Indian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental Research
Indian Journal of Dental Research   Login   |  Users online: 559

Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size         


ORIGINAL RESEARCH Table of Contents   
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 159-163
Influence of flowable materials on microleakage of nanofilled and hybrid Class II composite restorations with LED and QTH LCUs

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Dental School, Rafsanjan University, Rafsanjan, Iran

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission09-Dec-2007
Date of Decision15-Mar-2008
Date of Acceptance03-May-2008
Date of Web Publication23-Jun-2009


Background: Class II composite restorations are more frequently being placed with margins apical to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and margins within the dentin are prone to microleakage. Aims: This in vitro study was used to evaluate the influence of flowable composite and flowable compomer as gingival liner on microleakage in Class II composite restorations and compare a light-emitting diode (LED) unit with a quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) unit for light-activating composite resins.
Materials and Methods: Mesioocclusal and distoocclusal Class II cavity preparations were made in 72 sound extracted premolars. The buccolingual width was 2.5 mm and the gingival margins of all the cavities were placed 1.0 mm apical to the CEJ. The boxes were prepared 1.5 mm deep axially, making 144 slot cavities. Teeth were randomly divided into the following two groups (n = 72): (I) Universal Filtek Supreme XT; Universal Filtek Supreme XT + Flwable Filtek XT and Universal Filtek Supreme XT + Dyract Flow and (II) Filtek Z250; Filtek Z250 + Flwable Filtek XT and Filtek Z250 + Dyract Flow. Flowable materials were injected into the gingival floor of the cavity to a thickness of 1.0 mm. Each increment was cured for 20 s. One-half of the subgroups in each group were cured with QTH and the other half with LED light curing units (LCUs). After 1 week of incubation at 37°C, the specimens were thermocycled (5-55°C, x1500), immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye for 24 h and sectioned and microleakage was evaluated at the gingival margin by two examiners using a 0-3 score scale. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests.
Results: The groups utilizing flowable liners had significantly less microleakage (P < 0.05). No significant difference was identified between Universal Filtek Supreme XT and Filtek Z250 composites with and without flowable materials. There was no significant between utilizing flowable composite or flowable compomer and between each similar subgroup when polymerized with either the LED or the QTH LCUs.
Conclusions: A layer of flowable materials at the gingival floor of Class II composite restorations may be recommended to improve the marginal seal of a restoration.

Keywords: Flowable compomer, flowable composite, hybrid composite, light-emitting diode, microleakage, nanofilled composite, posterior composite restoration, quartz tungsten halogen

How to cite this article:
Sadeghi M. Influence of flowable materials on microleakage of nanofilled and hybrid Class II composite restorations with LED and QTH LCUs. Indian J Dent Res 2009;20:159-63

How to cite this URL:
Sadeghi M. Influence of flowable materials on microleakage of nanofilled and hybrid Class II composite restorations with LED and QTH LCUs. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2009 [cited 2019 Sep 18];20:159-63. Available from:
The use of posterior composite restorations is increasing because of esthetic demands by the general public, [1] despite their higher costs and shorter longevity in comparison with amalgam and gold. [2] One of the major disadvantages of restoring posterior teeth with composite resins is the lack of adaptation of the material to tooth structure, particularly at the gingival margin. [3] Class II composite restorations can be performed to an acceptable standard if the gingival margin is in sound enamel, but the quality of the margin of an adhesive restoration located below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) is questionable. [2] Especially when the bond with dentin is weaker, the polymerization shrinkage can result in gap formation between the cavity walls and the composite resin. Gap formation contributes to microleakage, permitting the passage of bacteria and oral fluids from the oral cavity. Post-operative sensitivity, pulpal inflammation and secondary caries may occur because of microleakage. [4]

Recently, a new category of resin composite was developed and named as nanofilled composites. Restorative composite systems made by the use of nanotechnology can offer high translucency, high polish and superior polish retention. [5],[6] Clinically, the nanofilled resin has a proper resistance in high stress-bearing areas, which is typical in the posterior area. [5],[7] The microfilled composites present nearly 37-40% volume filler loading while the nanofilled resins have approximately 60% volume filler loading, making the nanofilled resins as strong as the hybrid and microhybrid resins. [8]

Flowable composites have been recommended as liners beneath composite resins due to their low viscosity, increased elasticity and wettability. These handling characteristics and a syringe delivery system make flowable resins an ideal choice for use in a sandwich technique where they are placed at the cementum margins of the proximal box of Class II resin composite restorations as a liner, thereby improving the final marginal integrity, [3],[9] resulting in less leakage and post-operative sensitivity. [10] Restorative composites have a relatively high modulus of elasticity and it has been suggested that this high stiffness contributes to their inability to compensate for contraction stress during polymerization. This can lead to either bond failure or fracture of the tooth structure, resulting in microleakage and post-operative sensitivity. Employing an intermediate layer of low-modulus composites can relieve some of the contraction stress during polymerization. Some in vitro studies have shown that use of flowable composites reduces restoration microleakage and the occurrence of voids. [11],[12]

Flowable compomers are polyacid-modified resin composites that possess the characteristics of both flowable composites and glass ionomers. Flowable compomers claim to improve the adhesive and fluoride-releasing properties of conventional glass ionomer cements. These materials are also advocated for use as stress-relieving gingival increments in Class II restorations like flowable composites. [12],[13]

For nearly two decades, conventional quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light curing units (LCUs) have been the standard equipment used for polymerizing composite resins. [14] The advantage of QTH LCUs is that they are derived from relatively low-cost technology. [15] However, these lights have a number of inherent limitations such as degradation of the bulb, filter, reflector and a limited effective lifetime. Moreover, composite resin is not likely to be completely polymerized with an aged LCU. The reduction of light intensity due to long usage of the LCU is well known. More recently, the use of light-emitting diode (LED) LCUs that produce blue light have been mentioned in conjunction with curing dental materials. LED LCUs are lightweight and portable, with ergonomic handling capabilities, and are highly efficient and have long life spans. Because a narrow band of light is emitted, there is no need for filter systems. Because there is no infrared emission, the LCUs have low amounts of wasted energy, leading to minimum heat generation, which obviates the need for cooling fans. The LED LCUs' power consumption is low and hence batteries can be used to power it. The light output is consistent, there is no bulb to change and the service life is long. [14],[15],[16],[17]

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of a thin layer of flowable composite or compomer on microleakage in Class II nanofilled and hybrid composite resin restorations and compare an LED unit with a QTH unit for light-activating composite resins.

   Materials and Methods Top

Seventy-two sound maxillary first premolar teeth recently extracted for orthodontic reasons were selected. After cleaning with pumice slurry water, the teeth were stored in saline at room temperature for less than 3 months. The teeth were stored in an aqueous buffered solution of formal for 2 h for infection control. Mesioocclusal and distoocclusal Class II cavity preparations were made in each tooth using a #836R cylinder diamond bur (Diatech Dental AG, Heerbrugg, Switzerland) with a head diameter of 1.0 mm and a head length of 6 mm in a high-speed handpiece with water cooling. A new bur was used for every five preparations.

The slot cavity preparations were separated with sound tooth structure. The buccolingual width was 2.5 mm and the gingival margins of all cavities were placed 1.0 mm apical to the CEJ. The buccal and lingual wall of the preparations were approximately parallel and connected to the gingival floor with rounded line angles. The boxes were prepared 1.5 mm deep axially and the margins were not beveled (90° cavosurface angle) but smoothed with a #23 hatchet (Duflex; SS White, Rio de Janerio, RJ, Brazil).

In order to simulate clinical posterior teeth alignment, the teeth were mounted in stone jigs with one canine on the mesial and one second premolar on the distal sides. A matrix retainer (Tofflemire; KerrHawe SA, Bioggio, Switzerland) and a metal band (Tofflemire; KerrHawe SA) were placed on the tooth and tightly held by two wooden wedges (Hawe-Neos Dental, Biogglio, Switzerland). A sharp explorer was used to confirm the fitness between the metal matrix and the cervical margin. The cavity preparations were placed by a single operator and restored according to the manufacturer's instructions.

All preparations in each group were rinsed with water, etched with 37% phosphoric acid etching gel (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) for 15 s, rinsed with a water jet for 20 s and gently air dried to leave the surfaces wet. The bonding agent was Single Bond (3M ESPE), which was applied according to manufacturer's instruction. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into two groups according to the composite resin used to restore the teeth. Each group was subdivided into six subgroups for two flowable materials and two LCUs (n = 12) [Table 1]. The LCUs selected for this study included a QTH (Coltolux 75; Coltene/Whaledent Inc, NJ, USA) and LED (Coltolux LED; Coltene/Whaledent Inc., OH, USA) LCUs. Exposure times for the bonding agent (Single Bond; 3M ESPE) and each increment of the composite resins were 20 s for two LCUs.

In group I, the cavities were restored with the following composite resins: Universal Filtek Supreme XT (3M ESPE), Universal Filtek Supreme XT + Flwable Filtek Supreme XT (3M ESPE) and Universal Filtek Supreme XT + Dyract Flow (Dentsply; DeTrey, GmbH, Konstanz, Germany) and in group II, the cavities were restored with Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE), Filtek Z250 + Flwable Filtek Supreme XT (3M ESPE) and Filtek Z250 + Dyract Flow (Dentsply; DeTrey). One-half of subgroups in each group were cured with QTH (Coltolux 75) and the other half were cured with LED (Coltolux LED) LCUs.

Flowable composite (Flwable Filtek Supreme XT; 3M ESPE) and flowable compomer (Dyract Flow, Dentsply; DeTrey) were injected into the gingival floor of the cavity to a thickness of 1.0 mm, this depth being judged by a periodontal probe (Hu-Friedy Mfg. Co. Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). A horizontal incremental technique with three increments from the cervical to the occlusal surfaces was used for restoring the cavities. A 20 s curing time was used for two LCUs from the occlusal aspect in each layer according to the composites manufacturers' recommendations. Following the restoration procedure, the metallic matrix was removed, light cured for 20 s from the buccal and lingual surfaces and the occlusal surface was finished and polished. The specimens were removed from the stone mounting jigs, washed under running tap water for 2 min, stored in distilled water at 37°C for 2 weeks and then thermocycled for 1500 cycles between 5 and 55°C and a dwell time of 30 s. Before the microleakage test, the apices of the samples were sealed with utility wax. The tooth was painted with two coats of fingernail varnish, except for restoration and 1.0 mm beyond the margins, and allowed to air dry and then immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye for 24 h.

After removal from the dye, the samples were cleaned under running tap water for 2 min and then sectioned mesiodistally through the center of the restorations with a water-cooled diamond disk (Diamant; Horico, Berlin, Germany) to obtain two sections from each tooth. The sections were randomly arranged and assigned code numbers to permit blind evaluation. Dye penetration was examined (both surfaces) at the gingival margins using a stereomicroscope (Olympus Optical Co., Tokyo, Japan) under ×10 magnifications by two independent pre-calibrated examiners and consensus was forced when disagreements occurred. The examiners were blind to the materials and techniques. The following scoring criteria were used to evaluate the microleakage: Score 0 = no dye penetration, 1 = dye penetration less than 1/3 of the gingival wall, 2 = dye penetration beyond 1/3 of the gingival wall, up to the axial wall and 3 = dye penetration along the axial wall. [19] The data were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at a significant level of 0.05.

   Results Top

None of the groups showed complete prevention of dye penetration. [Table 2] shows the number of teeth in each microleakage-rating category. No significant difference was identified between the Universal Filtek Supreme XT and the Filtek Z250 composites with and without flowable materials. When comparing each group individually, the Universal Filtek Supreme XT and the Filtek Z250 composites had significant difference in microleakage with flowable materials than without (P < 0.05). There was no significant between the groups utilizing Flwable Filtek Supreme XT or Dyract Flow as gingival liners. Although there was no significant difference between the flowable composite and the flowable compomer as a gingival liner, the flowable composite showed better results than the flowable compomer. There was no significant difference in microleakage scores between each similar subgroup when polymerized with either the LED (Coltolux LED) or with QTH (Coltolux 75) LCUs, individually.

   Discussion Top

This in vitro study examined microleakage of nanofilled (Universal Filtek Supreme XT; 3M ESPE) and hybrid (Filtek Z250; 3M ESPE) composites with and without the use of flowable material liners. Irradiation was performed using a QTH (Coltolux 75) and LED (Coltolux LED) LCUs.

In this study, both flowable liners (Flwable Filtek Supreme XT; 3M ESPE and Dyract Flow, Dentsply; DeTrey) helped reduce microleakage in all composite restorations on the gingival floors. The microleakage rates of Universal Filtek Supreme XT (3M ESPS) and Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) composites with flowable liners were significantly higher than those without flowable liners. While flowable composite or compomer liners may provide a better adaptation layer, they may also act as a flexible intermediate layer, which helps relieve stresses during polymerization shrinkage of the composite restorations. [1],[9] This layer would then provide enough flexibility to compensate the tension generated by the polymerization shrinkage. [18] But, the benefit of the gingival liner for reducing polymerization contraction stress is somewhat controversial. [1],[10] The use of flowable materials as a liner underneath the composite resins may have lowered the C-factor. The lower the C-factor, the lower the internal stress. [5],[13]

Nanotechnology is the production of functional materials and structures in the range of 0.1-100 nanometers by various physical and chemical methods. [19] The use of nanofilled composites allows the achievement of esthetic restorations with suitable strength for direct application in posterior teeth. [8] In a clinical study, Filtek Supreme showed good performances in the posterior teeth. [5] Although no statistical difference in microleakage was observed between Universal Filtek Supreme XT and Filtek Z250 with and without flowable liners on the gingival floors, Universal Filtek Supreme XT showed better results than Filtek Z250 in each similar subgroup.

In vitro studies have reported significant effects of using flowable materials as gingival increments in reducing the microleakage of Class II nanofilled and hybrid composite restorations. [4],[20] In contrast, some studies indicated that the use of flowable materials as intermediate material does not reduce microleakage in Class II composite restorations. [9],[21] The author in a study concluded that the flowable composite significantly decreased the microleakage at gingival margins of Class II microhybrid (Tetric Ceram) composite restorations. [3]

In the present study, a QTH (Coltolux 75) and LED (Coltolux LED) LCUs were used to cure composite resins and no significant differences in microleakage scores were identified between the restored teeth that were polymerized with the LED compared with the QTH LCUs. Commercially available LED LCUs were introduced in the past year. However, they may not adequately polymerize resin-based composites, which can lead to restoration failures and adverse pulpal responses to unpolymerized monomers. [17] Fleming et al. reported that no significant difference in microleakage was identified between Z100 (3M ESPE) and Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) when polymerized with either the LED or QTH LCU. [16] In another study, second-generation LED LCUs were either as effective as or more effective than a QTH LCU for polymerization of the composite used (Filtek Z250). [22] However, some studies reported that significantly less microleakage occurred at the dentin/cementum interface when restorations were cured with an LED unit compared with curing with the standard QTH unit [23] and some others reported that there were no significant differences in microleakage between LED and QTH LCUs, both in enamel and dentin. [4] Hasler et al. concluded that the degree of polymerization achieved by the LED LCU was not significantly different from that achieved by the QTH LCU. [24] Significant gingival microleakage differences were identified between the QTH in conventional and soft- start modes and the LED LCU-polymerized teeth for the microleakage of Mesio-Occlusal-Distal composite restorations. [16]

Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that the use of flowable composite (Flowable Filtek Supreme XT; 3M ESPE) or compomer (Dyract Flow, Dentsply; DeTrey) as a gingival liner of Class II nanofilled (Universal Filtek Supreme XT; 3M ESPE) and hybrid (Filtek Z250; 3M ESPE) composite restorations with QTH (Coltolux 75) or LED (Coltolux LED) LCUs decreases gingival microleakage. The restored teeth polymerized with LED LCU showed similar microleakage scores compared with QTH LCU. However, further in vitro and in vivo researches are needed to support these techniques.

   Acknowledgment Top

The author is grateful to Dr. Y Amirian and Dr. MH Torkamanzadeh for their assistance during the laboratory procedures. This study was supported by a grant of the Vice Chancellor of Research of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences.

   References Top

1.Bala O, Uctasli MB, Unlu I. The leakage of class II cavities restored with packable resin-based composites. J Contemp Dent Pract 2003;4:1-11.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Yip KH, Poon BK, Chu FC, Poon EC, Kong FY, Smales RJ. Clinical evaluation of packable and conventional hybrid resin-based composites for posterior restorations in permanent teeth: Results at 12 months. J Am Dent Assoc 2003;134:1581-9.  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
3.Sadeghi M. The effect of fluid composite as gingival layer on microleakage of class II composite restorations. Dental Res J 2007;4: 40-7.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Attar N, Korkmaz Y. Effect of two light-emitting diode (LED) and one halogen curing light on the microleakage of Class V flowable composite restorations. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007;8:80-8.  Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
5.Dresch W, Volpato S, Gomes JC, Ribeiro NR, Reis A, Loguercio AD. Clinical evaluation of a nanofilled composite in posterior teeth: 12-month results. Oper Dent 2006;31:409-17.   Back to cited text no. 5  [PUBMED]  
6.Mitra SB, Wu D, Holmes BN. An application of nanotechnology in advanced dental materials. J Am Dent Assoc 2003;134:1382-90.  Back to cited text no. 6  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
7.Saravana KR, Vijayalakshmi R. Nanotechnology in dentistry. Indian J Dent Res 2006;17:62-5.   Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Lopes GC, Oliveira GM. Direct composite resin restorations in posterior teeth. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2006;27:572-9.  Back to cited text no. 8  [PUBMED]  
9.Neme AM, Maxson BB, Pink FE, Aksu MN. Microleakage of Class II packable resin composites lined with flowables: An in vitro study. Oper Dent 2002;27:600-5.   Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Tredwin CJ, Stokes A, Moles DR. Influence of flowable liner and margin location on microleakage of conventional and packable class II resin composites. Oper Dent 2005;30:32-8.  Back to cited text no. 10  [PUBMED]  
11.Attar N, Tam LE, McComb D. Flow, strength, stiffness and radiopacity of flowable resin composites. J Can Dent Assoc 2003;69:516-21.  Back to cited text no. 11  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
12.Qin M, Liu H. Clinical evaluation of a flowable resin composite and flowable compomer for preventive resin restorations. Oper Dent 2005;30:580-7.   Back to cited text no. 12  [PUBMED]  
13.Owens BM, Rodriguez KH. Radiometric and spectrophotometric analysis of third generation light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing units. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007;8:43-51.  Back to cited text no. 13    
14.Yazici AR, Kugel G, Gul G. The Knoop hardness of a composite resin polymerized with different curing lights and different modes. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007;8:52-9.  Back to cited text no. 14    
15.Wiggins KM, Hartung M, Althoff O, Wastian C, Mitra SB. Curing performance of a new-generation light-emitting diode dental curing unit. J Am Dent Assoc 2004;135:1471-9.  Back to cited text no. 15  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
16.Fleming GJ, Khan S, Afzal O, Palin WM, Burke FJ. Investigation of polymerisation shrinkage strain, associated cuspal movement and microleakage of MOD cavities restored incrementally with resin-based composite using an LED light curing unit. J Dent 2007;35:97-103.  Back to cited text no. 16  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
17.Dunn WJ, Bush AC. A comparison of polymerization by light-emitting diode and halogen-based light-curing units. J Am Dent Assoc 2002;133:335-41.  Back to cited text no. 17  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
18.Peris AR, Duarte S Jr, de Andrade MF. Evaluation of marginal microleakage in class II cavities: Effect of microhybrid, flowable, and compactable resins. Quintessence Int 2003;34:93-8.  Back to cited text no. 18  [PUBMED]  
19.Mitra SB, Wu D, Holmes BN. An application of nanotechnology in advanced dental materials. J Am Dent Assoc 2003;134:1382-90.  Back to cited text no. 19  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
20.Civelek A, Ersoy M, L'Hotelier E, Soyman M, Say EC. Polymerization shrinkage and microleakage in Class II cavities of various resin composites. Oper Dent 2003;28:635-41.   Back to cited text no. 20  [PUBMED]  
21.Ziskind D, Adell I, Teperovich E, Peretz B. The effect of an intermediate layer of flowable composite resin on microleakage in packable composite restorations. Int J Paediatr Dent 2005;15:349-54.   Back to cited text no. 21  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
22.Campregher UB, Samuel SM, Fortes CB, Medina AD, Collares FM, Ogliari FA. Effectiveness of second-generation light-emitting diode (LED) light curing units. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007;8:35-42.  Back to cited text no. 22    
23.Sensi LG, Lopes GC, Monteiro S Jr, Baratieri LN, Vieira LC. Dentin bond strength of self-etching primers/adhesives. Oper Dent 2005;30:63-8.  Back to cited text no. 23  [PUBMED]  
24.Hasler C, Zimmerli B, Lussi A. Curing capability of halogen and LED light curing units in deep class II cavities in extracted human molars. Oper Dent 2006;31:354-63.  Back to cited text no. 24  [PUBMED]  

Correspondence Address:
Mostafa Sadeghi
Department of Restorative Dentistry, Dental School, Rafsanjan University, Rafsanjan
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.52891

Rights and Permissions


  [Table 1], [Table 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Efficacy of Four Lining Materials in Sandwich Technique to Reduce Microleakage in Class II Composite Resin Restorations
SM Moazzami,N Sarabi,H Hajizadeh,S Majidinia,Y Li,MR Meharry,H Shahrokh
Operative Dentistry. 2014; 39(3): 256
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Polymerization Shrinkage of Different Types of Composite Resins and Microleakage With and Without Liner in Class II Cavities
E Karaman,G Ozgunaltay
Operative Dentistry. 2014; 39(3): 325
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Radiopacity of Flowable Composite by a Digital Technique
W Dukic,B Delija,S Lešic,I Dubravica,D Derossi
Operative Dentistry. 2013; 38(3): 299
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 In VitroPerformance of Class I and II Composite Restorations: A Literature Review on Nondestructive Laboratory Trials—Part I
D Dietschi,A Argente,I Krejci,M Mandikos
Operative Dentistry. 2013; 38(5): E166
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Fracture Resistance of Premolar Teeth Restored with Silorane-Based or Dimethacrylate-Based Composite Resins
Golsa Akbarian,Hamideh Ameri,Joseph E. Chasteen,Marjaneh Ghavamnasiri
Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry. 2013; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 The effect of flowable composite lining thickness with various curing techniques on microleakage in class II composite restorations: An in vitro study
Nagalakshmi Reddy, S. and Jayashankar, D.N. and Nainan, M. and Shivanna, V.
Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2013; 14(1): 56-60
7 Comparison of resin composite restorations microleakage: An <i>in-vitro</i> study
Horieh Moosavi,Fatemeh Maleknejad Yazdi,Fatemeh Velayati Moghadam,Saherh Soltani
Open Journal of Stomatology. 2013; 03(02): 209
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 The effect of a new-generation flowable composite resin on microleakage in Class v composite restorations as an intermediate layer
Arslan, S. and Demirbuga, S. and Ustun, Y. and Dincer, A. and Canakci, B. and Zorba, Y.
Journal of Conservative Dentistry. 2013; 16(3): 189-193
9 Surface roughness of flowable resin composites eroded by acidic and alcoholic drinks
Poggio, C., Dagna, A., Chiesa, M., Colombo, M., Scribante, A.
Journal of Conservative Dentistry. 2012; 15(2): 137-140
10 Effect of resealing on microleakage of resin composite restorations in relationship to margin design and composite type
Antonson, S.A. and Ruya Yazici, A. and Okte, Z. and Villalta, P. and Antonson, D.E. and Hardigan, P.C.
European Journal of Dentistry. 2012; 6(4): 389-395
11 In vitro comparison of microleakage of posterior resin composites with and without liner using two-step etch-and-rinse and self-etch dentin adhesive systems
Kasraei, S. and Azarsina, M. and Majidi, S.
Operative Dentistry. 2011; 36(2): 213-221
12 In VitroComparison of Microleakage of Posterior Resin Composites With and Without Liner Using Two-Step Etch-and-Rinse and Self-etch Dentin Adhesive Systems
S Kasraei,M Azarsina,S Majidi
Operative Dentistry. 2011; 36(2): 213
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Adhesive liners in direct restorative dentistry [Liner adesivi in odontoiatria restaurativa diretta]
Daniele, S.
Dental Cadmos. 2010; 78(8): 53-69
14 Eighteen-month clinical evaluation of microhybrid, packable and nanofilled resin composites in Class I restorations
Sadeghi, M. and Lynch, C.D. and Shahamat, N.
Journal of Oral Rehabilitation. 2010; 37(7): 532-537
15 Eighteen-month clinical evaluation of microhybrid, packable and nanofilled resin composites in Class I restorations
Journal of Oral Rehabilitation. 2010; 37(7): 532
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

    Materials and Me...
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded819    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 15    

Recommend this journal