Indian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental ResearchIndian Journal of Dental Research
HOME | ABOUT US | EDITORIAL BOARD | AHEAD OF PRINT | CURRENT ISSUE | ARCHIVES | INSTRUCTIONS | SUBSCRIBE | ADVERTISE | CONTACT
Indian Journal of Dental Research   Login   |  Users online: 2413

Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size         

 


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH Table of Contents   
Year : 2007  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 148-151
The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study


1 Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere - 577 004, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Bapuji College of Pharmacy, Davangere - 577 004, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Community Dentistry, Vishnu Dental College and Hospital, Bhimavaram - 534 202, Andhra Pradesh, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission26-Apr-2006
Date of Decision05-May-2007
Date of Acceptance25-May-2007
 

   Abstract 

Background and Objectives: Chewing twigs of the mango or neem tree is a common way of cleaning the teeth in the rural and semi-urban population. These twigs are also believed to possess medicinal properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of these chewing sticks on the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus salivarius , Streptococcus mitis , and Streptococcus sanguis which are involved in the development of dental caries. An additional objective was to identify an inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling dental caries.
Materials and Methods:
The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37C for 48 h.
Results: Mango extract, at 50% concentration, showed maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mitis . Neem extract produced the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans at 50% concentration. Even at 5% concentration neem extract showed some inhibition of growth for all the four species of organisms.
Interpretation and Conclusion: A combination of neem and mango chewing sticks may provide the maximum benefit. We recommend the use of both the chewing sticks.

Keywords: Inhibition, Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus salivarius

How to cite this article:
Prashant G M, Chandu G N, Murulikrishna K S, Shafiulla M D. The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2007;18:148-51

How to cite this URL:
Prashant G M, Chandu G N, Murulikrishna K S, Shafiulla M D. The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2007 [cited 2019 Nov 15];18:148-51. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2007/18/4/148/35822
Dental caries is steadily increasing in the underdeveloped and developing countries. Treatment is expensive and not a realistic option for the poor. Hence, there is an urgent need to promote traditional preventive measures that are acceptable, easily available, and cost effective.

Chewing sticks have been widely used in the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East, and Africa since ancient times. The chewing stick can be a good alternative to the toothbrush as a means of preventing oral and dental disease. It is suitable for cleaning the teeth, costs little, possesses various medicinal properties, and is easily available in the rural areas of the developing countries. It is also an oral hygiene tool that requires no expertise or special resources for its production. [1]

The present study aimed to identify and evaluate an inexpensive, simple, and effective method for preventing and controlling dental caries.


   Objective Top


To evaluate the antimicrobial effects of herbal chewing sticks of mango and neem on microorganisms (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis) that are involved in the process of causing dental caries.


   Materials and Methods Top


The following materials were used in this study:

  1. Dried chewing sticks of:

    i) Mango (Mangifera indica)

    ii) Neem (Azadirachta indica)


  2. Four species of microorganisms:

    i) Streptococcus mutans (MTCC 890)

    ii) Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 9222)

    iii) Streptococcus mitis (MTCC 2695)

    iv) Streptococcus sanguis (ATCC 10556)


  3. Blood agar plates
  4. Vernier calipers


Procurement of the chewing sticks

Small branches of the locally available mango and neem trees were cut into pieces of approximately 15 cms. These were authenticated by the Department of Botany of Dharma Ratnakara Muddurayappa Science College, Davangere, India. The twigs of mango and neem were tagged for identification and sun dried for two days.

Preparation of the extract

The dried sticks of mango and neem were ground separately into a coarse powder. The power was weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts and transferred into labeled bottles, to each of which was added 10 ml of sterile, deionized distilled water. The mixture was then shaken well by hand and allowed to soak for 48 h at 4C. It was then was filtered to get extracts of 5%, 10%, and 50% concentration of both mango and neem.

Procurement of the microorganisms

Freeze-dried forms of the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis were obtained from Microbial Type Culture Collection, Chandigarh, and Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus sanguis were obtained from American Type Culture Collection, USA.

Preparation of the culture media for the study

The ampoules containing freeze-dried forms of the microorganisms were opened and the contents were added to nutrient broth which was incubated at 37C for 24 h. A sterile cotton swab was dipped into the nutrient broth and then inoculated on to the agar plate which was incubated at 37C overnight. The growth obtained on the agar plate was transferred on to a blood agar plate to test the antimicrobial activity of the herbal extract. [2]

Ditch plate method

Ditches were prepared on the agar plates at 3 individual quadrants streaked . The ditches were filled with one drop of the extract, repeating the same procedure for the three different concentrations of both the mango and neem extracts. Sterile, deionized distilled water was taken as control. The plates were then incubated at 37C for 48 h, after which they were examined for the size of the inhibition zones. The inhibition zones were measured on the underside of the plate, using Vernier calipers. [3],[4]

Statistical analysis

The collected data was analyzed using the following statistical tests: [5]

  1. Mean value
  2. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
  3. Mann-Whitney U test



   Results Top


The effect of various concentrations of mango extract on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis is tabulated in [Table - 1]A-D respectively. The effect of various concentrations of neem extract on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis is tabulated in [Table - 2]A-D respectively


   Discussion Top


The extracts of mango and neem chewing sticks in the concentration of 5%, 10%, and 50% were tested for antimicrobial activity. The species of microorganisms used for the study were Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis.

Mangifera indica contains tannins, bitter gum, and resins. [6] At 5% concentration, this herbal extract did not show any antimicrobial activity, but at higher concentrations antimicrobial activity was present. When compared to neem, extract of mango chewing stick showed more antimicrobial activity, i.e., at 50% concentration the maximum zone of inhibition for Streptococcus mitis was 5.0 mm. This could be due to the presence of a combination of the ingredients mentioned earlier.

Tannins and resins supposedly have an astringent effect on the mucous membrane, and they form a layer over enamel, thus providing protection against dental caries. In our review of the literature we could not find any other study that has examined the benefits of the extract of mango chewing sticks.

Neem contains the alkaloid margosine, resins, gum, chloride, fluoride, silica, sulfur, tannins, oils, saponins, flavenoids, sterols, and calcium. [6] Even at 5% concentration this extract showed some antimicrobial activity. Maximum anitimicrobial activity was observed on Streptococcus mutans at 50% concentration, with a zone of inhibition of 3.8 mm. This may be due to the presence of fluoride, which is known to exert an anticariogenic action, and silica acting as an abrasive and preventing accumulation of plaque; alkaloids, known to exert an analgesic action, also contribute towards dental well-being. The oils have carminative, antiseptic, and analgesic effects. Tannins exert an astringent effect and form a coat over the enamel, thus protecting against tooth decay. Wolinsky et al. [7] reported that the pretreatment of saliva-conditioned hydroxyapatite with neem-stick extract prior to exposure to bacteria, yielded significant reduction in bacterial adhesion. This result suggests that neem-stick extract can reduce the ability of some streptococci to colonize tooth surfaces. Another study conducted by Khalid in 1999 [8] at Saudi Arabia examined the effectiveness of the antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts of neem at various concentrations. He reported that neem was effective at 50% concentration on Streptococcus mutans.

From the findings of our study it appears that it may be possible to maximize the antimicrobial effect of the chewing stick extracts by using them in combination. Usually only one type of chewing stick is used by any one individual but, perhaps, people can be encouraged to use a combination of the chewing sticks for better oral cleanliness and protection against oral bacteria.

This study was conducted in vitro with the extracts of chewing sticks. The duration of the contact of the extract with the microorganisms in the oral cavity in vivo is not clear.

Further studies comparing the prevalence of dental caries among users and nonusers of chewing sticks should help elucidate the picture.

 
   References Top

1.Al lafi T, Ababneh H. The effect of the extract of the miswak (chewing sticks) used in Jordan and the middle East on oral bacteria. Int Dent J 1995;45:218-22.   Back to cited text no. 1  [PUBMED]    
2.Henry DI. Essential procedure for clinical microbiology. ASM Press: Washington; 1998.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Akpata ES, Akinrimisi EO. Antibacterial activity of extracts from some African chewing sticks. Oral Surg 1977;44:717-22.   Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]    
4.Asuquo BI, Montefiore D. Preliminary studies on the anti-bacterial properties of chewing sticks. J Dent 1977;5:123-7.   Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]    
5.Stanton AG: Primer of biostatistics, 4 th ed, The Mc Graw-Hill Companies Inc: California; 1997.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Muhammad SA, Muhammad A. Significance of chewing sticks (Miswaks) in oral hygiene from a pharmacological view-point. JPMA 1981. p. 89-95.  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Wolinsky LE, Mania S, Nachnani S, Ling S. The inhibiting effect of aqueous Azadirachta indica (Neem) extract upon bacterial properties influencing in vitro plaque formation. J Dent Res 1996;75:816-22.   Back to cited text no. 7  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
8.Khalid A. Antimicrobial effects of extracts of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Salvadora persica (Arak) chewing sticks. Indian J Dent Res 1999;10:23-6.   Back to cited text no. 8      

Top
Correspondence Address:
G N Chandu
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere - 577 004, Karnataka
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.35822

Rights and Permissions



 
 
    Tables

  [Table - 1], [Table - 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Traditional Ethnomedicinal plants used for oral health care by tribals of Melghat region, dist. Amravati (M.S.), India
Diwan, P. and Gadhikar, Y.A. and Jain, S.B.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2013; 21(1): 301-304
[Pubmed]
2 Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Acacia catechu willd, Azadirachta indica, Aryctostaphylos Uva ursi against Lactobacillus acidophilus - An in vitro comparative study
Lakshmi, T. and Krishnan, V.
International Journal of Drug Development and Research. 2013; 5(2): 174-178
[Pubmed]
3 Evaluation of an experimental gel containing euclea natalensis: An in vitro study
Sales-Peres, S.H.D.C. and Brianezzi, L.F.D.F. and Marsicano, J.A. and Forim, M.R. and Da Silva, M.F.D.G.F. and Sales-Peres, A.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012; 2012(184346)
[Pubmed]
4 Antibiofilm activity of dendrophthoe falcata against different bacterial pathogens
Karthikeyan, A. and Rameshkumar, R. and Sivakumar, N. and Al Amri, I.S. and Karutha Pandian, S. and Ramesh, M.
Planta Medica. 2012; 78(18): 1918-1926
[Pubmed]
5 Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of four chewing sticks commonly used in South India: An in vitro study
Elangovan, A. and Muranga, J. and Joseph, E.
Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2012; 23(6): 840
[Pubmed]
6 The efficacy of neem extract on four microorganisms responsible for causing dental caries viz streptococcus mutans, streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study
Chava, V.R. and Manjunath, S.M. and Rajanikanth, A.V. and Sridevi, N.
Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2012; 13(6): 769-772
[Pubmed]
7 Antibacterial activity of green seaweeds on oral bacteria
Sujatha, L. and Lalitha Govardhan, T. and Subba Rangaiah, G.
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. 2012; 3(3): 328-333
[Pubmed]
8 Ethnomedicine: Applications of Neem (Azadirachta indica) in dentistry
Kaushik, A. and Tanwar, R. and Kaushik, M.
Dental Hypotheses. 2012; 3(3): 112-114
[Pubmed]
9 Cariogenic potential of pediatric liquid medicaments-an in vitro study
Subramaniam, P. and Nandan, N.
Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2012; 36(4): 357-362
[Pubmed]
10 Chewing-stick practices using plants with anti-streptococcal activity in a Ugandan rural community
Odongo, C.O. and Musisi, N.L. and Waako, P. and Obua, C.
Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2011; MAR(Article 13)
[Pubmed]
11 Role of botanicals as antimicrobial agents in management of dental infections - A review
Dhinahar, S. and Lakshmi, T.
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2011; 2(4): 690-704
[Pubmed]
12 Anticancer biology of Azadirachta indica L (neem): A mini review
Paul, R. and Prasad, M. and Sah, N.K.
Cancer Biology and Therapy. 2011; 12(6): 467-476
[Pubmed]
13 Antibiofilm activity of Andrographis paniculata against cystic fibrosis clinical isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Murugan, K. and Selvanayaki, K. and Al-Sohaibani, S.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2011; 27(7): 1661-1668
[Pubmed]
14 Traditional therapies in the management of periodontal disease in India and China
Surathu, N. and Kurumathur, A.V.
Periodontology 2000. 2011; 56(1): 14-24
[Pubmed]
15 Biobrushes from Babylonians to E-market
Kothai, S. and Thirunalasundari, T.
Biomedicine. 2011; 31(2): 139-144
[Pubmed]
16 The in vitro antimicrobial activity of natural infant fluoride-free toothpastes on oral micro-organisms
Carvalho, F.G. and De Cássia Negrini, T. and Sacramento, L.V.S. and Hebling, J. and Spolidorio, D.M.P. and Duque, C.
Journal of Dentistry for Children. 2011; 78(1): 3-8
[Pubmed]
17 Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of selected varieties of Thai mango seed extract
Khammuang, S. and Sarnthima, R.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 24(1): 37-42
[Pubmed]
18 Antibiofilm activity of Andrographis paniculata against cystic fibrosis clinical isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa
K. Murugan,K. Selvanayaki,Saleh Al-Sohaibani
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2011; 27(7): 1661
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Traditional therapies in the management of periodontal disease in India and China : Traditional therapies and periodontal disease
Nitish Surathu, Arun V. Kurumathur
Periodontology 2000. 2011; 56(1): 14
[VIEW] | [DOI]
20 A preliminary study of the health management practices of the bede community of savar, Bangladesh and some of their ethnomedicinal formulations
Hossain, M.T. and Miajee, Z.U.M.E.U. and Khatun, M.A. and Rahmatullah, M.
American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 2010; 4(2): 136-146
[Pubmed]
21 Study on the Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves Smoke in Controlling Airborne Bacteria in Residential Premises
Saeed A. Khan, Junaid Aslam
Current Research in Bacteriology. 2008; 1(2): 64
[VIEW] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
 
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


    Abstract
    Objective
    Materials and Me...
    Results
    Discussion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed18749    
    Printed336    
    Emailed37    
    PDF Downloaded2368    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 21    

Recommend this journal