Indian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental Research
HOME | ABOUT US | EDITORIAL BOARD | AHEAD OF PRINT | CURRENT ISSUE | ARCHIVES | INSTRUCTIONS | SUBSCRIBE | ADVERTISE | CONTACT
Indian Journal of Dental Research   Login   |  Users online: 1740

Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size         

 


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH Table of Contents   
Year : 2008  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 92-94
Evaluation of the pulp chamber size of human maxillary first molars: An institution based in vitro study


Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Meenakshiammal Dental College, Alapakkam Main Road, Maduravoyal, Chennai - 600 095, Tamil Nadu, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission20-Feb-2007
Date of Decision27-Sep-2007
Date of Acceptance28-Sep-2007
 

   Abstract 

The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the morphological measurements of the pulp chamber and also to establish the relationship of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) to the roof of the pulp chamber of the maxillary first molars in an Indian population. One hundred extracted human maxillary first molars were used. Each molar tooth was radiographed by radio visiography (RVG). Measurements were made by using the grid option in RVG. The results (mean ± SD; in mm) were as follows: distance from floor of the pulp chamber to the furcation = 2.7 ± 0.63; distance from roof of the pulp chamber to the furcation = 5.34 ± 0.9; distance from tip of the palatal cusp to the furcation = 11.58 ± 1.01; distance from the tip of the palatal cusp to the floor of the pulp chamber = 8.86 ± 0.68; distance from the tip of the palatal cusp to the roof of the pulp chamber = 6.2 ± 0.66; height of the pulp chamber = 2.62 ± 0.61. The results of these measurements revealed that the morphological measurements of the maxillary first molars in the Indian population were similar to that reported by previous studies; the roof of the pulp chamber was found at the CEJ in 96% of the specimens.

Keywords: Cemento-enamel junction, furcation, pulp chamber

How to cite this article:
Velmurugan N, Venkateshbabu N, Abarajithan M, Kandaswamy D. Evaluation of the pulp chamber size of human maxillary first molars: An institution based in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2008;19:92-4

How to cite this URL:
Velmurugan N, Venkateshbabu N, Abarajithan M, Kandaswamy D. Evaluation of the pulp chamber size of human maxillary first molars: An institution based in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2008 [cited 2019 Sep 20];19:92-4. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2008/19/2/92/40459
The key to successful root canal treatment lies in understanding the complex root canal system. Many errors occur during access cavity preparation or when locating the canal orifices. Access preparation is performed by a quantitative method, which is dependent on the clinician's tactile perception and knowledge of dental anatomy. [1] Calcification of the pulp chamber may reduce tactile perception and can possibly lead to misjudgment and perforation of the furcation. [2],[3] In this situation, knowledge of the variations in canal anatomy and the morphological measurements of the pulp chamber will be very useful to the clinician while performing root canal treatment.

Deutsch and Musikant reported the mean distance between the cusp tip and the roof of the pulp chamber in maxillary molars, premolars, and mandibular molars as 6.36 mm, 6.94 mm, and 6.24 mm, respectively. [4],[5] They also reported that the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) was at the level of the pulp chamber ceiling in 98% of maxillary molars. [5]

Numerous studies have shown different trends in the shape and number of root canals amongst different races of people. [6],[7] However, the size of the pulp chambers across different races of people is not known and has not been reported earlier.

Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the morphological measurements of the pulp chamber and also to find out whether the CEJ coincides with the roof of the pulp chamber of the maxillary first molars in this Indian population.


   Materials and Methods Top


One hundred human maxillary molars collected from an Indian population were used in this study. The teeth were stored in 10% formalin. All attached calculus was removed using an ultrasonic scaler. Teeth with caries, restoration, endodontic treatment, and fractures were excluded from the study.

Morphological measurement

Each molar tooth was radiographed using an radio visiography imaging system. The teeth were placed over the sensor by a customized jig in a buccopalatal direction and radiographed using a paralleling cone technique. The distance between the teeth and the x-ray beam was standardized to 1 cm and this was followed for all the teeth. By using the grid option in the RVG system, the imaged picture was morphologically measured [Figure - 1]. Six direct measures were made for all the teeth [Table - 1]:

  1. Measurement A represents the distance from the floor of the pulp chamber to the closest point of the furcation.
  2. Measurement B represents the distance from the roof of the pulp chamber to the closest point of the furcation.
  3. Measurement C represents the distance from the tip of the palatal cusp to the closest point of the furcation.
  4. Measurement D represents the distance between the tip of the palatal cusp and the floor of the pulp chamber.
  5. Measurement E represents the distance between the tip of the palatal cusp and the roof of the pulp chamber.
  6. Measurement F represents the height of the pulp chamber (B-A).


Percentage of variance (%variance), i.e., standard deviation (SD) divided by mean, was calculated for all the measurements.

The relationship of the CEJ to the roof of the pulp chamber

The distance between the cusp tip and the CEJ was measured. Then the distance between cusp tip and to the roof of the pulp chamber was measured radiographically (E). Both the values were compared [Table - 2]. The descriptive statistical analysis has been done.


   Results Top


The descriptive statistics of the measurements are shown in [Table - 1].


   Discussion Top


One of the irreversible complications of endodontics is perforation into the furcation while gaining access to the pulp chamber of molar teeth. Ingle and Berkland reported that perforation was the second greatest cause of endodontics failure (9.6%). [8]

Majzoub and Kon reported that the mean distance from the pulp chamber floor to the root separation of maxillary molars was equal to, or less than, 3 mm in 86% of measured teeth. [9] Sterrett et al . measured the distance from the floor of the pulp chamber to five determined sites on the furcation root surfaces and found it to be in range of 2.7-3 mm for both maxillary and mandibular molars. [10] Deutsch and Musikant morphologically measured the anatomical landmarks in the pulp chambers of human maxillary molars. [4]

Detusch and Musikant measured the mean distance between the tip of the palatal cusp and the closest point of the furcation as 11.15 mm, mean distance between the tip of the palatal cusp to the floor of the pulp chamber as 8.08 mm, and the mean distance from the tip of the palatal cusp to the roof of the pulp chamber as 6.24 mm. [4] From our study the mean distance from the tip of the palatal cusp to the closest point of the furcation was 11.58 mm, the mean distance from the tip of the palatal cusp to the floor of the pulp chamber was 8.86 mm, and the distance from the tip of the palatal cusp to the roof of the pulp chamber was 6.2 mm. The coefficient of variation (CV) was also calculated. The largest CV values were observed for the values A and F.

If access-opening burs go beyond 8-10 mm, the floor of the pulp chamber can be gouged or perforated; hence, having measurement markings in access opening burs, similar to the ones seen in rotary files, might be a very useful indicator to the operator during access opening. It can reduce the incidence of furcal perforation.

In our study, the mean distance from the palatal cusp tip to the CEJ was found to be 6.35 mm (manually) and the mean distance between the palatal cusp tip and the roof of the pulp chamber was found to be 6.2 mm (radiographically). The two values are almost the same. Detusch and Musikant reported that the roof of the pulp chamber coincides with the level of the CEJ in about 98% of cases. [4] From our study, in 96% of the specimens, the roof of the pulp chamber coincides with the CEJ. While doing access opening in cases where the tooth is attrited, or the cusps damaged, the endodontist can make use of the CEJ as a reliable indicator for the depth of the access opening.


   Conclusion Top


Morphological measurements of maxillary first molars in this Indian population were similar to that found in previous studies and, in 96%, the CEJ coincides with the roof of the pulp chamber.

 
   References Top

1.Christie WH, Thompson GK. The importance of endodontic access in locating maxillary and mandibular molar canals. J Can Dent Assoc 1994;60:527-36.  Back to cited text no. 1  [PUBMED]  
2.Alhadainy HA. Root perforations: A review of literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1994;78:368-74.  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  
3.Goon WW, Lundergan WP. Redemption of a perforated furcation with a multidisciplinary treatment approach. J Endod 1995;21:576-9.  Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]  
4.Deutsch AS, Musikant BL. Morphological measurement of anatomic landmarks in human maxillary and mandibular molar pulp chambers. J Endod 2004;30:388-90.  Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
5.Deutsch AS, Musikant BL. Morphological measurement of anatomic landmarks in pulp chambers of human maxillary and furcated bicuspids. J Endod 2005;31:570-3.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Melton DC, Krell KV, Fuller MW. Anatomical and Histological features of C-shaped canals in Mandibular second molars. J Endod 1991;17:384-8.  Back to cited text no. 6  [PUBMED]  
7.Sperber GH, Moureau JL. Study of the number of roots and canals in Senegalese first permanent mandibular molars. Int Endo J 1998;31:112-6.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Ingle JI, Bakland LK. Endodontics. 5 th ed. Elsevier: 2002. p. 752.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Majzoub Z, Kon S. Tooth Morphology following root resection procedures in maxillary first smolars. J Periodontal 1992;63:290-6.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Sterret JD, Pelletier H, Russell CM. Tooth thickness at the furcation entrance of lower molars. J Clin Periodont 1996;23:621-7.  Back to cited text no. 10    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Natanasabapathy Velmurugan
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Meenakshiammal Dental College, Alapakkam Main Road, Maduravoyal, Chennai - 600 095, Tamil Nadu
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.40459

Rights and Permissions


    Figures

  [Figure - 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table - 1], [Table - 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Determination of canal orifice co-ordinates and MB2 incidence of maxillary first molars in a Turkish sub-population
Ayse Diljin Keçeci,Bulem Ureyen Kaya,Erhan Sener
Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. 2014; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Morphological Measurements of Anatomic Landmarks in Human Mandibular Molar Pulp Chambers - An in vivo Study
Joyti Lokade,Shivlal Rawlani,Rakhi (Chandak) Baheti,Shelly Roy,Manoj Chandak,Vidya Lohe
Journal of korean dental science. 2011; 4(1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
 
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


    Abstract
    Materials and Me...
    Results
    Discussion
    Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed6013    
    Printed147    
    Emailed5    
    PDF Downloaded772    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal