Indian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental Research
HOME | ABOUT US | EDITORIAL BOARD | AHEAD OF PRINT | CURRENT ISSUE | ARCHIVES | INSTRUCTIONS | SUBSCRIBE | ADVERTISE | CONTACT
Indian Journal of Dental Research   Login   |  Users online: 114

Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size         

 


 
Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL RESEARCH  
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 882
A correlative study of dental age and skeletal maturation


1 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Uttar Pradesh Dental College and Research Centre, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Orthodontics, Chandra Dental College, Safedabad, Barabank, India
3 Department of Orthodontics, KGMC, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission16-Sep-2010
Date of Decision30-May-2011
Date of Acceptance08-Aug-2011
Date of Web Publication5-Apr-2012
 

   Abstract 

Introduction: Skeletal age had been assessed by comparison between maturation of hand-wrist with stages of cervical vertebrae or canine calcification stages in past and this had been closely related to craniofacial growth. The importance of pubertal growth spurt in various types of orthodontic therapies is already established.
Aims and Objectives: Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the relationship of skeletal maturity by hand-wrist with cervical vertebral maturation indicators and canine calcification stages.
Materials and Methods: The study consisted of randomly selected 90 children from Lucknow population with 45 males (age range 10-13 years) and 45 females (age range 9-12 years). Lateral Cephalogram, hand-wrist x-ray, and periapical x-rays of maxillary and mandibular right canines were taken.
Statistical Analysis: Mean, standard deviation was calculated of different groups. Correlation was made among cervical vertebral maturation, hand wrist maturation, and canine calcification stages at various age groups.
Results: There was strong correlation between skeletal maturation indicator and cervical vertebral maturation indicator for both male (0.849) and female (0.932), whereas correlation between skeletal maturation indicator and canine calcification was good for both male and female (0.635, 0.891).
Conclusion: It was concluded that cervical vertebral maturation indicator and canine calcification stages can also be used for assessing skeletal maturity.

Keywords: Cephalogram, cervical vertebrae, dental age, hand wrist, skeletal maturation

How to cite this article:
Sachan K, Sharma VP, Tandon P. A correlative study of dental age and skeletal maturation. Indian J Dent Res 2011;22:882

How to cite this URL:
Sachan K, Sharma VP, Tandon P. A correlative study of dental age and skeletal maturation. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2011 [cited 2014 Sep 1];22:882. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2011/22/6/882/94698
Human growth shows considerable variation in the chronologic ages at which individual children reach similar developmental events. Chronologic age alone is not sufficient for assessing the stage of development of a growing child. Accurate information is provided by developmental stages, such as skeletal maturation, secondary sexual characters, and maturation of different tissue system. [1],[2],[3]

One of the important diagnostic tools used in determining whether pubertal growth has started, is occurring or finished had been the hand-wrist radiographic evaluation. Now cervical vertebral skeletal maturation is also found to be a reliable method apart from hand-wrist radiograph. Tooth development is also a useful measure of maturity, since it represents a series of recognizable changes that occur in the same sequence from an initial event to a constant end point. [4]

The present study was conducted

  • to evaluate skeletal age using hand-wrist radiograph, lateral cephalogram for cervical vertebrae and intraoral periapical X-ray for maxillary and mandibular right canine;
  • to compare and correlate cervical vertebral maturity indicator with skeletal maturity indicators for different age subgroup;
  • to compare and correlate canine calcification stages with skeletal maturity indicators and its validity and applicability in assessing skeletal age of a patient.



   Materials and Methods Top


The present study was conducted on randomly selected 90 healthy children from Lucknow population in the age group of 9-13 years. 45 males and 45 females children were selected. The sample was selected from the outpatient Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial orthopedics, KGMC Lucknow, and various schools.

Criteria for case selection

  1. The entire sample had parental Lucknow origin.
  2. None of the subjects selected had undergone orthodontic treatment.
  3. All the subjects selected were moderately built and were of growing age with no history of deformities, bone diseases and major illness in the past.
  4. None of the subjects showed any facial asymmetry.
  5. No history of trauma or surgery in the dentofacial region.
  6. The subjects with muscular dystrophy, congenital abnormalities affecting growth and development, traumatic lesions of cervical vertebrae, jaw, hand and wrist were excluded.


All the subjects were divided in to two groups: Group 1 consisted of males and Group 2 consisted of females. Each group was further divided into three subgroups on the basis of age as shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Showing subject grouping

Click here to view


The present study was based on lateral cephalometric radiographs, hand-wrist radiographs, maxillary and mandibular right canine radiographs of 90 samples. The sample consisted of 45 males (age ranges 10-13 years) and 45 females (age ranges 9-12 years).

Method

Lateral cephalometric radiograph of each individual was taken with a universal counter balancing type of cephalostat at the Faculty of Dental Sciences, King George's Medical College Lucknow. Kodak' X-ray films (8 × 10) were exposed to 70 KVp, 45 mA for an average of 1.8 sec, with a tube to film distance of 6 feet.

Hand-wrist radiograph was taken by placing the left and right hand and wrist on the cassette with fingers slightly separated. Screen film and target film distance was 90 cm. The film was exposed to 20 mA current for an average of 0.5 s.

Intraoral periapical radiograph of maxillary and mandibular right canine region was taken by using the bisecting angle technique with film size 31 × 41 mm Kodak. The film was exposed to 60 kV power for 1.4 s.

In the present study, radiographic interpretation was made as per the system developed to interpret skeletal maturation given by;

  1. Fishman; [5] on hand wrist radiographs as skeletal maturity indicator (SMI) as shown in [Figure 1].
  2. Figure 1: Eeven skeletal maturity indicators BY Fishman

    Click here to view
  3. Lamparski; [6] on lateral cephalogram, the cervical vertebrae as skeletal maturity indicators (CVMI) as shown in [Figure 2]. [Figure 3] shows correlation between SMI given by Fishman and CVMI stages.
  4. Figure 2: Cervical vertebrae maturity indicators (3rd cervical vertebrae used as guide)

    Click here to view
    Figure 3: Showing correlation between CVMI and SMI

    Click here to view
  5. C.M. Nolla; [4] on intraoral periapical radiographs showing stages of calcification. [Figure 4] shows different stages of canine calcification.
  6. Figure 4: Nolla's stages of canine calcification

    Click here to view


Error of measurements

To evaluate the magnitude of error in the measurements of various stages of tooth development and skeletal maturation, repeated determination was carried out on 10 individuals at an interval of 15 days. These tracings were analyzed separately and two sets of reading were obtained from each case. The reliability of the measurements tested by "t" test was not found to be statistically significant.

Statistical analysis

Mean, standard deviation, and standard error were calculated for all the groups and correlation coefficients were computed for the samples collected. The student "Newman Keul's test" was employed to evaluate the difference between the mean values of chronological age and skeletal age as assessed by skeletal maturation and canine calcification stages.


   Results Top


[Table 2] shows age assessment as per Fishman's method.
Table 2: Age assessment by SMI (years)

Click here to view


[Table 3] shows the age assessed by CVMI using C3 as a guide as given by Lamparski.
Table 3: Age assessed by CVMI (years)

Click here to view


[Table 4] and [Table 5] shows norms for maturation of canines for boys and girls respectively by Nolla's method.
Table 4: Norms for the maturation of permanent teeth for boys

Click here to view
Table 5: Norms for the maturation of permanent teeth for girls

Click here to view


[Table 6] shows comparison of chronologic age with skeletal age assessed by SMI, CVMI and calcification stages of maxillary and mandibular canine.
Table 6: Showing comparison of chronologic age with age by SMI, age by CVMI, Age by maxillary right canine (3 ), Age by mandibular right canine (3 )

Click here to view


[Table 7] shows correlation of age by SMI with age by CVMI and by calcification stages of maxillary and mandibular right canine.
Table 7: Showing correlation of age by SMI with age by CVMI, age by max Rt canine, and age by mand Rt canine

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


In the present study, there was a significant difference between chronological age and skeletal age assessed by SMI and CVMI. This supported the fact that skeletal maturation showed variation in comparison to chronological age. [7],[8] Hence, use of chppronologic age to assess maturation status is questionable.

This study was supported by a study done by Hunter [9] which showed a significant difference between the mean chronological age and skeletal age. This study was also supported by Fishman, [5] Schour and Masseler. [3] There is insignificant difference between chronological age and age assessed by maxillary and mandibular right canine. This indicated that dental maturation in terms of development of canine also increased as chronological age progressed. This study was supported by, Lemons and Gray6. [10]

The result of this correlative study suggested that strong correlation was found between skeletal age assessed by SMI and CVMI in both males and females. This suggests that CVMI could also be used for assessing skeletal age. This study was supported by Lamparski [6] and Hassel and Farman. [1]

Correlation between age assessed SMI and canine calcification stages of maxillary and mandibular right canine was highly significant for males and females.

This study was supported by Lewis and Garn, [11] Green [12] Lauterstein, [13] Chertkow, [14] Demirjian and Bushchang, [15] Sierra, [16] Coutinho and Bushchang et al., [17] Considering this study it could be stated that canine could also be used as a skeletal maturity indicator.

As per this study, canine calcification stage 9 was related to capping of the third middle phalanx and appearance of the adductor sesamoid of the thumb. Hence, maxillary and mandibular canine calcification stage 9 confirmed the attainment of peak height velocity (PHV).

Intermediate stage of canine calcification between 8 and 9 could be used to identify the early stage of pubertal growth spurt. As these stages could be assessed on IOPA, this could prove more economical and convenient as armamentarium required is much simpler, even radiation dose is less.

It can be inferred that chronological age could not be used reliably for assessing skeletal maturity but strong correlation was observed between SMI and CVMI, SMI and maxillary and mandibular canine calcification stages. This confirmed the reliability and validity of cervical vertebrae maturation indicator and canine calcification stages to be used as skeletal maturity indicator. This also eliminated the use of additional radiographic exposure (Hand-wrist radiograph) of patients in orthodontic practice because cervical vertebrae are already recorded in lateral cephalogram and canine is recorded on panoramic radiograph.

To conclude, it could be stated that assessment of maturation is of utmost importance in certain orthodontic protocols like for myofunctional therapy, before starting with rapid maxillary expansion and for timing of ortho-surgical procedures (surgery for mandibular setback should carried out only after mandibular growth has completed). To further validate the results of this study, it should be carried out on larger sample size and varied age groups.


   Conclusion Top


  1. Skeletal maturation was more advanced in comparison to chronological age in both males and females.
  2. There was strong correlation between age assessed by SMI and CVMI.
  3. There was good correlation between age assessed by SMI and canine calcification stages.
  4. CVMI and canine calcification stages could also be used as a skeletal maturity indicator besides SMI.


 
   References Top

1.Hassel B, Farman AG. Skeletal maturation evaluation using cervical vertebrae. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 1995;107:19.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Demirjian A, Goldstien H, and Tanner JM. A new system of dental age assessment, Human biology 1973;45:211-227.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Schour I, Masseler M: The development of human dentition. J Am Dent Assoc 1940;27:1153-60.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Nolla CM. The development of permanent teeth. J Dent Child 1960;27:254-66.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Fishman LS. Radiographic evaluation of skeletal maturation. A clinically oriented method based on Hand-wrist films. Angle Orthod 1981;52:88-112.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Lamparski D. Skeletal age assessment utilizing cervical vertebrae [Thesis]. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh; 1972 (cited from Am J Orthod 1995;107:55-8).  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Hellsing E. Cervical vertebral dimensions in 8-, 11-and 15-year old children. Acta Odontol Scand 1991;49:207-13.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Nanda RS. The rates of growth of several facial components measured from serial cephalometric roentgenograms. Am J Orthod 1955;41:658-73.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Hunter CJ. The correlation of facial growth with body height and skeletal maturation at adolescence. Angle Orthod 1966;36:44-54.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.LamonsFF, GraySW. A study of the relationship between tooth eruption age, skeletal development age and chronological age in sixty-one Atlanta children. Am J Orthod 1958;44:687-91.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.LewisAB and GarnSM. The relationship between tooth formation and other maturational factors. Angle Orthod 1960;30:69-77.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Green LJ. Interrelationship among height, weight and chronological, dental and skeletal ages. Angle Orthod 1961;31:189-93.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Lauterstein AM. A cross sectional study in dental development and skeletal age. J Am Dent Assoc 1961;62:161-7.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Chertkow S. Tooth mineralization as an indicator of the pubertal growth spurt. Am J Orthod 1980;77;79-91.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Demirjian A, Buschang PH, Tanguay R, Patterson DK. Interrelationship among measures of somatic, skeletal, dental and sexual maturity. Am J Orthod 1985;88:433-8  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Sierra AM. Assessment of dental and skeletal maturity: A new approach. Angle Orthod 1987;57:194-208.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Coutinho S, Buschang PH, Miranda F. Relationships between mandibular canine calcification stages and skeletal maturity. Am J Orthod. 1993;104:262.  Back to cited text no. 17
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Kiran Sachan
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Uttar Pradesh Dental College and Research Centre, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id


DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.94698

Get Permissions



    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]

This article has been cited by
1 ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL DIMORPHISM BY LOCATING THE MANDIBULAR CANAL IN IMAGES OF CONE-BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
Thiago de Oliveira Gamba,Marcelo Corrêa Alves,Francisco Haiter-Neto
Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging. 2014;
[Pubmed]
2 A methodology to measure cervical vertebral bone maturation in a sample from low-income children
Aguiar, L.B.V. and Caldas, M.P. and Haiter Neto, F. and Ambrosano, G.M.B.
Brazilian Dental Journal. 2013; 24(1): 30-34
[Pubmed]



 

Top
 
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


    Abstract
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3407    
    Printed132    
    Emailed10    
    PDF Downloaded256    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal