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ORIGINAL RESEARCH Table of Contents   
Year : 2008  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 99-103
The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients visiting a dental school in Southern India


Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka - 576 104, India

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Date of Submission21-Jul-2007
Date of Decision02-Sep-2007
Date of Acceptance21-Nov-2007
 

   Abstract 

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Manipal, Karnataka State, India. A total of 1190 subjects who visited the department of oral medicine and radiology for diagnosis of various oral complaints over a period of 3 months were interviewed and clinically examined for oral mucosal lesions. The result showed the presence of one or more mucosal lesions in (41.2%) of the population. Fordyce's condition was observed most frequently (6.55%) followed by frictional keratosis (5.79%), fissured tongue (5.71%), leukoedema (3.78%), smoker's palate (2.77%), recurrent aphthae, oral submucous fibrosis (2.01%), oral malignancies (1.76%), leukoplakia (1.59%), median rhomboid glossitis (1.50%), candidiasis (1.3%), lichen planus (1.20%), varices (1.17%), traumatic ulcer and oral hairy leukoplakia (1.008%), denture stomatitis, geographic tongue, betel chewer's mucosa and irritational fibroma (0.84%), herpes labialis, angular cheilitis (0.58%), and mucocele (0.16%). Mucosal lesions like tobacco-related lesions (leukoplakia, smoker's palate, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral malignancies) were more prevalent among men than among women. Denture stomatitis, herpes labialis, and angular cheilitis occurred more frequently in the female population.

Keywords: Abnormalities, mucosal lesions, prevalence

How to cite this article:
Mathew AL, Pai KM, Sholapurkar AA, Vengal M. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients visiting a dental school in Southern India. Indian J Dent Res 2008;19:99-103

How to cite this URL:
Mathew AL, Pai KM, Sholapurkar AA, Vengal M. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients visiting a dental school in Southern India. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2008 [cited 2019 Dec 12];19:99-103. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2008/19/2/99/40461
Although the terms dental health and oral health are used almost synonymously when stating the goals for oral health, such statements are usually valid only for dental health. This may lead to severe underestimation of the need for total oral health care. [1] When planning measures for improving oral health, the lack of data may lead to a risk of overlooking diseases of the soft tissues in, and adjacent to, the oral cavity. Prevalence data of oral mucosal lesions are available from many countries, but the information is usually restricted to very few lesions in each survey. Only two studies, [2],[3] with sufficiently large number of individuals, have presented data on a broad spectrum of oral mucosal lesions in a general population.

Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients who visited the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, India.


   Materials and Methods Top


A total of 1190 outpatients seeking dental treatment at the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, India, from 1 st March 2005 to 1 st June 2005 were included in the study. The patients were divided into four groups based on age: 2-20 years, 21-40 years, 41-60 years, and 61-80 years old. All the subjects were examined clinically and questioned regarding any habits like smoking, pan chewing, and alcohol intake, and the frequency and duration of the habit. Patients in whom an intraoral examination was not possible due to inadequate mouth opening were excluded from the study. History was obtained from parents or relatives for patients who were not able to communicate either due to age or disease. The patients were examined clinically by two trained examiners using artificial light, mouth mirror, gauze, etc.; the diagnosis was made based on history, clinical features, and investigations, according to the WHO guidelines and color  Atlas More Details. Biopsies were advised for suspicious lesions.


   Results and Discussion Top


A total of 1190 patients (747 men and 443 women) in the age range 2-80 years represented the population in this 3-month study conducted in our department. The different age-groups and the number of subjects in each was as follows: 2-20 years old (n = 243, 21-40 years old (n = 527), 41-60 years old (n = 325), 61-80 years old (n = 95). Reference to the color atlas while making the clinical examination and diagnosis resulted in a high proportion of both intra-examiner and inter-examiner agreement for the presence of lesions and their categorization. Out of 1190 subjects, 1167 were dentulous and 13 were totally edentulous (1.1%). Forty-five subjects were denture wearers. One hundred and fifteen (9.7%) were presently smokers, 22 (1.9%) were ex-smokers, and 1053 (88.4%) were nonsmokers. Among the current smokers, there was a high proportion of heavy smokers (21 or more cigarettes/day). The habit of tobacco chewing was present in 123 subjects. The frequency of tobacco chewing was more prevalent in males than in females (98 males and 25 females) and was more prevalent in the 21-40 age-group. Ex-pan chewers were 21 in number.

[Table - 1] shows the demographic data. [Table - 2],[Table - 3] shows the prevalence of oral mucosal variants and abnormalities according to age and gender. No mucosal abnormalities were detected in 58.8% of subjects. The most prevalent normal variant was Fordyce's granules (6.55%), followed by fissured tongue (5.71%), Leukoedema (3.78%), and varices (1.17%).The most prevalent lesion was frictional keratosis (5.79%), followed by smoker's palate (2.77%), aphthous stomatitis (2.1%), oral submucous fibrosis (2.01%), oral malignancies (1.76%), leukoplakia (1.59%), median rhomboid glossitis (1.5%), oral candidiasis (1.3%), lichen planus (1.26%), traumatic ulcer (1.01%), denture stomatitis (0.84%), geographic tongue (0.84%), betel chewers mucosa (0.84%), irritational fibroma (0.84%), angular cheilitis (0.58%), herpes labialis (0.58%), and mucocele (0.16%).

Fordyce's condition

Fordyce's condition was observed in 6.5% of our population and was more frequently observed on the buccal and lip mucosa. It was more prevalent in men (8.9%) than in women (2.48%). Corbet, [4] however, had reported a prevalence of 0.6%, which was very different from our finding.

Fissured tongue

Fissured tongue was seen in 5.7% of our population. This included all subjects with fissures of at least 2-mm depth on the dorsal aspect of the tongue. This prevalence is lower than that found by Darwazeh and Pillai (11.4%) [5] and also by Marija in Slovenia [6] (21.1%). In our population, the presence of fissured tongue increased with age and was more prevalent among men than in women which is in accordance with the findings of Aboyons and Ghaemma Ghami in Iran [6] and Darwazeh and Pillai in Jordan. [5]

Leukoedema

In our study population, the prevalence of leukoedema was 3.7%. Males were more affected than females. It was especially prevalent in the 41-60 years age-group (5.35% and 1.1%, respectively, in males and females). The prevalence was more among smokers than nonsmokers, with an increase in age. A correlation between leukoedema and smoking, tobacco chewing, and alcoholism could be demonstrated in our study as was seen in some groups of people in the study by Karen in Thailand. [7]

Sublingual varices

The prevalence of sublingual varices was 1.17% in our population. It occurred more frequently in the 61-80 years age-group; however, the prevalence of 14.2% that we found in this age-group is considerably lower than the prevalence of 68.2% found by Ettinger and Mandersan in Edinbourgh. [6] Our observation was 7.1% more than that found Corbet. [4]

Frictional keratosis

White lesions near rough dental restorations, a sharp tooth, or due to biting because of unsuitable prosthesis were registered as frictional keratosis. [6] The occurrence of frictional keratosis was in 5.79% of all subjects. The highest prevalence of this lesion in men was in the 21-60 years age-group (8.03%) and in women in the 21-40 years age-group (2.03%). This result is comparable to that of Corbet et al . (6%). [4]

Smoker's palate

In our population, smoker's palate was observed only in men. The prevalence of 4.4% that we found was more than that observed in Ljubljana, Slovenia, by Marija (0.5%) and in Swedish men by Axell (2.1%). [2] Tobacco-related white lesions (leukoplakia and smoker's palate) in our study population were more prevalent in men than in women (3.3% and 0.22%, respectively). This difference was attributable to the high tobacco consumption in men.

Aphthous stomatitis

The presence of recurrent aphthae was 2.1%. It was most prevalent (2.6%) in the 21-40 years age-group and more frequent in men (2.27%) than in women (1.8%). However, the prevalence in a Swedish population as reported by Axell and Henricsson [8] and in Slovenia by Marija [6] was 17.7% and 9.7%, respectively. Irwin [9] conducted a study in Pennsylvania and concluded that the prevalence of recurrent aphthous stomatitis was higher in students.

Oral submucous fibrosis

The prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis in our population was (2.01%); it was more among men (3.07%) than women (0.22%) and more often seen in the 41-60 years age-group. This is comparable to the prevalence found in a Cambodian population [10] (0.2%). There was generalized blanching, fibrotic bands on the buccal mucosa and hard and soft palate, limited mouth opening, and complaints of a burning sensation.

Oral malignancies

The prevalence of oral malignancies in our study was 1.7%. Males (2.14%) had a higher predilection for this lesion than females (1.12%); it was observed more often in the age-group of 41-60 years. In clinically suspicious lesions, biopsy was done; some cases had already been histopathologically proven to be malignancies. The main site of involvement was the buccal mucosa and the lateral border of the tongue. It was more prevalent in patients who were chronic smokers and tobacco chewers, with or without alcohol consumption. This prevalence is more than that found by Ikeda (0.1%) in a Cambodian population [10] and by Axell (<0.1%) in Sweden. [2]

Leukoplakia

The prevalence of leukoplakia in our population was 1.59%. All the subjects with leukoplakia in our population were smokers and tobacco chewers. It was more prevalent in men than in women (2.27% and 0.45%, respectively). This prevalence is in agreement with the results obtained in Thailand by Reichart et al . [7] (1.1%) and in Hungary by Banoczy (1.3%) [11] but low when compared with the studies by Ikeda in Japan (25%), [12] Bouquot in USA (2.96%), and Axell in Sweden (3.6%). [13] Axell found more tobacco-associated leukoplakia as compared to our study. The highest prevalence of leukoplakia in our male population was in the 41-60 years age-group (4.76%). The most frequent site of involvement was the buccal mucosa, including the commissures, followed by the alveolar ridge and the retromolar region. No leukoplakia was seen in the floor of the mouth. All the leukoplakias were of the homogenous type. Toluidine blue staining was done and biopsy advised if there was stain uptake.

Median rhomboid glossitis

The prevalence of median rhomboid glossitis was 1.5% and was observed more in males (1.7%) compared to females (1.12%). This prevalence is comparable to that in the studies conducted in Thailand, Kuala Lumpur, and Sweden (1.3%, 1.3%, and 1.4%, respectively).

Oral candidiasis

The prevalence of oral candidiasis in our population was 3.07%. Pseudomembranous candidiasis was present in 1.3% and was more frequently observed in males (1.7%) than in females (.67%) and in the older age-group (61-80 years). This is comparable to the finding by Ikeda [10] (1.4%) and more than that found by Axell in Kuala Lumpur (0.4%). [1]

Lichen planus

Lichen planus was found in 1.26% of our population, which is comparable to that in Swedish [14] and Japanese populations [10] (1.9% and 1.8%, respectively). In our population, lichen planus was most prevalent in the 41-60 year age-group (2.4%). It was more frequently observed among women than men (1.3 and 1.2%, respectively). This is in accordance with the results obtained by Axell and Rundquist, [14] Ikeda et al ., [10] and Marija Kovac Kavcic (in Slovenia). [6] The most prevalent type was the reticular type. It was located most frequently on the buccal mucosa followed by the tongue and the alveolar ridge.

Denture stomatitis

Denture stomatitis was observed in ten subjects (out of 45 denture wearers). The prevalence in our study was 0.84%. The majority of denture stomatitis was observed in the 41-60 years age-group. The frequency was observed to be more in females (1.35%) than in men (.53%). The higher prevalence of denture stomatitis among women is in accordance with the findings of Axell. [2] This is lower than that observed by Corbet et al . in a Chinese population in Hong Kong [15] (10%) and by Marija in Slovenia [6] (14.7%).

Geographic tongue

Geographic tongue was present in 0.84% of our population, which is less than the prevalence found by Axell in a Swedish population (8.5%) and by Marija in Slovenia (2.2%) [6] and more than that found by Bouquot (0.3%) and by Ikeda in 18-63 years old Japanese subjects (<0.1%).

Betel chewer's mucosa

The prevalence of betel chewer's mucosa in our study was 0.84%. It was only observed in men, probably because of the chronic and high usage of tobacco in men. Our study findings were in agreement with the study by Chiag Mai in Thailand (1%). Older subjects had higher prevalence (2.85%) than the younger ones.

Irritational fibroma

The prevalence of irritational fibroma in our study was 0.84%. It was more prevalent in males than in females and in older subjects (2.85%). This is in accordance with the study done by Corbet et al ., where the prevalence was found to be 1%.

Angular cheilitis

Angular cheilitis was found in 0.58% of our population, which is comparable to the finding recorded by Corbet et al . (1%) [4] and Marija in Slovenia [6] (1%). It was more frequently found in the 41-60 years age-group and had more predilection for females.

Herpes labialis

The prevalence of a positive history of recurrent herpes labialis was 0.58%. In our study population it decreased with age and was more prevalent in the 21-40 year age-group and was more common in females than in males (0.9% and 0.4%, respectively). This is comparable to the finding by Chiang Mai in Thailand (0.9%). [1] According to Bouquot [3] and Axell [2] it was 2.5% and 14.3%, respectively, in males and females.

Mucocele

The prevalence of mucocele in our population was 0.16%, and it was found only in males. This prevalence is comparable with that in the study by Axell [2] (0.1%) and by Bouquot [3] (0.2%) and less than in the population studied in Slovenia (0.9%). [6]

No lesions were found in 58.8% of the population; 67.9% of them were females and 53.4% were males. The maximum number of lesion-free patients were in the 0-20 years old female population.


   Conclusion Top


The result of the present study provides some information on the prevalence of oral mucosal findings in Manipal, India. The results showed that tobacco-associated lesions were observed more in males than in females. Habituated patients were advised to give up smoking and other harmful habits. All patients underwent scaling and were advised about individual oral and dental needs. Although some recent curbs have been put on the manufacture and sale of gutkha, pan masala, and other established oral cancer-causing tobacco products, [15] further education is necessary to reduce or eliminate the use of these preparations.

 
   References Top

1.Axell T, Zain RB, Siwamogsthom P, Tantiniran D, Thampipit J. Prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions in out patients at two Malaysian and Thai Dental School Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol 1990;18:95-9.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Axell T. A prevalence study of oral mucosal lesions in an adult Swedish population. Thesis Odontol Revy 1976;27:1-103.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Bouquot JE. Common oral lesions found during a mass screening examination. J Am Dent Assoc 1986;112:50-7.  Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]  
4.Corbet EF, Holmgren CJ, Philipsen HP. Oral mucosal lesions in 65-74 year old Hong Kong Chinese. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1994;22:392-5.   Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Darwazeh AM, Pillai K. Prevalence of tongue lesions in 1013: Jordanian dental out patients. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1993;21:323-4.  Back to cited text no. 5  [PUBMED]  
6.Kovac-Kovacic M, Skaleric U. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in a population in Ljubljana, Slovenia. J Oral Pathol Med 2000;29:331-5.  Back to cited text no. 6  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
7.Reichart PA, Mohr U, Srisuwan S, Geerlings H, Theetranont C, Kangwanpong T. Pre cancerous and other Oral mucosal lesions related to chewing, smoking and drinking habits in Thailand. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1987;15:152-60.  Back to cited text no. 7  [PUBMED]  
8.Axell T, Henricsson V. The occurrence of recurrent apthous ulcer in an adult Swedish population. Acta Odontol Scand 1985;43:121-5.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Ship II, Brightman VJ, Laster LL. The patient with recurrent aphthous ulcers and the patient with recurrent herpes labialis: A study of two population samples. J Am Dent Assoc 1967;75:645-54.  Back to cited text no. 9  [PUBMED]  
10.Ikeda N, Handa Y, Khim SP, Darward C, Axell T, Mizuno T, et al . Prevalence study of oral mucosal lesions in a selected Cambodian population. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1995;23:49-54.  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Banoczy J, Rigo O. Prevalence study of oral precancerous lesions with a complex screening system in Hungary. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1991;19:265-7.  Back to cited text no. 11    
12.Ikeda B, Ishii T, Iida S, Kawai T. Epidemiological study of oral leukoplakia based on mass screening for oral mucosal diseases in a selected Japanese population. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1991;19:160-3.  Back to cited text no. 12    
13.Axell T. Occurrence of leukoplakia and some other oral white lesions among 20333 adult Swedish people. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1987;15:46-51.  Back to cited text no. 13    
14.Axell T, Rundquist L. Oral Lichen planus a demographic study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1987;15:52-6.  Back to cited text no. 14    
15.Nai U, Bartsch H, Nair J. Alert for an epidemic of oral cancer due to use of the betel quid substitutes gutkha and pan masala review of agents and Causative mechanisms. Mutagenesis 2004;19:251-62.  Back to cited text no. 15    

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Correspondence Address:
Amar A Sholapurkar
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka - 576 104
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.40461

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    Tables

  [Table - 1], [Table - 2], [Table - 3]

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Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2013; 15(7): 600
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients of the Kuwait University Dental Center
Mohammad Ali,Bobby Joseph,Devipriya Sundaram
The Saudi Dental Journal. 2013; 25(3): 111
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Oral inflammation, a role for antimicrobial peptide modulation of cytokine and chemokine responses
Kim A Brogden,Georgia K Johnson,Steven D Vincent,Taher Abbasi,Shireen Vali
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 2013; 11(10): 1097
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Prevalence and type of tobacco habits and tobacco related oral lesions among Wayanad tribes, Kerala, India
Deepa, K.C. and Jose, M. and Prabhu, V.
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. 2013; 4(2): 63-68
[Pubmed]
34 Factors associated with prevalence of oral lesions and oral self-examination in young adults from a birth cohort in southern Brazil [Fatores associados à prevalência de lesões bucais e à realização do autoexame bucal em adultos jovens de uma coorte de nascidos vivos do sul do Brasil]
Correa, M.B. and Tarquinio, S.B.C. and de Oliveira, L.J.C. and Peres, M.A. and Peres, K.G. and Gigante, D.P. and Horta, B.L. and Demarco, F.F.
Cadernos de Saude Publica. 2013; 29(1): 155-164
[Pubmed]
35 The frequency and malignant transformation rate of oral lichen planus and leukoplakia - A retrospective study [Učestalost i stopa zloćudne preobrazbe oralnog lihena planusa i leukoplakije - retrospektivna studija]
Brzak, B.L. and Mravak-Stipetić, M. and Canjuga, I. and Baričević, M. and Baličević, D. and Sikora, M. and Filipović-Zore, I.
Collegium Antropologicum. 2012; 36(3): 773-777
[Pubmed]
36 Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions and variations in Indian public school children
Ambika, L. and Keluskar, V. and Hugar, S. and Patil, S.
Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences. 2011; 10(4): 288-293
[Pubmed]
37 Oral health studies in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort: Methodology and principal results at 15 and 24 years of age [Estudo longitudinal de saúde bucal na coorte de nascidos vivos em pelotas, rio grande do sul, brasil, 1982: Aspectos metodológicos e resultados principais aos 15 e 24 anos de idade]
Peres, K.G. and Peres, M.A. and Demarco, F.F. and Tarquínio, S.B.C. and Horta, B.L. and Gigante, D.P.
Cadernos de Saude Publica. 2011; 27(8): 1569-1580
[Pubmed]
38 Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions at the hernán henríquez aravena hospital of Temuco [Prevalencia de lesiones de la mucosa oral en el hospital hernaacute;n henriacute;quez aravena de temuco]
Raposo, A. and Monsalves, M.J. and Aravena, P. and Sanhueza, A.
International Journal of Morphology. 2011; 29(2): 622-627
[Pubmed]
39 Geographic tongue or benign migratory glossitis in children [Lengua geográfica o glositis migratoria benigna en niños]
Rodríguez-García, R. and Rodríguez-Guzmán, L.M.
Revista Mexicana de Pediatria. 2011; 78(3): 118-119
[Pubmed]
40 The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in the patients visiting a dental school in northern india in relation to sex, site and distribution: A retrospective study
Gambhir, R.S. and Veeresha, K.L. and Sohi, R. and Kakkar, H. and Aggarwal, A. and Gupta, D.
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry. 2011; 3(1): e10-e17
[Pubmed]
41 Oral mucosa alterations in a socioeconomically deprived region: prevalence and associated factors
Raquel Gonçalves Vieira-Andrade,Flávia de Faria Zuquim Guimarães,Charlles da Silva Vieira,Sarah Teixeira Carvalho Freire,Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge,Anacélia Mendes Fernandes
Brazilian Oral Research. 2011; 25(5): 393
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Review of drug treatment of oral submucous fibrosis
Oral Oncology. 2011;
[VIEW] | [DOI]
43 Tongue lesions in a Jordanian population. Prevalence, symptoms, subjectæs knowledge and treatment provided
Darwazeh, A., Almelaih, A.-A.
Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal. 2011; 16(6): 745-749
[Pubmed]
44 Oral mucosa alterations in a socioeconomically deprived region: Prevalence and associated factors
Vieira-Andrade, R.G., Guimarães, F.F.Z., Vieira, C.S., Freire, S.T.C., Ramos-Jorge, M.L., Fernandes, A.M.
Brazilian Oral Research. 2011; 25(5): 393-400
[Pubmed]
45 Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions at the hernán henríquez aravena hospital of Temuco | [Prevalencia de lesiones de la mucosa oral en el hospital hernaacute;n henriacute;quez aravena de temuco]
Raposo, A., Monsalves, M.J., Aravena, P., Sanhueza, A.
International Journal of Morphology. 2011; 29(2): 622-627
[Pubmed]
46 Oral mucosa alterations in a socioeconomically deprived region: prevalence and associated factors
Raquel Gonçalves Vieira-Andrade,Flávia de Faria Zuquim Guimarães,Charlles da Silva Vieira,Sarah Teixeira Carvalho Freire,Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge,Anacélia Mendes Fernandes
Brazilian Oral Research. 2011; 25(5): 393
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Oral health studies in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort: methodology and principal results at 15 and 24 years of age
Karen Glazer Peres,Marco Aurélio Peres,Flavio Fernando Demarco,Sandra Beatriz Chaves Tarquínio,Bernardo L. Horta,Denise P. Gigante
Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 2011; 27(8): 1569
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Oral health studies in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort: methodology and principal results at 15 and 24 years of age
Karen Glazer Peres,Marco Aurélio Peres,Flavio Fernando Demarco,Sandra Beatriz Chaves Tarquínio,Bernardo L. Horta,Denise P. Gigante
Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 2011; 27(8): 1569
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Mucus extravasation and retention phenomena: a 24-year study
Alethea M Hayashida,Daniel CZ Zerbinatti,Ivan Balducci,Luiz Antonio G Cabral,Janete D Almeida
BMC Oral Health. 2010; 10(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 Main pathological manifestations of oral mucosa in children | [Principali manifestazioni patologiche nelle mucose orali del bambino]
Majorana, A.
Dental Cadmos. 2010; 78(5): 3-15
[Pubmed]
51 Frequency of oral mucosal disease in referral patients to dental faculty of Tabriz in 2007
Arbabi Kalati, F., Alavi, V., Allahyari, E., Maghsoodi, B., Azemati, S., Alipour, A., Hadavi, S.M.R.
Iranian Journal of Epidemiology. 2010; 6(3): 50-56
[Pubmed]
52 Mucus extravasation and retention phenomena: a 24-year study
Alethea M Hayashida,Daniel CZ Zerbinatti,Ivan Balducci,Luiz Antonio G Cabral,Janete D Almeida
BMC Oral Health. 2010; 10(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Does tobacco consumption influence outcome of oral mucosa graft urethroplasty?
Sinha, R.J., Singh, V., Sankhwar, S.N
Urology Journal. 2010; 7(1): 45-50
[Pubmed]
54 Epidemiologic aspects of recurrent herpes labialis among Jordanian university students
Sawair, F.A., Jassim, Z.A., Malkawi, Z.A., Jamani, K.D.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2010; 31(7): 808-813
[Pubmed]
55 Does tobacco consumption influence outcome of oral mucosa graft urethroplasty?
Sinha, R.J. and Singh, V. and Sankhwar, S.N
Urology Journal. 2010; 7(1): 45-50
[Pubmed]
56 Epidemiologic aspects of recurrent herpes labialis among Jordanian university students
Sawair, F.A. and Jassim, Z.A. and Malkawi, Z.A. and Jamani, K.D.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2010; 31(7): 808-813
[Pubmed]
57 Is workplace screening for potentially malignant oral disorders feasible in India?
Warnakulasuriya, S. and Kashyap, R. and Dasanayake, A.P.
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine. 2010; 39(9): 672-676
[Pubmed]
58 Mucus extravasation and retention phenomena: A 24-year study
Hayashida, A.M. and Zerbinatti, D.C.Z. and Balducci, I. and Cabral, L.A.G. and Almeida, J.D.
BMC Oral Health. 2010; 10(1)
[Pubmed]
59 Main pathological manifestations of oral mucosa in children [Principali manifestazioni patologiche nelle mucose orali del bambino]
Majorana, A.
Dental Cadmos. 2010; 78(5): iii-xv
[Pubmed]
60 Mucus extravasation and retention phenomena: A 24-year study
Hayashida, A.M., Zerbinatti, D.C.Z., Balducci, I., Cabral, L.A.G., Almeida, J.D.
BMC Oral Health. 2010; 10(1): art 15
[Pubmed]
61 Is workplace screening for potentially malignant oral disorders feasible in India? : Oral mucosal lesions and workplace screening
S. Warnakulasuriya, R. Kashyap, A. P. Dasanayake
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine. 2010; 39(9): 672
[VIEW] | [DOI]
62 Donor site morbidity in oral mucosa graft urethroplasty: Implications of tobacco consumption
Sinha, R.J., Singh, V., Sankhwar, S., Dalela, D.
BMC Urology. 2009; 9(1): Art 15
[Pubmed]
63 Scrape cytology in rare case of hairy tongue
Patil, R., Nayak, S., Munshi, M., Bobhate, S.
Journal of Cytology. 2009; 26(2): 91-93
[Pubmed]
64 Benign Oral Masses in a Northern Jordanian Population-a Retrospective Study
Taiseer Hussain Al-Khateeb
The Open Dentistry Journal. 2009; 3(1): 147
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 Benign Oral Masses in a Northern Jordanian Population-a Retrospective Study
Taiseer Hussain Al-Khateeb
The Open Dentistry Journal. 2009; 3(1): 147
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
66 Donor site morbidity in oral mucosa graft urethroplasty: implications of tobacco consumption
Rahul Janak Sinha,Vishwajeet Singh,SN Sankhwar,Divakar Dalela
BMC Urology. 2009; 9(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
67 Donor site morbidity in oral mucosa graft urethroplasty: implications of tobacco consumption
Rahul Janak Sinha,Vishwajeet Singh,SN Sankhwar,Divakar Dalela
BMC Urology. 2009; 9(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

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