Click here to view
Table 2: Comparison of mean salivary mutans streptococci after consumption of probiotic and normal curd


Click here to view
Table 3: Comparison of mean salivary mutans streptococci after consumption of probiotic ice-cream and probiotic curd


Click here to view



   Discussion Top


Bacteriotherapy is a novel and promising concept for combating infection and preventing dental caries. Studies have been performed to validate the survival and positive effects of  Bifidobacterium lactis Scientific Name Search in the human body, including immune response and gastrointestinal health in the young children. [12],[13]

The findings of the present study revealed a significant reduction in the salivary mutans levels with probiotic ice-cream and curd over 7 days period, as compared to normal curd and ice-cream. This can be attributed to the addition of freeze dried culture of probiotic strains to these products. These findings are in accordance with previous studies, [11],[14],[15] which have shown a reduction in the salivary levels of MS with daily consumption of ice cream and curd containing probiotic bifidobacteria.

The probiotic ice-cream used in the study contained 6% fat and 28% total solid and sucralose as the sweetener. It was prepared by adding a freeze-dried culture of probiotic strains B. lactis Bb-12 and  Lactobacillus acidophilus Scientific Name Search 5 and was manufactured by Amul India, Pvt. Ltd. The Probiotic ice-cream weighing ~54 g contained 1 × 10 6 colony forming units (CFU) of each bacterial strain per gram.

The starter cultures in curd most often include  Lactobacillus bulgaricus Scientific Name Search Streptococcus thermophilus, which are also effective against pathogenic microorganisms. Common probiotics added to curd are Lactobacillus caseii and L. acidophilus, and species of bifidobacterium. A minimum level of 10 6 CFU/g of probiotic strain should be present in food products to confer the benefits of probiotics. The probiotic curd used in the study contained L. Caseii strains and was manufactured by Nestle India, Pvt. limited.

A reduction in salivary MS levels was also observed after consumption of control ice-cream and curd 1 hour after consumption. This can be attributed to the anti-cariogenic property of milk due to the presence of casein, calcium and phosphorus in the ice cream.

A variety of bacterial strains have been explored for their potential probiotic properties. The most widely used species belong to the genera Lactobacillus and bifidobacteria. The focus is on these species as they are already produced in the dairy industry and are rarely implicated in any human infections. [6],[16],[17],[18] To be effective against oral infections, probiotic bacteria need to adhere to the oral mucosa and dental tissues as part of the biofilm and compete with the growth of dental pathogens. [19] Comelli et al. examined 23 micro organisms used in the dairy industry for potential probiotic properties with respect to the prevention of dental caries. They showed that two S. thermophilus species and two L lactis species were able to adhere to hydroxyapatite. The authors concluded that such a property in a non-pathogenic dairy bacterial strain might prove beneficial in modulating the establishment of cariogenic dental plaque. [19]

In daily routines, the administration of probiotics to small children may be difficult. Hence, ice-cream and curd could serve as a vehicle for probiotics. In the present study, these products were well-accepted by all participants.


   Conclusion Top


The present investigation was an attempt to explore new avenues and vistas for prevention of dental caries by using a commonly consumed product liked by one and all, especially children, under natural circumstances. The use of probiotic products could be an alternative strategy of displacing pathogenic micro organisms by probiotic bacteria and can thus be exploited for the prevention of enamel demineralization.

 
   References Top

1.Guarner F, Perdigon G, Corthier G, Salminen S, Koletzko B, Morelli L. Should yoghurt cultures be considered probiotic? Br J Nutr 2005;93:783-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Metchnikoff E. The prolongation of life. In: Heinemann W, editor. Optimistic Studies. London: G.P. Putnamand Sons; 1907. p.1-100.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Meurman J H, Stamatova I. Probiotics: Contributions to oral health. Oral Dis 2007;13:443-51.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Reid G, Jass J, Sebulsky MT, Mc Cormick JK. Potential uses of probiotics in clinical practice. Clin Microbiol Rev 2003;16:658-72.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Meurman JH. Probiotics: Do they have a role in oral medicine and dentistry? Eur J Oral Sci 2005;113:188-96.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Caglar E, Kargul B, TanbogaI. Bacteriotherapy and probiotics' role on oral health. Oral Dis 2005;11:131-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Yli-Knuuttila H, Snäll J, Kari K, Meurman JH. Colonization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus G Gin the oral cavity. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2006;21:129-31.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Twetman S, Stecksén-Blicks C. Probiotics and oral health effects in children. Int J Paediatr Dent 2008;18:3-10.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Hekmat S, McMahon DJ. Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidumin ice cream for use as a probiotic food. J Dairy Sci 1992;75:1415-22.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Baþyiðit G, Kuleaþan H, Karahan AG. Viability of human-derived probiotic lactobacilli in ice cream produced with sucrose and a spartame. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2006;33:796-800.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Caglar E, Sandalli N, Twetman S, Kavaloglu S, Ergeneli S, Selviv S. Effect of yogurt with Bifidobacterium DN-173010 on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in young adults. Acta Odontol Scand 2005;63:317-20.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Saavedra JM, Abi-Hanna A, Moore N, Yolken RH. Long-term consumption of infant formulas containing live probiotic bacteria: Tolerance and safety. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:261-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Saavedra JM, Abi-Hanna A, Moore N, Yolken RY. Effect of long term consumption of infant formulas with bifidobacteria and S. thermophilus on stool patterns and diaper rash in infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1998;27:483.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Singh RP, Damle SG, Chawla A. Salivary mutansstreptococci and lactobacilli modulations in young childrenon consumption of probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacteriumlactis Bb12 and Lactobacillusacidophilus La5. Acta Odontol Scand 2011;69:389-94.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Caglar E, Kuscu OO, Selvi Kuvvetli S, Kavaloglu Cildir S, Sandalli N, Twetman S. Short-term effect of ice-cream containing Bifidobacteriumlactis   Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Bb-12 on the number of salivary mutansstreptococci and lactobacilli. Acta Odontol Scand 2008;66:154-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Lee Y-K, Salminen S. The coming of age of probiotics. Trends Food Sci Technol 1995;6:241-5.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Roberfroid MB. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1682-7.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Van Loo J, Jonkers N. Evaluation in human volunteers of the potential anticarcinogenic activities of novelnutritional concepts: Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics (the SYNCAN project QLK 1-1999-00346). Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2001;11:87-93.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Comelli EM, Guggenheim B, Stingele F, Neeser JR. Selection of dairy bacterial strains as probiotics for oral health. Eur J Oral Sci 2002;110:218-24.  Back to cited text no. 20
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Sapna Konde
Department of Pedodontics & Preventive Dentistry, AECS Maaruthi College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore, Karnataka
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.123363

Rights and Permissions



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

This article has been cited by
1 Are dairy products containing probiotics beneficial for oral health? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Patricia Nadelman,Marcela Baraúna Magno,Daniele Masterson,Adriano Gomes da Cruz,Lucianne Cople Maia
Clinical Oral Investigations. 2018; 22(8): 2763
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Are dairy products containing probiotics beneficial for oral health? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Patricia Nadelman,Marcela Baraúna Magno,Daniele Masterson,Adriano Gomes da Cruz,Lucianne Cople Maia
Clinical Oral Investigations. 2018; 22(8): 2763
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 The underexposed role of food matrices in probiotic products: Reviewing the relationship between carrier matrices and product parameters
Joost Flach,Mark B. van der Waal,Maurits van den Nieuwboer,Eric Claassen,Olaf F. A. Larsen
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2018; 58(15): 2570
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Human oral microbiota and its modulation for oral health
Yangheng Zhang,Xiang Wang,Houxuan Li,Can Ni,Zhibin Du,Fuhua Yan
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2018; 99: 883
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 The underexposed role of food matrices in probiotic products: Reviewing the relationship between carrier matrices and product parameters
Joost Flach,Mark B. van der Waal,Maurits van den Nieuwboer,Eric Claassen,Olaf F. A. Larsen
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2018; 58(15): 2570
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Dairy probiotics: Beyond the role of promoting gut and immune health
Georgia Zoumpopoulou,Bruno Pot,Effie Tsakalidou,Konstantinos Papadimitriou
International Dairy Journal. 2017; 67: 46
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Effects of storage conditions, microencapsulation and inclusion in chocolate particles on the stability of probiotic bacteria in ice cream
Claude P. Champagne,Yves Raymond,Nancy Guertin,Gaétan Bélanger
International Dairy Journal. 2015; 47: 109
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


    Abstract
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3836    
    Printed145    
    Emailed6    
    PDF Downloaded311    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 7    

Recommend this journal