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SHORT COMMUNICATION Table of Contents   
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 511-513
Nanotechnology: Role in dental biofilms


Department of Microbiology, Dr. H.S.J Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India

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Date of Submission27-Oct-2008
Date of Decision24-Feb-2009
Date of Acceptance23-Jun-2009
Date of Web Publication29-Jan-2010
 

   Abstract 

Biofilms are surface- adherent populations of microorganisms consisting of cells, water and extracellular matrix material Nanotechnology is promising field of science which can guide our understanding of the role of interspecies interaction in the development of biofilm. Streptococcus mutans with other species of bacteria has been known to form dental biofilm. The correlation between genetically modified bacteria Streptococcus mutans and nanoscale morphology has been assessed using AFMi.e atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology application includes 16 O/ 18 O reverse proteolytic labeling,use of quantum dots for labeling of bacterial cells, selective removal of cariogenic bacteria while preserving the normal oral flora and silver antimicrobial nanotechnology against pathogens associated with biofilms. The future comprises a mouthwash full of smart nanomachines which can allow the harmless flora of mouth to flourish in a healthy ecosystem

Keywords: Biofilms, dental, nanotechnology

How to cite this article:
Bhardwaj SB, Mehta M, Gauba K. Nanotechnology: Role in dental biofilms. Indian J Dent Res 2009;20:511-3

How to cite this URL:
Bhardwaj SB, Mehta M, Gauba K. Nanotechnology: Role in dental biofilms. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2009 [cited 2014 Nov 23];20:511-3. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2009/20/4/511/59440
Biofilms are surface-adherent populations of micro- organizms consisting of cells, water and extra-cellular matrix material. [1],[2] Streptococcus mutans, the principle pathogen for dental caries, co-exist with over 500 other species of bacteria [3],[4],[5] as an interactive community known as the dental biofilm, making it a unique object to study microbial interactions. It is now known that organizms living in biofilms behave very differently from those living in a free floating or planktonic state. Bacterial abilities to adhere to a privileged site to build protective structures and communicate through chemical signals enable them to balance the equation against the host's natural defenses.


   Nanotechnology in Dental Bio-Films Top


Nanotechnology is a promising field of science which offers better insight into the spatial relationship between different species and how their diversity increases over ttime. Nanotechnology can guide our understanding of the role of interspecies interaction in the development of bio-film. The contribution of modern technology in the field of oral microbiology started with the detection of cultivable as well as uncultivable bacteria by examining bacterial 16 sRNA and DNA. [6],[7] The spatial distribution of different oral bacteria within the plaque has been revealed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. [8] The metagenomic project for oral microbial flora will reveal the metabolic genes and virulence factors of oral microbes. [9] Nanotechnology has been used to study the dynamics of demineralization/remineralization process in dental caries by using tools such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) which detect bacteria induced demineralization at an ultrasensitive level. Using AFM the correlation between genetically modified  Streptococcus mutans Scientific Name Search scale morphology has been assessed. [10] The nanoscale cellular ultrastructure is a direct representation of genetic modifications as most initiate changes in surface protein and enzyme expression, where host- cell nutrient pathways and immune response protection likely occur. The surface proteins and enzymes, common to S. mutans strains are a key contributor to the cariogenicity of these microbes. [11],[12],[13] Another nanotechnology application used so far is 16 O/ 18 O reverse proteolytic labeling to determine the effect of biofilm culture on the cell envelope proteome of oral pathogen,  Porphyromonas gingivalis Scientific Name Search h is linked to chronic periodontitis. A group of cell-surface located C-terminal domain family proteins including Rgp A, Hag A, CPG 70 and PG99 increased in abundance in the bio-film cells. The other proteins which increased were transport related proteins (Hmu Y and Iht B), metabolic enzymes (Frd AB) and immunogenic proteins. [14]

Chalmers et al. [15] have applied quantum dots (QD) (semiconductor nanocrystals) based primary immunofluorence for in vitro and in vivo labeling of bacterial cells and compared this approach with the fluorophore based primary immunofluorescence. QD conjugates offered significant advantages with standard epifluorescence microscopy. Excellent single cell resolution of both in vitro and in vivo biofilms can be obtained. The photostability of QD conjugates enables micromanipulation of viable, spatially resolved communities from the enamel chip surface. These retrieved multispecies communities can be reconstituted and studied in an in vitro model, where the intimate mechanisms of cell-cell interrelationships can be discovered. [16]

Old culture techniques for detection and quantification of cariogenic bacteria in plaque or saliva sample are slow and can only detect cultivable bacteria. New antibody or nucleotide based bacterial detection techniques have been developed for detection of cariogenic bacteria. [17] Nanotechnology can further enable us to detect both cultivable bacteria and non cultivable with the help of nanochip. [18] Similarly plaque acidity which is a good index for monitoring tooth demineralization, can be monitored using a microscale planer pH sensor. Application of nanotechnology to this prototype will further reduce the size of the sensors and make the device more user friendly to both the patients and clinicians. Nanotechnology can be used to selectively remove cariogenic bacteria while preserving the normal oral flora in a more targeted and proactive approach to dental caries than the conventional operative dentistry. Several ongoing research projects (e.g. enhanced active vaccination or passive vaccination, bacterial replacement, targeted antimicrobial therapy) provide new directions in the treatment of dental caries. [19],[20],[21],[22]

A new silver nanotechnology chemistry has proven to be effective against biofilms. [23] Silver works in a number of ways to disrupt critical functions in a micro-organizm. For example it has a high affinity for negatively charged side groups on biological molecules such as sulphydryl, carboxyl, phosphate and other charged groups distributed throughout microbial cells. Silver attacks multiple sites within the cell to inactivate critical physiological functions such as cell wall synthesis, membrane transport, nucleic acid (RNA and DNA) synthesis and translation, protein folding and function and electron transport. For certain bacteria as little as one part per billion of silver may be effective in preventing cell growth. [24] Recent studies show that ionic plasma disposition silver antimicrobial nanotechnology is effective against pathogens associated with bio- films including  E.coli Scientific Name Search ,  S.pneumoniae Scientific Name Search , S.pneumoniae, S.aureus and A.niger. [25] Hence, local nanoscale characterization of cellular ultrastructure and functional properties is an important focus for probing cariogenic nature of oral microbes.


   Conclusion Top


The future holds in store a mouthwash full of smart nano- machines which can identify and destroy pathogenic bacteria while allowing the harmless flora of mouth to flourish in a healthy ecosystem. The devices will then identify the particles of food, plaque or tartar and lift them from teeth to be rinsed away. Being suspended in liquid and able to swim about, devices will be able to reach surfaces beyond reach of toothbrush bristles or the fibers of floss. As short lifetime medical nanodevices, they can be built to last only few minutes in the body before falling apart into material like fiber in the food.

 
   References Top

1.Costerton JW, Lewandowski Z, Caldwell DE, Korber DR, Lappin-Scott HM. Microbial biofilms. Annu. Rev Microbiol 1995;49:711-45.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Sutherland IW. The biofilm matrix -an immobilized but dynamic microbial environment. Trends Microbiol 2001;9:222-7.  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
3.Paster BJ, Boches SK, Galvin JL, Ericson RE, Lau CN, Levanos VA, et al. Bacterial diversity in human subgingival plaque. J Bacteriol 2001;183:3770-83.  Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
4.Moore WE, Moore LV. The bacteria of periodontal diseases. Periodontol 2000;5:66-77.  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Kroes I, Lepp PW, Relman DA. Bacterial diversity within the human subgingival crevice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96:145:47-52.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Igarashi T, Yamamoto A, Goto N. Direct detection of Streptococcus mutans in human dental plaque by polymerase chain reaction. Oral Microbiol Immunol 1996;11:294-8.  Back to cited text no. 6  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
7.Sakamoto M, Umeda M, Benno Y. Molecular analysis of human oral microbiota. J Periodontal Res 2005;40:277-85.  Back to cited text no. 7  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
8.Sunde PT, Olsen I, Gobel UB, Theegarten D, Winter S, Debelian GJ, et al. Fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) for direct visualization of bacteria in periapical lesions of asymptomatic root filled teeth. Microbiology 2003;149:1095-102.  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Schloss PD, Handelsman J. Metagenomics for studying unculturable microorganisms: Cutting the Gordian Knot. Genome Biol 2005;6:229.   Back to cited text no. 9  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
10.Cross SE, Kreth J, Zhu L, Qi F, Pelling AE, Shi W, et al. Atomic force microscopy study of the structure- function relationships of the biofilm- forming bacterium Streptococcus mutans. Nanotechnology 2006;17:S1-7.  Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Hanada N, Kuramitsu HK. Isolation and characterization of the Streptococcus of the Streptococcus-mutans gtfD Gene,coding for primer-dependent soluble glucan synthesis. Infect Immunol 1989;57:2079-85.  Back to cited text no. 11      
12.Hanada N, Kuramitsu HK. Isolation and characterization of the Streptococcus-mutans gtfC Gene, coding for synthesis of both soluble and insoluble glucans. Infect Immunol 1988;56:1999-2005.  Back to cited text no. 12      
13.Banas JA, Vickerman MM. Glucan-binding proteins of the oral streptococci. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2003;14:89-99.  Back to cited text no. 13  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
14.Ang CS, Veith PD, Dashper SG, Reynolds EC. Application of 16O/18O reverse proteolytic labeling to determine the effect of biofilm culture on the cell envelope proteome of porphyromonas gingivalis W50. Proteomics 2008;8:1645-60.  Back to cited text no. 14  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
15.Chalmers NI, Palmer RJ, Thumm LD, Sullivan R, Wenyuan S, Kolenbrander PE. Use of quantum dot luminescent probes to achieve single- cell resolution of Human oral bacteria in biofilms. Applied and Env Microbiol 2007;3:630-6.  Back to cited text no. 15      
16.Kolenbrander PE, England PG, Diaz PI, Palmer RJ. Genome-genome interactions: Bacterial communities in initial dental plaque. Trends Microbiol 2005;13:11-5.  Back to cited text no. 16      
17.Shi W, Jewett A, Hume WR. Rapid and quantitative detection of Streptococcus mutans with species-specific monoclonal antibodies. Hybridoma 1998;17:365-71.  Back to cited text no. 17  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
18.Li Y, Denny P, Ho CM, Montemagno C, Shi W, Qi F, et al. The oral fluid MEMS/NEMS Chip (OFMNC): Diagnostic and translational applications. Adv Dent Res 2005;18:3-5.  Back to cited text no. 18  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
19.Eckert R, Qi F, Yarbrough D, He J, Anderson M, Shi W. Adding selectivity to antimicrobial peptides: Rational design of a multi-domain peptide against Pseudomonas spp. Antimicro Agent Chemother 2006.  Back to cited text no. 19      
20.Hillman JD. Replacement therapy for the control of dental caries. New Dent 1980;10:24-7.  Back to cited text no. 20  [PUBMED]    
21.Hillman JD, Socransky SS. Replacement therapy of the prevention of dental disease. Adv Dent Res 1987;1:119-25.  Back to cited text no. 21  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
22.Smith DJ, King WF, Barnes LA, Peacock Z, Taubman MA. Immunogenicity and protective immunogenicity and protective immunity induced by synthetic peptides associated with putative immunodominant regions of Streptococcus mutans glucan- binding protein B. Infect Immun 2003;71:1179-84.  Back to cited text no. 22  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
23.Gibbins B, Warner L. The role of antimicrobial silver nanotechnology. MDDI; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 23      
24.Gibbins B. The antimicrobial benefits of silver and the relevance of microlattice technology. Ostomy Wound Manage 2003.  Back to cited text no. 24      
25.Ryan JM III, Silver antimicrobial nanotech: An alternative to antibiotic use" [online] (Longomont, CO: Ionic fusion corp; 2005, cited April 15, 2005).  Back to cited text no. 25      

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Correspondence Address:
Manjula Mehta
Department of Microbiology, Dr. H.S.J Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Punjab University, Chandigarh
India
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DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.59440

PMID: 20139584

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