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Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL RESEARCH  
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 320-325
Comparative evaluation of marginal integrity of glass ionomer and resin based fissure sealants using invasive and non-invasive techniques: An in vitro study


1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, K. M. Shah Dental and Hospital, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, Piparia, Vadodara, India
2 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere, India
3 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Navodaya Dental College, Raichur, India

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Date of Submission03-Jan-2011
Date of Decision07-Mar-2011
Date of Acceptance28-May-2011
Date of Web Publication11-Oct-2012
 

   Abstract 

Background: Occlusal surfaces of the molars are highly susceptible to dental decay. Pit and fissure sealants are one of the best methods of preventing fissure caries. The main problem encountered is microleakage leading to deterioration of material and increased possibility of the development of secondary caries.
Aims: To assess and compare the marginal integrity of glass ionomer (Fuji VII) and resin based (Clinpro) fissure sealants using invasive and non-invasive technique.
Setting and Design: Experimental in-vitro study.
Materials and Methods: An in-vitro study was conducted on 40 healthy, extracted premolars. The teeth were divided into 4 groups. Group I: Clinpro-invasive technique, group II: Clinpro-non-invasive technique, group III: Fuji VII-invasive technique, group IV: Fuji VII-non-invasive technique. Sealants were applied and subjected to an evaluation under SEM (scanning electron microscopy) for the width of the marginal gap. ANOVA (analysis of variance) and Duncan's multiple range tests were used for the statistical analysis.
Results: The mean width of the marginal gap was 0.4089 μm in group I as compared to 3.0485 μm in group III; and the difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.001). In non-invasive technique, Clinpro and Fuji VII showed a mean marginal gap width of 0.4486 μm and 3.0485 μm, respectively. This difference was statistically highly significant at a P<0.001. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean widths between invasive and non-invasive techniques.
Conclusion: Clinpro performed better in terms of marginal adaptation than did the Fuji VII sealant. The techniques (Invasive and non-invasive) does not influence the marginal integrity significantly.

Keywords: Clinpro, fissure sealant, fuji VII, invasive technique, marginal adaptation, non-invasive technique, scanning electron microscope

How to cite this article:
Gunjal S, Nagesh L, Raju H G. Comparative evaluation of marginal integrity of glass ionomer and resin based fissure sealants using invasive and non-invasive techniques: An in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2012;23:320-5

How to cite this URL:
Gunjal S, Nagesh L, Raju H G. Comparative evaluation of marginal integrity of glass ionomer and resin based fissure sealants using invasive and non-invasive techniques: An in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2012 [cited 2020 Jul 10];23:320-5. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2012/23/3/320/102214
In this era of globalization and scientific advancements, health problems still remain our evergreen dilemma. Oral diseases like dental caries, periodontal diseases, oral cancer etc. have raised their ugly head in the current society and are aptly called lifestyle diseases. Escalating prevalence of oral diseases definitely poses a threat on the quality of life of people. In this context, prevention of oral diseases seems to be the best panacea for an alleviation and amelioration of oral diseases.

Dental caries affects humans of all ages in all regions of the world, and it is the most prevalent chronic disease affecting the human race. [1] The current pattern of dental caries reflects distinct risk profiles across countries to living conditions, lifestyles and environmental factors. In several industrialized countries, there have been positive trends in the reduction of dental caries in children, although it has been brought under control in some countries. In most developing countries, the levels of dental caries are tending to increase. This is largely due to an increasing consumption of sugars and an inadequate exposure to fluorides. However, it must be emphasized that, the dental caries as a disease of children has not been eradicated, but only controlled to a certain degree.

A number of methods have been tried to prevent dental caries at an individual and community level. The important methods are plaque control, use of systemic and local fluorides and fissure sealants. The most effective method on a community basis is water fluoridation. Unfortunately, fluorides are not equally effective in protecting the occlusal pits and fissures, where 85% of all carious lesions occur. The anatomical pits and fissures of the teeth have long been recognized as susceptible areas for an initiation of dental caries. Considering the fact that the occlusal surfaces constitute only 12% of the total number of tooth surfaces, it means that the pits and fissures are approximately eight times as vulnerable as the smooth caries. [2] At present, the maintenance of an oral hygiene in conjunction with the fluoride therapy and prudent use of pit and fissure sealants seems to be the best preventive strategy.

In developing countries like India, which are characterized by the predominance of the child and adolescent sectors of the population (nearly 40% of the total population), primary preventive services are of at most importance. Primary prevention is the most desirable prevention as it eliminates the very chance of an occurrence of the disease. It avoids pain, agony, discomfort, and any disability and is also found to be highly acceptable. Pit and fissure sealants are the primary preventive tools which are in vogue for the last few decades. The initial cost of the preventive measures like sealants may be higher than the cost of the restorative materials like dental amalgam. On long term basis, sealants may be more cost effective as the tooth is going to be maintained in the state of health for a longer period of time.

Various factors contribute towards a successful sealant restoration such as properties of enamel, duration of etching, acid used for etching and manipulative variables. However, one of the prime factor governing the efficiency and life expectancy of the sealant is the marginal adaptation, which if hampered, leads to the development of secondary caries. Marginal adaptation places a pivotal role in determining the success or the failure of a fissure sealant.

It is suggested that the higher retention rates for the sealants are obtained following mechanical preparation of the fissure area and that the risk of microleakage is also reduced, when the fissure is enlarged. [3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8] A lot of work has been done on invasive and non-invasive techniques used for the placement of sealants. However, not much work has been done on an evaluation of these techniques in the manner they affect the adaptability of the sealants. Research advancements in the field of fissure sealants have resulted in an introduction of newer materials. Clinpro, a resin based light curable fissure sealant material of 3M company and Fuji VII, a glass ionomer fissure sealant of GC corporation, are relatively new fissure sealants to enter the market and thus into the practice. An exploration of available literature did not reveal any comparative study done to assess the marginal adaptation using these two materials. Hence, an attempt was done in this study to compare the above said materials for their marginal adaptation using invasive and non-invasive techniques.

In vitro studies are ideal to be conducted before embarking on in vivo studies. The present study was thus designed to be an in vitro study, aimed at assessing and comparing the marginal integrity of Clinpro and Fuji VII fissure sealants using invasive and non-invasive techniques.


   Materials and Methods Top


The present study is an experimental study, a laboratory trial and an in-vitro study done on extracted human premolars. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Board of the Bapuji Dental College and Hospital. Based on the data obtained by a pilot study, the sample size was determined as 40. A total sample of 40 healthy (non-carious, non-hypoplastic, non-fluorosed) premolars, freshly extracted for orthodontic purposes, were collected from the Dental colleges and private clinics in Davangere city. The extracted teeth were washed with water and stored in an artificial saliva. The 40 premolars were randomly divided into four groups, each containing 10 teeth. Random allocation was done using lottery method.

Group I: Included teeth that were planned to be filled with Clinpro using invasive technique.

Group II: Included teeth that were planned to be filled with Clinpro using non-invasive technique.

Group III: Included teeth that were planned to be filled with Fuji VII using invasive technique.

Group IV: Included teeth that were planned to be filled with Fuji VII (glass ionomer sealant) using non-invasive technique.

All teeth were polished with pumice slurry to remove any residual plaque or stains, especially from the occlusal surfaces by using contra-angle micromotor handpiece and cone shaped polishing brush. By passing the explorer, the residual pumice if present, was removed. Finally, all the specimens were stored in an artificial saliva at room temperature. An artificial saliva was prepared by the Department of Oral Pathology, Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere as per the composition given by Sieck et al. in 1990. [9]

For the teeth subjected to invasive technique (group 1 and group 3), fissures were prepared (Fissurotomy) using contra-angle micromotor with diamond round bur (0.8mm diameter) to ensure the standardization and uniformity. For the teeth subjected to non-invasive technique, no preparation was done. Sealant application was carried out using the material corresponding to the appropriate study group and according to the manufacturer's instructions.

To simulate an oral environment, all the teeth were subjected to thermocycling. All the groups were subjected to thermocycling at 5°C, 37°C and 55°C for 250 cycles with dwell time of 30 seconds. A thermometer was placed to check the temperature periodically. [10] After thermocycling, specimens were stored in an artificial saliva for a duration of 15 days. After a period of 15 days, roots were trimmed off using diamond disk, and the remaining crowns were mounted individually on self cure acrylic resin blocks. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally using hard tissue microtome, which allowed to study the width of the gap along the depth of the fissure, and to achieve a sample thickness of 4mm as per the requirement of the scanning electron microscope (JSM 840 SEM, JEOL-JAPAN). After sectioning, the specimens were allowed to dry for 24 hours before subjecting them to gold sputtering. This was done to prevent any moisture contamination during scanning electron microscopy.

The specimens were mounted on brass stubs using silver paste, which is a vacuum resistant adhesive. The specimens were mounted in such a way that the area to be studied faced upwards. Each stub contained sevento eight specimens. The mounted surfaces were then coated with a thin layer (30mm thickness) of pure gold using ion sputtering unit of 1000 volts for a period of 20 minutes. This ensured proper conducting surface to the non-conducting specimens. These stubs were then loaded in a special tray, which could hold six brass stubs at one time, and placed in a vacuum chamber of the scanning electron microscope. The accelerating voltage, angle of the tilt and an aperture was adjusted to suit the specimen to optimize the quality of micrograph. The surface was scanned and observed on the screen under different magnifications. The representative areas were photographed using magnification of 2000x and 55x.

The width of the marginal gaps was measured by placing the two pointers / indicator marks at the two extremes of the gap, and the distance between them as given by the computer was noted. The mean gap width for each group was computed. The data so obtained was compiled and subjected to statistical analysis. Comparison of four groups with respect to marginal gaps was studied by one-way ANOVA, and the pair wise comparison of the groups was done by Duncan's multiple range test. The analyses were performed with P- value and confidence interval set at 0.05 and 95%, respectively.


   Results Top


The present study was done on 40 extracted human premolars in order to assess and compare the marginal integrity of the glass ionomer and resin based fissure sealants with invasive and non-invasive techniques.

Mean width of marginal gap

All the groups had 10 teeth each. Group I [Figure 1] was subjected to invasive technique and filled with Clinpro. This group showed a mean width of marginal gaps to be 0.4089 ± 0.1124 μm, which was the lowest among all the groups. Group II [Figure 2] was subjected to non-invasive technique and filled with Clinpro, which showed a mean width of marginal gaps to be 0.4486 ± 0.2363 μm. Group III [Figure 3] was subjected to invasive technique and filled with Fuji VII and showed a mean width of marginal gaps of 3.0485 ± 0.5507 μm. Group IV [Figure 4] was subjected to non-invasive technique and filled with Fuji VII and showed a mean width of marginal gaps of 3.0547 ± 0.7222 μm, which was highest among all the groups [Table 1]. Mean width of marginal gaps was found to be more in the glass ionomer sealant (group III and group IV) than the resin based fissure sealant (group I and group II).
Figure 1: Group-I Clinpro with invasive technique

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Figure 2: Group II-Clinpro with non-invasive technique

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Figure 3: Group III-Fuji VII with invasive technique

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Figure 4: Group IV-Fuji VII with non-invasive technique

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Table 1: Mean width of marginal gaps (μm) in the four study groups

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On analysis by one-way ANOVA, mean width of marginal gaps of all the four groups were found to differ from each other, and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant (P<0.001). On comparison of group I with group III and group IV, there was statistically very highly significant difference for the mean width of marginal gaps (P<0.001). On comparison of group II with group III and group IV, there was statistically very highly significant difference for the mean width of marginal gaps (P=0.0000). On comparison of group I with group II, and group III with group IV, there was no statistically significant difference for the mean width of marginal gaps [Table 2].
Table 2: Pair wise comparison of mean width of marginal gaps (μm) of four study groups by using Duncan's multiple comparison test

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   Discussion Top


In this era of preventive dentistry, many dental materials used for the prevention of dental diseases are available. The last few decades have witnessed efforts increasingly directed towards the prevention of dental caries as it is one of the major dental diseases tormenting mankind. The various measures includes an optimum and rationalized use of systemic and topical fluorides, an improved oral health education, an increase in human resources destined to enhance an access to dental care, and a growing interest in preventive therapy among the dental professionals, including the use of pit and the fissure sealants.

The properties required for an ideal fissure sealant includes biocompatibility, a good adhesion, retention capacity and resistance to an abrasion and wear. The key consideration to success is an adequate adhesion (i.e. penetration of the material into the previously etched system of fissures). Penetration in turn, depends on the geometric configuration of the fissures, deposition of the material in the fissures, and the physico-chemical characteristics of the sealant material used.

An adhesion as a physical characteristic is responsible for providing a quality marginal adaptation. An efficacy and longevity of the sealant is greatly dictated by the marginal adaptation, which is a function of physical adhesion. Presence of micro-gaps between the sealant and the tooth surface, when measured, can accurately reflect the integrity of the marginal-seal. An attempt was made in the present in-vitro study to assess and compare the marginal integrity of the glass ionomer (Fuji VII) and resin based (Clinpro) fissure sealants using invasive and non-invasive techniques.

In the present study, on comparison of Fuji VII and Clinpro fissure sealant for marginal adaptation, mean width of the marginal gap was found to be more in Fuji VII (3.0485μm and 3.0547μm) than in Clinpro (0.4089 μm and 0.4486 μm) fissure sealant, and the difference was found to be statistically highly significant (P<0.001) [Table 2]. These results are in conformity with a study done by Vineet D et al, 2000 [11] and Salama F.S et al., [12] Contradictory results have been obtained in a study conducted by Herle G.P et al,2004 [13] which compared the Fuji VII and Helioseal-F (resin based) fissure sealants by determining the amount of the flow to the base of the fissure and adaptation to the walls by using scanning electron microscope. Scanning electron microscopy specimens were scored as good, fair and poor. Results showed that, the flow and adaptation of Fuji VII was slightly better than Helioseal-F. In this study, the measurement criteria and the magnification differed completely from our study with respect to the magnification used in scanning electron microscope.

In the present study, it was seen that cohesive failure was seen in all the glass ionomer sealant, and detachment of the sealant in some parts left a layer of sealant covering the fissure enamel. The fracture of the sealant above this layer and cracks in this layer presumably occurred as a result of low cohesive strength and preparation fault, i.e. forces applied to the tooth during cutting and desiccation before SEM observation. These findings are very similar to that described by Herle G.P et al 2004, [13] wherein cohesive failure of the glass ionomer and fracture of the material was seen in all the specimens. However, Clinpro did not show any cohesive failure as the material is resin based and unlike glass ionomer, is less moisture sensitive. From the results, it could be seen that Clinpro performed better than Fuji VII.

In the current study, there is no statistically significant difference in the mean width of the marginal gaps between invasive and non-invasive techniques i.e. between group I and group II, and group III and group IV. In other studies, contrary results have been obtained where they have found that, the width of the marginal gap was found to be less in invasive technique and more in non-invasive technique, and the difference was found to be statistically significant. [11],[12],[13]

There was numerically a difference in the marginal gap width between the sealants administered with invasive and non-invasive techniques in the current study. The mean gap widths in the invasive technique for both, glass ionomer and resin based sealant were found to be less when compared to non-invasive technique of administration. This difference, although was found to be statistically not significant, this may be due an inadequate preparation of the fissures by the investigator since there is no standard guideline for the extent to which the fissures are supposed to be prepared. The literature shows no study or not even single study to support this result. Perhaps a more systematic approach to fissurotomy and a larger sample size with a meticulous approach may be required in order to test the validity of this result. In this respect, the present study is found to be heuristic.

Teeth were stored in an artificial saliva as given by Seick et al, [9] to simulate an oral environment. Thermocycling was carried out to subject the specimens to the extremes of temperature seen in the oral cavity, thus simulating the natural oral environment. Shortall [14] suggested a range of temperature from 0°C to 68°C for thermocycling. In the present study, thermocycling temperatures of 5°C, 37°C and 55°C were used because the range covers the extreme of temperature to which the oral cavity is subjected. Thermocycling using 250 cycle series supported by Smith et al, [15] , was carried out in the present study with a dwell time of 30 seconds suggested by Bullard, Leinfelder and Russel. [16] Smith et al[15] noted, there is no significant difference in microleakage between 250 and 500 cycles.

40 premolars, which were studied for marginal adaptation under scanning electron microscope, were prepared as per the requirements of scanning electron microscope given by Goldstein and Yakowitz. [17] The gap present along the sealant-tooth interface was evaluated for teeth sectioned in longitudinal manner.

In the present study, no dye was used, however, the actual width of the gaps were examined directly under the scanning electron microscope, because it gives a more accurate picture and a direct visual observation of marginal adaptability of the sealant is possible, which provides a more valid data directly related to microleakage in terms of possibility of passage of bacteria, saliva etc. Also, dye penetration may occur at the tooth restoration interface, however, the marginal gaps may be too narrow to allow the free passage to bacteria, indicating that the dye penetration may not be a true indicator of bacterial or salivary contamination. [18]

The results showed that the width of the marginal gap was found to be more in Fuji VII than Clinpro fissure sealant, and there is no significant difference between invasive and non-invasive techniques as well.

Totally valid comparisons could not be done between the present study and with those previously reported in the literature. Since the literature is relatively devoid of studies trying to measure marginal adaptation but replete with the studies related to microleakage, an attempt was made to include them for the comparison purpose.

This being an experimental and in-vitro study, it can provide a fresh insight regarding the marginal adaptation of new fissure sealant materials like Clinpro (resin based) and Fuji VII (glass ionomer) using invasive and non-invasive techniques in the light of recent research. These two materials being recent in their market presence, and no comparative studies including them were observed in the literature review. Systematically conducted in-vivo studies with large sample size are needed before arriving at any definite conclusions.

The findings of the present study suggest that the marginal adaptability is better in Clinpro (resin-based fissure sealant) than in the Fuji VII (glass ionomer fissure sealant) because the mean width of the marginal gap was less. Since the marginal adaptability is one of the prime factor governing an efficacy and longevity of the sealants, resin-based fissure sealants should be used for the prevention of pit and fissure caries in various preventive programs.

Before drawing any definite conclusions, it would be necessary to aid these findings by conducting a clinical study using these materials and parameter and further laboratory evaluation using a larger sample size.

 
   References Top

1.Shafer WG, Hine MK, Levy BM. Dental caries. In, A textbook of Oral Pathology, 5 th ed, Philadelphia: WB Saunders Publication; 2006. p.567.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Harris NO, Godoy FG. Pit and fissure sealants in Primary preventive dentistry, Appletion and lange Publication, 5 th ed, 1999. p. 243-69.   Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.ShapiraJ, Eidelman E. The influence of mechanical preparation of enamel prior to etching on the retention of sealants. J Pedod 1982;6:283-7.   Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Shapira. J, Eidelman E. The influence of mechanical preparation of enamel prior to etching on the retention of sealants: 3-year follow-up. J Pedod 1984;8:272-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Shapira J, Eidelman E. Fissure topography after combined 20-and 60-seconds etching and mechanical preparation viewed by SEM. Clin Prev Dent 1985;7:27-30.   Back to cited text no. 5
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6.Shapira J, Eidelman E. Six year clinical evaluation of fissure sealants placed after mechanical preparation: A matched pair study. Pediatr Dent 1986;8:204-5.   Back to cited text no. 6
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7.LeBell Y, Forsten L. Sealing of preventively enlarged fissures. Acta Odonta Scand 1980;87:390-4.   Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Raadal M. Microleakage around preventive composite fillings in loaded teeth. Scand J Dent Res 1979;87:390-4.   Back to cited text no. 8
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9.Seick B, Takagi S, Chow LC. Assessment of loosely bound and firmly bound fluoride uptake by tooth enamel from topically applied fluoride treatments. J Dent Res 1990;69;1261-5.   Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Ganesh M, Tandon S. Comparative evaluation of the marginal ability of Fuji VII and concise as pit and fissure sealants. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007;8:10-8.   Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Vineet D, Tandon S. Comparative evaluation of marginal integrity of two new fissure sealants using invasive and non-invasive techniques: a SEM study. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2000;24:291-7.   Back to cited text no. 11
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12.Salama FS, Al-Hammad NS. Marginal seal of sealant and compomer materials with and without enameloplasty. Int J Pediatr Dent 2002;12:39-46.   Back to cited text no. 12
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13.Herle GP, Joseph T, Varma B, Jayanthi M. comparative evaluation of glass ionomer and resin based fissure sealant using noninvasive and invasive techniques -A SEM and microleakage study. J Indian Soc Pedo Prev Dent 2004;22:56-62.   Back to cited text no. 13
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14.Shortall AC. Microleakage, marginal adaptation and composite resin restorations. Br Dent J 1982;153:223-7.   Back to cited text no. 14
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15.Smith LA, O'Brein, Retief DH, Bradley EL. Microleakage of two dentinal bonding restorative systems. J Dent Res (Special issue) 1988;67:309.   Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Bullard RH, Leinfelder KF, Russel CM. Effect of coefficient of thermal expansion on microleakage. J Am Dent Assoc 1988;116:871-4.   Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Goldstein JI, Yakowitz H. Practical scanning electron microscopy, 2 nd ed, New York and London: Plenum press; 1976.   Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Crim JA, Shay JS. Microleakage pattern of a resin veneered cavity liner. J Prosthet Dent 1987;58:273-6.  Back to cited text no. 18
    

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Correspondence Address:
Shilpa Gunjal
Department of Public Health Dentistry, K. M. Shah Dental and Hospital, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, Piparia, Vadodara
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.102214

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    Figures

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    Tables

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