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Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL RESEARCH  
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 549-551
Prevalence of hypodontia in nine- to fourteen-year-old children who attended the Mashhad School of Dentistry


Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental School and Dental Research Center of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran

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Date of Submission27-Jan-2009
Date of Decision31-Mar-2009
Date of Acceptance23-Jan-2010
Date of Web Publication24-Dec-2010
 

   Abstract 

Context: Hypodontia is defined as the congenital absence of one or a few teeth, and is also the most common anomaly in dental development. This condition occurs either individually or as part of the symptoms of a syndrome, and it is more common in permanent teeth than in deciduous teeth, reporting a prevalence of between 1.6 and 9.6%.
Aims: The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of hypodontia for permanent teeth in nine- to 14-year-old children who attended the Mashhad School of Dentistry in 2007.
Setting and Design: We conducted this descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study, to determine the mentioned aims.
Materials and Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, panoramic radiographs belonging to 600 children (351 girls and 249 boys), aged nine to 14 years, were available for examination. All related findings were recorded in the respective forms.
Statistical Analysis Used: The data were processed using Exact and Chi-square tests.
Results: The prevalence of hypodontia in the girls was 9.2%, in the boys 8.8%, and in both sexes combined 9%. The most and the least frequent cases of absent teeth were the mandibular second premolars and the maxillary central incisor (only one child), respectively. The most commonly absent teeth were the mandibular second premolars, the maxillary lateral incisors, the mandibular central incisor, and the maxillary second premolars, in that order.
Conclusions: This study showed a high frequency of hypodontia among the understudied population. Thus, due to the complicated treatment, accurate examination of children for on-time diagnosis of this developmental anomaly is crucial.

Keywords: Congenitally missing teeth, hypodontia, oligodontia, prevalence

How to cite this article:
Ajami Ba, Shabzendedar M, Mehrjerdian M. Prevalence of hypodontia in nine- to fourteen-year-old children who attended the Mashhad School of Dentistry. Indian J Dent Res 2010;21:549-51

How to cite this URL:
Ajami Ba, Shabzendedar M, Mehrjerdian M. Prevalence of hypodontia in nine- to fourteen-year-old children who attended the Mashhad School of Dentistry. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2010 [cited 2020 Aug 6];21:549-51. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2010/21/4/549/74215
Hypodontia is the condition of having developmentally missing teeth or it occurs when some of the teeth do not form. [1] As one of the most prevalent anomaly in dental development, hypodontia (excluding the third molar) is reported with the incidence of between 1.6 and 9.6%. [1] In general, hypodontia is not prevalent in primary teeth. [2] Also prevalence of hypodontia in females is three times more than males, with a female: male ratio of 1.5:1. [1] The prevalence varies in various investigations, for example, 11.2 and 4% in Korea and Ahwaz (Iran), respectively. [3],[4] It differs as a result of the difference in sampling method, examination, age distribution, and race. [5] In addition, most studies have reported that hypodontia is more prevalent in females than males. [4],[5],[6]

The most frequent missing teeth (excluding the third molars) are the mandibular second premolars, the maxillary lateral incisors, and the maxillary second premolars in that order. [2] However, some studies have demostrated the maxillary lateral incisors [4],[7] and the mandibular incisors [8] as the most common missing teeth. Investigations have shown that mutation in the genes AXIN2, PAX9, and MSX1 leads to congenital missing teeth. [1],[9] Also in cases including cleft palate or cleft lip, absence of teeth is more frequent. [1]

As hypodontia causes a disturbance in the developing occlusion and masticatory dysfunctions, as well as affects aesthetics, and as the cure is so complicated that a group of various dental specialists are required to determine an effective treatment plan, more information for a comprehensive picture of dental or jaw problems is effective in the determination and prevention of the side effects of hypodontia. [1]

Hence, regarding the importance of a precise and on-time diagnosis of hypodontia in the reduction of its following side effects, this descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mashhad School of Dentistry in 2007, to determine the prevalence of hypodontia in nine- to 14-year-old children.


   Materials and Methods Top


This study was performed descriptively, analytically, and cross-sectionally and the sampling method was oriented to the objective. The Ethics Committee of the University of Medical Science had approved this study (resolution No. 286252). The amount of sampling was estimated at 600 based on the formula



with an incidence of 10% and relative accuracy of 25%.

The nine-to14-year-old children who were in a good health and were not having any history of tooth extraction or tooth impact force were selected for the study. Subsequent to obtaining the patients' and their parents' consents, their dental files and pantomograms (PG) were evaluated. All PG were analyzed by the principal investigator under normal room light using a negatoscopy or light box if needed. A tooth was diagnosed as congenitally missing when it could not be identified or discerned radiographically, on the basis of calcification, and there was no evidence of extraction or trauma. [5] Having evaluated the radiographs showing the failure of eruption of permanent teeth, the findings were recorded in the related forms. Computer analysis was performed using SPSS software (13, SPSS Inc., Chicago Ill, USA), and Exact and Chi-square tests.


   Results Top


The 600 panoramic radiographs belong to 351 girls (58.5%) and 249 boys (41.5%), who attended the Mashhad School of Dentistry in 2007. Among the nine-to 14-year-olds (10.63±1.66 mean±SD), a total of 54 children (9%), 31 (9.2%) girls and 23 (8.8%) boys, were affected with hypodontia. Also the frequency of unilateral and more than unilateral hypodontia in girls was higher than in boys [Table 1], but there was no significant difference between males and females.
Table 1: Distribution of unilateral hypodontia or more than unilateral hypodontia in understudied population based on gender

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In this study, the most frequent absent teeth were the mandibular second premolars, subsequently followed by the maxillary lateral incisors, the lower central incisors, and the first maxillary premolars. In addition, none of the canines, first molars, and second molars was affected with congenital missing teeth [Table 2].
Table 2: Distribution of missing teeth in understudied population based on tooth type and jaw sections (n=600)

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Of the 600 examined PG, there was a total of 94 missing teeth, 38 of which were observed in boys. The most commonly missing teeth for boys were the mandibular second premolars, the mandibular central incisor, and the maxillary lateral incisors, in that order. On the other hand, the number of missing teeth for girls was 56, and the most commonly absent teeth were the mandibular second premolars and the maxillary lateral incisors, respectively. The order of missing teeth in both sexes was not significantly different.

There were some differences in frequency, but no significant difference was found in the distribution of missing teeth over the maxilla and mandible and the left and right side in males and females (P=0/3) [Table 1] and [Table 2].


   Discussion Top


Agenesis of some teeth is referred to as hypodontia. On the other hand, agenesis of numerous teeth is commonly associated with specific syndromes and sever systematic abnormalities, which are classified as oligodontia. [2]

The present study observed congenital missing teeth in 54 children, and the prevalence of hypodontia (excluding the third molars) was estimated at 9%.

Chung, [3] in a research conducted on 1622 orthodontic patients in Korea, showed 11.2% hypodontia incidence (including the third molars), which was higher than the prevalence found in the present study. It was because of the greater volume of specimens and the third molars included in their study. Gabris (2006) reported 14.29% incidence (excluding the third molars) by examining 2219 patients, six- to 18-year-olds in Budapest. [10] The higher prevalence of hypodontia in his research, in comparison with this study, was due to the difference in studying method and age of the understudied children. Furthermore, genetics and race play an important part in the incidence of hypodontia. [10] Also in a study carried out in the Yazd University, Ezoddini evaluated 480 panoramic radiographs, and similar to the findings in this study, elucidated that the prevalence of hypodontia was at 8.3%. [6]

Hypodontia, in the present study, was more prevalent in females. However, similar to other studies, the difference between sexes was not statistically significant. [6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11] In addition, the mandibular second premolars were the most affected teeth in this study, followed by the maxillary lateral incisors and the mandibular central incisors. [11],[12],[13] Nevertheless, the order of affected teeth was different from that of some other investigations. For instance, in a research carried out by Maatouk on patients in Sayada, the mandibular second premolar was the most commonly absent tooth. Afterward the maxillary second premolar showed the most prevalence of hypodontia. [14] Moreover, Khanehmasjedi demonstrated the maxillary lateral incisor as the most frequent missing tooth (35.8%) in Ahwaz, followed by the mandibular second premolar. [4] Prevalence of hypodontia fluctuates among the understudied population through the difference in race, age, and sampling method.


   Conclusion Top


The findings elucidated a high prevalence of hypodontia among the understudied population (9%). Thus, for on-time diagnosis of hypodontia and to eliminate the following treatment problems, a precise examination of children is required.


   Acknowledgment Top


We gratefully acknowledge the support given by the Vice Chancellery for Research, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, and the Dental Research Center to help us accomplish this study.

 
   References Top

1.Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Bouquot JE. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Sunders; 2009. p. 77-82.   Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.McDonald RE, Avery DR, Dean JA. Dentistry for the child and Adolescent. 8th ed. U.S.A: Mosby; 2004. p. 52-129.   Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Chung CJ, Han JH, Kim KH. The Pattern and prevalence of hypodontia in Koreans. Oral Dis 2008;14:620-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Khanehmasjedi M, Basir L, Kheikhah R. Prevalence of hypodontia in 15-year-old school students in Ahwaz in 2002. Shaheed Beheshti Univ Med Sci 2006;24:55-60.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Goya HA, Tanaka S, Maeda T, Akimoto Y. An orthopantomographic study of hypodontia in permanent teeth of Japanese pediatric patients. J Oral Sci 2008;50:143-50.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Ezoddini AF, Sheikhha MH, Ahmadi H. Prevalence of dental developmental anomalies:a radiographic study. Community Dent Health 2007;24:140-4.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Szepesi M, Nemes J, Kovalecz G, Alberth M. Prevalence of hypodontia in 4-18-year-old children in Department of Paediatric Dentistry,Faculty of Dentistry, University of Debrecen from 1999 to 2003. Fogorv Sz 2006;99:115-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Davis PJ. Hypodontia and hyperdontia of permanent teeth in Hong Kong school children community. Dent oral Epidermiol 1987;15:218-20.   Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Cobourne MT. Familial human hypodontia …is it all in the genes? Br Dent J 2007;203:203-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Gαbris K, Fαbiαn G, Kaαn M, Rσzsa N, Tarjαn I. Prevalence of hypodontia and hyperdontia in paedodontic and orthodontic patients in Budapest. Community Dent Health 2006;23:80-2.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Albashaireh ZS, Khader YS. The prevalence and Pattern of hypodontia of the permanent teeth and crown size and shape deformity affecting upper lateral incisors in a sample of Jordanian dental patients. Community Dent Health 2006;23:239-43.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Goren S, Tsoizner R, Dinbar A, Levin L, Brezniak N. Prevalence of congenitally missing teeth in Israeli recruits. Refuat Hapeh Vehashinayim 2005;22:49-53,87.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Cholitgul W, Drummond BK. Jaw and tooth abnormalities detected on panoramic radiographs in New Zealand childrenage10-15 years. N Z Dent J 2000;96:10-3.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Maatouk F, Baaziz A, Ghnima S, Masmoudi F, Ghedira H. Survey on hypodontia in Sayada, Tunisia.Quintessence Int 2008;39:e115-20.  Back to cited text no. 14
    

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Correspondence Address:
Mahboobeh Shabzendedar
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental School and Dental Research Center of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.74215

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